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1.  Ulipristal acetate, a progesterone receptor modulator for emergency contraception 
Unwanted pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception is defined as the use of drug or device after unprotected or underprotected intercourse to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel as a single dose or in two doses with 12 h apart taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse is the current gold standard emergency contraception regimen. This method is only effective if used as soon as possible after sexual intercourse and before ovulation. A single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate, a novel selective progesterone receptor modulator, has recently been proposed for the emergency contraception use up to 120 h of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as levonorgestrel. Ulipristal acetate could possibly prevent pregnancy when administered in the advanced follicular phase, even if luteinizing hormone levels have already begun to rise, a time when levonorgestrel is no longer effective in inhibiting ovulation.
PMCID: PMC3356949  PMID: 22629083
Emergency contraception; levonorgestrel; ulipristal acetate
2.  Effect of doxycycline in patients of moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with stable symptoms 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2011;6(4):221-226.
The protease-antiprotease hypothesis proposes that inflammatory cells and oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) produce increased levels of proteolytic enzymes (neutrophil elastase, matrix metalloproteinases [MMP]) which contribute to destruction of parenchyma resulting in progressive decline in forced expiratory volume in one second. Doxycycline, a tetracycline analogue, possesses anti-inflammatory properties and inhibits MMP enzymes.
To assess the effect of 4 weeks doxycycline in a dose of 100 mg once a day in patients of moderate to severe COPD with stable symptoms.
In an interventional, randomized, observer-masked, parallel study design, the effect of doxycycline (100 mg once a day for 4 weeks) was assessed in patients of COPD having stable symptoms after a run-in period of 4 weeks. The study participants in reference group did not receive doxycycline. The parameters were pulmonary functions, systemic inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP), and medical research council (MRC) dyspnea scale. Use of systemic corticosteroids or antimicrobial agents was not allowed during the study period.
A total of 61 patients completed the study (31 patients in doxycycline group and 30 patients in reference group). At 4 weeks, the pulmonary functions significantly improved in doxycycline group and the mean reduction in baseline serum CRP was significantly greater in doxycycline group as compared with reference group. There was no significant improvement in MRC dyspnea scale in both groups at 4 weeks.
The anti-inflammatory and MMP-inhibiting property of doxycycline might have contributed to the improvement of parameters in this study.
PMCID: PMC3183640  PMID: 21977068
Anti-inflammatory; C-reactive protein; doxycycline; dyspnea; matrix metalloproteinase; respiratory function tests
3.  Comparison of combinations of ciprofloxacin-metronidazole and ceftriaxone-metronidazole in controlling operative site infections in obstetrics and gynecological surgeries: A retrospective study 
To compare the effectiveness of the ciprofloxacin-metronidazole (CIP-MET) regimen with the ceftriaxone-metronidazole (CEF-MET) regimen for operative site infection control in women undergoing obstetrical and gynecological surgeries.
Materials and Methods:
One thousand and eighty-four case records of women who had undergone various obstetrical and gynecological surgeries who were given CIP-MET regimen and CEF-MET regimen were analyzed in predesigned and pretested proforma. Patients who were given CIP-MET regimen and CEF-MET regimen were classified as Group 1 and Group 2 respectively. The mode of administration of both the regimens was noted. Numbers of wound infections were recorded in the respective groups. Socioeconomic status and hemoglobin level of the patients were noted. Other data such as hospital stay, duration of operation were also noted.
Out of a total of 1084 case records, 31 (5.8%) and eight (0.7%) patients contracted wound infections in Group 1 and Group 2 respectively (P = 0.0001).
The CEF-MET regimen was found superior to the CIP-MET regimen to control operative site infection in obstetrical and gynecological surgeries.
PMCID: PMC3157125  PMID: 21897709
Antimicrobial regimens; obstetrical and gynecological surgeries; wound infection rate
4.  Impact of proton pump inhibitors on efficacy of clopidogrel: Review of evidence 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2011;43(2):183-186.
Clopidogrel is a prodrug which requires cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP 2C19) enzyme for its conversion to an active thiol metabolite. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) inhibits enzyme CYP 2C19 interfering with the conversion of clopidogrel into its active metabolite. Studies document the possible interaction of clopidogrel and PPIs leading to a decrease in the antiplatelet efficacy of clopidogrel. A PubMed/MEDLINE database literature search was carried out and the bibliographies of found articles were checked for other relevant literature. Most retrospective cohort studies and studies using platelet markers found a significant association between PPI use especially omeprazole and decreased efficacy of clopidogrel while few comparative trials using clinical outcomes found no association between the same. Pantoprazole was not associated with the decrease in the antiplatelet efficacy of clopidogrel. Patients on dual antiplatelet therapy and/or with a history of gastrointestinal bleed will require gastroprotection in the form of PPIs. In such cases, pantoprazole should be the preferred PPI. Rabeprazole can be used as an alternative.
PMCID: PMC3081459  PMID: 21572655
Clopidogrel; drug interaction; omeprazole; proton pump inhibitors

Results 1-5 (5)