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1.  Osteoblastoma of C2 Corpus: 4 Years Follow-up 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(2):136-139.
Osteoblastomas are rare neoplasms of the spine. The majority of the spinal lesions arise from the posterior elements and involvement of the corpus is usually by extension through the pedicles. An extremely rare case of isolated C2 corpus osteoblastoma is presented herein. A 9-year-old boy who presented with neck pain and spasmodic torticollis was shown to have a lesion within the corpus of C2. He underwent surgery via an anterior cervical approach and the completely-resected mass was reported to be an osteoblastoma. The pain resolved immediately after surgery and he had radiologic assessments on a yearly basis. He was symptom-free 4 years post-operatively with benign radiologic findings. Although rare, an osteoblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neck pain and torticollis, especially in patients during the first two decades of life. The standard treatment for osteoblastomas is radical surgical excision because the recurrence rate is high following incomplete resection.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.2.136
PMCID: PMC3372549  PMID: 22708018
Osteoblastoma; Osteoid osteoma; C2 corpus; Anterior cervical approach
2.  Rapid Development of Brain Abscess Caused by Streptococcus Pyogenes Following Penetrating Skull Injury via the Ethmoidal Sinus and Lamina Cribrosa 
Objective
Streptococcus pyogenes is a beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to Lancefield serogroup A, also known as group A streptococci (GAS). There have been five reported case in terms of PubMed-based search but no reported case of brain abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes as a result of penetrating skull injury. We present a patient who suffered from penetrating skull injury that resulted in a brain abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes.
Methods
The patient was a 12-year-old boy who fell down from his bicycle while cycling and ran into a tree. A wooden stick penetrated his skin below the right lower eyelid and advanced to the cranium. He lost consciousness on the fifth day of the incident and his body temperature was measured as 40℃. While being admitted to our hospital, a cranial computed tomography revealed a frontal cystic mass with a perilesional hypodense zone of edema. There was no capsule formation around the lesion after intravenous contrast injection. Paranasal CT showed a bone defect located between the ethmoidal sinus and lamina cribrosa.
Results
Bifrontal craniotomy was performed. The abscess located at the left frontal lobe was drained and the bone defect was repaired.
Conclusion
Any penetrating lesion showing a connection between the lamina cribrosa and ethmoidal sinus may result in brain abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. These patients should be treated urgently to repair the defect and drain the abscess with appropriate antibiotic therapy started due to the fulminant course of the brain abscess caused by this microorganism.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.1.73
PMCID: PMC2916153  PMID: 20717517
Brain abscess; Skull base repairing; Penetrating head injury; Streptococcus pyogenes; Surgical evacuation
3.  Spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage: Does surgery benefit comatose patients? 
Introduction:
Treatment of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is still controversial. We therefore analyzed the comatose patients diagnosed as having spontaneous SICH and treated by surgery.
Materials and Methods:
We retrospectively analyzed the collected data of 25 comatose patients with initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤ 8 diagnosed as having spontaneous SICH and they had been treated by surgical evacuation between 1996 and 2008. The outcome was assessed using Glasgow outcome scale (GOS). The side and location of the hematoma and ventricular extension of the hematoma were recorded. The hematoma volume was graded as mild (<30 cc), moderate (30–60 cc) and massive (>60 cc).
Results:
Age of the patients ranged from 25 to 78 years (mean: 59.6 ± 15.14 years). Among the 25 patients studied, 11 (44%) were females and 14 (56%) were males. GCS before surgery was <5 in 8 (32%) patients and between 5 and 8 in 17 (68%) patients. The hematoma volume was less than 30 cc in 2 patients, between 30 and 60 cc in 9 patients and more than 60 cc in 14 patients. Fourteen of the patients had no ventricular connection and 11 of the hematomas were connected to ventricle. All the 25 patients were treated with craniotomy and evacuation of the hematoma was done within an average of 2 hours on admission to the emergency department. Postoperatively, no rebleeding occurred in our patients. The most important complication was infection in 14 of the patients. The mortality of our surgical series was 56%. GCS before surgery was one of the strongest factors affecting outcome GCS (oGCS) (P = 0.017). Income GCS (iGCS), however, did not affect GOS (P = 0.64). The volume of the hematoma also affected the outcome (P = 0.037). Ventricular extension of the hematoma did affect the oGCS and GOS (P = 0.002), but not the iGCS of the patients (P = 0.139).
Conclusion:
Our data suggest that being surgically oriented is very important to achieve successful outcomes in a select group of patients with SICH.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.70881
PMCID: PMC2981755  PMID: 21085528
Mortality; outcome; spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage; surgery; treatment
4.  Characterization of the Anatomic Location of the Pituitary Stalk and Its Relationship to the Dorsum Sellae, Tuberculum Sellae and Chiasmatic Cistern 
Objective
The normal anatomic relationships characteristic of the pituitary stalk area were previously thought to involve only one location. The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate the anatomic location of the pituitary stalk and possible varying locations in relation to the tuberculum sellae and dorsum sellae using morphometric evaluation and anatomic dissection of human cadaveric specimens. The surgical implications of the variations are discussed.
Methods
The calvaria were removed via routine autopsy dissections, and the brains were removed from the skull while preserving the pituitary stalk. The diaphragma sellae, tuberculum sellae, and the location of the pituitary stalk were examined in 60 human cadaveric heads obtained from fresh adult cadavers. Empty sellae were excluded.
Results
The openings of the diaphragma sellae averaged 6.62 ± 1.606 mm (range, 3-9 mm). The distance between the tuberculum sellae and the posterior part of the pituitary stalk was 1 to 8 mm. The upper face of the diaphragma sellae appeared flat in 26 (43%), concave in 24 (40%), and convex in 6 cases (10%), with a prominent tuberculum sellae in 4 cases (7%). The location of the chiasm was normal in 47 cases (78%), with a prefixed chiasm in 3 cases (5%) and a postfixed chiasm (17%) in the 10 cases. Four cadaver specimens had prominent tuberculum sellae and other parameters were not evaluated.
Conclusion
When opening the chiasmatic cistern, neurosurgeons should be aware about the relationship between the pituitary stalk and the surrounding structures to prevent inadvertent injury to the pituitary stalk.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.3.169
PMCID: PMC2851087  PMID: 20379467
Chiasmatic cistern; Location; Pituitary stalk; Sellae
5.  Clinically Correlated Anatomical Basis of Cricothyrotomy and Tracheostomy 
Objective
Cricothyrotomy and tracheostomy are performed by physicians in various disciplines. It is important to know the comprehensive anatomy of the laryngotracheal region. Hemorrhage, esophageal injury, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, pneumothorax, hemothorax, false passage of the tube and tracheal stenosis after decannulation are well known complications of the cricothyrotomy and tracheostomy. Cricothyrotomy and tracheostomy should be performed without complications and as quickly as possible with regards the patients' clinical condition.
Methods
A total of 40 cadaver necks were dissected in this study. The trachea and larynx and the relationship between the trachea and larynx and the surrounding structures was investigated. The tracheal cartilages and annular ligaments were counted and the relationship between tracheal cartilages and the thyroid gland and vascular structures was investigated. We performed cricothyrotomy and tracheostomy in eleven cadavers while simulating intensive care unit conditions to determine the duration of those procedures.
Results
There were 11 tracheal cartilages and 10 annular ligaments between the cricoid cartilage and sternal notch. The average length of trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch was 6.9 to 8.2 cm. The cricothyroid muscle and cricothyroid ligament were observed and dissected and no vital anatomic structure detected. The average length and width of the cricothyroid ligament was 8 to 12 mm and 8 to 10 mm, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the surgical time required for cricothyrotomy and tracheostomy (p < 0.0001).
Conclusion
Tracheostomy and cricothyrotomy have a low complication rate if the person performing the procedure has thorough knowledge of the neck anatomy. The choice of tracheostomy or cricothyrotomy to establish an airway depends on the patients' clinical condition, for instance; cricothyrotomy should be preferred in patients with cervicothoracal injury or dislocation who suffer from respiratory dysfunction. Furthermore; if a patient is under risk of hypoxia or anoxia due to a difficult airway, cricothyrotomy should be preferred rather than tracheostomy.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.3.174
PMCID: PMC2851084  PMID: 20379468
Anatomy; Cricothyrotomy; Tracheostomy
6.  Cerebellar mutism syndrome and its relation to cerebellar cognitive and affective function: Review of the literature 
Tumors of the cerebellum and brainstem account for half of all brain tumors in children. The realization that cerebellar lesions produce clinically relevant intellectual disability makes it important to determine whether neuropsychological abnormalities occur in long-term survivors of pediatric cerebellar tumors. Little is known about the neurobehavioral sequale resulting specifically from the resection of these tumors in this population. We therefore reviewed neuropsychological findings associated with postoperative cerebellar mutism syndrome and discuss the further implications for cerebellar cognitive function.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.61272
PMCID: PMC2859583  PMID: 20436742
Cerebellar cognitive function; cerebellar mutism syndrome; neuropsychology
7.  Traumatic Acute Subdural Hematoma Extending from the Posterior Cranial Fossa to the Cerebellopontine Angle 
Posterior cranial fossa subdural hematomas and extension of the subdural hematoma to the cerebellopontine angle is rarely seen and the concurrent development of acute peripheral facial palsy and the management strategy have not previously been reported in this pathology because of its rarity. We present this case to emphasize that minor head trauma may lead to a posterior cranial fossa hematoma extending to the cerebellopontine angle and cause peripheral facial palsy in patients using aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). In addition, partial evacuation and waiting for the resorption of the hematoma may help to prevent damage to the 7th and 8th cranial nerves.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.3.277
PMCID: PMC2764031  PMID: 19844633
Antiplatelet agent; Cerebellopontine angle; Facial nerve; Head injury; Posterior fossa; Subdural hematoma
8.  An Anatomical Variant : Low-Lying Bifurcation of the Common Carotid Artery, and Its Surgical Implications in Anterior Cervical Discectomy 
Objective
The common carotid artery generally bifurcates into the internal and external carotid arteries at the level of C3-4. Injury to the common carotid artery during anterior cervical discectomy is a complication that is very much feared but encountered rarely. Knowing the anatomic variations of the common carotid artery and using an operating microscope during the anterior cervical approach for cases with low-lying bifurcation of the common carotid artery would prevent injuries to this artery. We present a 42-year-old female who has successfully undergone anterior cervical discectomy at the level of C5-6 and C6-7. She had a low-lying bifurcation of the common carotid artery.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.1.32
PMCID: PMC2640820  PMID: 19242568
Anterior cervical discectomy; Common carotid artery; Low bifurcation
9.  Posttraumatic intratumoural haemorrhage: an unusual presentation of spinal ependymoma 
European Spine Journal  2007;16(Suppl 3):293-295.
Ependymomas presenting with intratumoural and/or subarachnoid haemorrhages are seen rarely. These haemorrhages are mostly due to anticoagulation, epidural analgesia or pregnancy. A 62-year-old male farmer with cauda equina syndrome after a work-related trauma is presented. He was admitted to our hospital with paraparesis, faecal incontinance and sensory loss below the level of the lumbar-2 dermatome. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine displayed an intradural mass lesion at the level of the first lumbar vertebrae. The lesion was excised totally via dorsal midline approach. Histopathologic examination revealed grade-3 ependymoma with intratumoural haemorrhage. The patient’s symptoms were relieved completely on postoperative day 7. The patient was given information about periodical examination for recurrence and discharged on the third postoperative week. Asymptomatic spinal lesions should be considered for operation whenever detected because of unpredicted complications.
doi:10.1007/s00586-007-0304-3
PMCID: PMC2148076  PMID: 17235592
Cauda equina syndrome; Ependymoma; Filum terminale; Intratumoural haemorrhage; Spinal cord tumours; Spinal trauma
10.  Multiple myeloma of the thoracic spine developed at the previous trauma site: case report 
European Spine Journal  2005;14(7):698-701.
The precise nature of the underlying plasma cell dyscrasias is not well understood. Even today, no causative factor has been found for this disease. It has been suggested that, several factors may act together in the development of this disease. This is a report of a 62-year-old man who initially had a T7 compression fracture and developed a multiple myeloma two years later at that site and at the adjacent vertebral level (T7–T8), respectively. Although the notion that trauma would initiate such a malignancy is speculative, the preceding trauma may be a causative factor in plasma cell dyscrasias.
doi:10.1007/s00586-004-0859-1
PMCID: PMC3489217  PMID: 15692823
Multiple Myeloma; Trauma; Spine
11.  The role of closed-suction drainage in preventing epidural fibrosis and its correlation with a new grading system of epidural fibrosis on the basis of MRI 
European Spine Journal  2004;14(4):409-414.
In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of closed-suction drainage on the extent of epidural fibrosis (EF) after lumbar disc surgery and to define a new grading system of epidural fibrosis in these patients, based on magnetic resonance imaging. Seventy-nine patients (34 women, 45 men) with a unilateral, single-level lumbar disc herniation were included in this study. Forty-one patients in whom closed-suction drainage was implanted were compared with 38 patients in whom the drain was not implanted. We have used a new grading system for the extent of epidural fibrosis, on the basis of follow-up magnetic resonance imaging findings. Pain intensity was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), and the patients’ function and working ability were measured according to the Prolo functional-economic scale. We conclude that, in patients operated on for unilateral, single-level lumbar disc hernias, implantation of closed-suction drainage into the operation site results in less formation of EF radiologically and yields better clinical outcome.
doi:10.1007/s00586-004-0801-6
PMCID: PMC3489202  PMID: 15526220
Epidural fibrosis; Closed-suction drainage; Lumbar disc surgery; Magnetic resonance imaging

Results 1-11 (11)