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1.  Osteoblastoma of C2 Corpus: 4 Years Follow-up 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(2):136-139.
Osteoblastomas are rare neoplasms of the spine. The majority of the spinal lesions arise from the posterior elements and involvement of the corpus is usually by extension through the pedicles. An extremely rare case of isolated C2 corpus osteoblastoma is presented herein. A 9-year-old boy who presented with neck pain and spasmodic torticollis was shown to have a lesion within the corpus of C2. He underwent surgery via an anterior cervical approach and the completely-resected mass was reported to be an osteoblastoma. The pain resolved immediately after surgery and he had radiologic assessments on a yearly basis. He was symptom-free 4 years post-operatively with benign radiologic findings. Although rare, an osteoblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neck pain and torticollis, especially in patients during the first two decades of life. The standard treatment for osteoblastomas is radical surgical excision because the recurrence rate is high following incomplete resection.
PMCID: PMC3372549  PMID: 22708018
Osteoblastoma; Osteoid osteoma; C2 corpus; Anterior cervical approach
2.  Radiological Analysis of the Triangular Working Zone during Transforaminal Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(2):98-104.
Study Design
Clinical study.
The dimensions of the working zone for endoscopic lumbar discectomy should be evaluated by preoperative magnetic resonance images. The aim of this study was to analyze the angle of the roots, root area, and foraminal area.
Overview of Literature
Few studies have reported on the triangular working zone during transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy. Many risk factors and restrictions for this procedure have been proposed.
Images of 39 patients were analyzed bilaterally at the levels of L3-L4 and L4-L5. Bilateral axial and coronal angles of the roots, root area, and foraminal area were calculated.
No significant difference was observed between the axial angle of the left and right L3 root. A significant difference was found between the axial angle of right and left L4 roots. A significant difference was observed when the coronal angle of the right and left L3 roots were compared, but no significant difference was found when the coronal angle of the right and left L4 roots were compared. No significant difference was observed when the foraminal area of the right and left L3 and L4 roots were compared, but a significant difference was observed when the root area of right and left L3 and L4 roots were compared.
We suggest that these radiological measurements should be obtained for safety reasons before endoscopic discectomy surgery.
PMCID: PMC3372555  PMID: 22708013
Triangular working zone; Endoscopy; Lumbar
3.  Surgical anatomy of the cervical sympathetic trunk during anterolateral approach to cervical spine 
European Spine Journal  2008;17(8):991-995.
The sympathetic trunk is sometimes damaged during the anterior and anterolateral approach to the cervical spine, resulting in Horner’s syndrome. No quantitative regional anatomy in fresh human cadavers describing the course and location of the cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) and its relation to the longus colli muscle (LCM) is available in the literature. The aims of this study are to clearly delineate the surgical anatomy and the anatomical variations of CST with respect to the structures around it and to develop a safer surgical method that will diminish the potential risk of CST injury. In this study, 30 cadavers from the Department of Forensic Medicine were dissected to observe the surgical anatomy of the CST. The cadavers used in this study were fresh cadavers chosen at 12–24 h postmortem. The levels of superior and intermediate ganglions of cervical sympathetic chain were determined. The distance of the sympathetic trunk from the medial border of LCM at C6, the diameter of the CST at C6 and the length and width of the superior and intermediate (middle) cervical ganglion were measured. Cervical sympathetic chain is located posteromedial to carotid sheath and just anterior to the longus muscles. It extends longitudinally from the longus capitis to the longus colli over the muscles and under the prevertebral fascia. The average distance between the CST and medial border of the LCM at C6 is 11.6 ± 1.6 mm. The average diameter of the CST at C6 is 3.3 ± 0.6 mm. Superior ganglion of CSC in all dissections was located at the level of C4 vertebra. The length and width of the superior cervical ganglion were 12.5 ± 1.5 and 5.3 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. The location of the intermediate (middle) ganglion of CST showed some variations. The length and width of the middle cervical ganglion were 10.5 ± 1.3 and 6.3 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. The CST’s are at high risk when the LC muscle is cut transversely, or when dissection of the prevertebral fascia is performed. Awareness of the CST’s regional anatomy may help the surgeon to identify and preserve it during anterior cervical surgeries.
PMCID: PMC2518767  PMID: 18548289
Anatomy; Anterolateral approach; Cervical spine; Cervical sympathetic trunk

Results 1-3 (3)