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1.  Increased CD8+ T Cell Response to Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Antigens in the Active Phase of Multiple Sclerosis 
PLoS Pathogens  2013;9(4):e1003220.
It has long been known that multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with an increased Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seroprevalence and high immune reactivity to EBV and that infectious mononucleosis increases MS risk. This evidence led to postulate that EBV infection plays a role in MS etiopathogenesis, although the mechanisms are debated. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and magnitude of CD8+ T-cell responses to EBV latent (EBNA-3A, LMP-2A) and lytic (BZLF-1, BMLF-1) antigens in relapsing-remitting MS patients (n = 113) and healthy donors (HD) (n = 43) and to investigate whether the EBV-specific CD8+ T cell response correlates with disease activity, as defined by clinical evaluation and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Using HLA class I pentamers, lytic antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses were detected in fewer untreated inactive MS patients than in active MS patients and HD while the frequency of CD8+ T cells specific for EBV lytic and latent antigens was higher in active and inactive MS patients, respectively. In contrast, the CD8+ T cell response to cytomegalovirus did not differ between HD and MS patients, irrespective of the disease phase. Marked differences in the prevalence of EBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses were observed in patients treated with interferon-β and natalizumab, two licensed drugs for relapsing-remitting MS. Longitudinal studies revealed expansion of CD8+ T cells specific for EBV lytic antigens during active disease in untreated MS patients but not in relapse-free, natalizumab-treated patients. Analysis of post-mortem MS brain samples showed expression of the EBV lytic protein BZLF-1 and interactions between cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and EBV lytically infected plasma cells in inflammatory white matter lesions and meninges. We therefore propose that inability to control EBV infection during inactive MS could set the stage for intracerebral viral reactivation and disease relapse.
Author Summary
There is general consensus that multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection but the mechanistic links are still debated. EBV is a B-lymphotropic herpesvirus widespread in the human population and normally contained as a persistent, asymptomatic infection by immune surveillance. However, EBV can cause infectious mononucleosis, is associated with numerous human malignancies, and is implicated in some common autoimmune diseases. While EBV infection alone cannot explain MS development, it has been postulated that in susceptible individuals alterations in the mechanisms regulating the immune response to the virus may contribute to MS pathogenesis. Here, we show that MS patients with inactive disease exhibit a lower CD8+ T-cell response to EBV when compared to healthy donors and active MS patients while the latter have a higher frequency of CD8+ T cells specific for EBV lytic antigens. Therapy with interferon-β and natalizumab, two treatments for relapsing-remitting MS, was associated with marked changes in the EBV specific CD8+ T cell response. We also demonstrate that one of the EBV lytic antigens recognized by CD8+ T cells expanding in the blood during active MS is expressed in the inflamed MS brain. Our results support a model of MS pathogenesis in which EBV infection and reactivation in the CNS stimulates an immunopathological response and suggest that antiviral or immunomodulatory therapies aimed at restoring the host-EBV balance could be beneficial to MS patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003220
PMCID: PMC3623710  PMID: 23592979
2.  Herpes Simplex Virus Immediate-Early ICP0 Protein Inhibits Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent Inflammatory Responses and NF-κB Signaling ▿  
Journal of Virology  2010;84(20):10802-10811.
The discovery of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their importance in the regulation of host responses to infection raised attention to the complex interplay between viral gene products and the host innate immune responses in determining the outcome of virus infection. Robust inflammatory cytokine responses are observed in herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected animals and cells. Our studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation by HSV results in NF-κB activation with concomitant inflammatory cytokine production and that TLR2 activation plays a critical role in HSV-induced pathology and mortality. Here we demonstrate that the HSV-1 immediate-early ICP0 protein reduces the TLR2-mediated inflammatory response to HSV 1 (HSV-1) infection. Expression of ICP0 alone is sufficient to block TLR2-driven responses to both viral and nonviral ligands at or downstream of the MyD88 adaptor and upstream of p65. ICP0 alone can also reduce the levels of MyD88 and Mal (TIRAP). In HSV-infected cells, the E3 ligase function of ICP0 and cellular proteasomal activity are required for the inhibitory activity. Our results argue for a model in which ICP0 promotes the degradation of TLR adaptor molecules and inhibition of the inflammatory response, much as it inhibits the interferon response by sequestration and degradation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3).
doi:10.1128/JVI.00063-10
PMCID: PMC2950559  PMID: 20686034
3.  Superior Immunogenicity of Inactivated Whole Virus H5N1 Influenza Vaccine is Primarily Controlled by Toll-like Receptor Signalling 
PLoS Pathogens  2008;4(8):e1000138.
In the case of an influenza pandemic, the current global influenza vaccine production capacity will be unable to meet the demand for billions of vaccine doses. The ongoing threat of an H5N1 pandemic therefore urges the development of highly immunogenic, dose-sparing vaccine formulations. In unprimed individuals, inactivated whole virus (WIV) vaccines are more immunogenic and induce protective antibody responses at a lower antigen dose than other formulations like split virus (SV) or subunit (SU) vaccines. The reason for this discrepancy in immunogenicity is a long-standing enigma. Here, we show that stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system, in particular stimulation of TLR7, by H5N1 WIV vaccine is the prime determinant of the greater magnitude and Th1 polarization of the WIV-induced immune response, as compared to SV- or SU-induced responses. This TLR dependency largely explains the relative loss of immunogenicity in SV and SU vaccines. The natural pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognized by TLR7 is viral genomic ssRNA. Processing of whole virus particles into SV or SU vaccines destroys the integrity of the viral particle and leaves the viral RNA prone to degradation or involves its active removal. Our results show for a classic vaccine that the acquired immune response evoked by vaccination can be enhanced and steered by the innate immune system, which is triggered by interaction of an intrinsic vaccine component with a pattern recognition receptor (PRR). The insights presented here may be used to further improve the immune-stimulatory and dose-sparing properties of classic influenza vaccine formulations such as WIV, and will facilitate the development of new, even more powerful vaccines to face the next influenza pandemic.
Author Summary
The rise and spread of the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus has seriously increased the risk of a new influenza pandemic. However, the number of vaccine doses that can be produced with today's production capacity will fall short of the demand in times of a pandemic. Use of inactivated whole virus (WIV) vaccines, which are more immunogenic than split virus or subunit vaccines in an unprimed population, could contribute to a dose-sparing strategy. Yet, the mechanisms underlying the superior immunogenicity of WIV vaccine formulations are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the viral RNA present in inactivated virus particles is crucial for the improved immunogenic properties of WIV in mice. By triggering Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), the viral RNA activates innate immune mechanisms that augment and determine subsequent adaptive responses. Efficient TLR7 signalling is lost in split virus and subunit vaccines with the processing steps that lead to disruption of the integrity of the virus particle and exclusion of the RNA. Our results prove for the first time to our knowledge that the immune-potentiating mechanism of a classic vaccine is based on activation of the innate immune system by one of its structural components. These findings may reflect a general principle for viral vaccines and provide a rational basis for further improvement of influenza vaccines, which are urgently needed in the face of the current H5N1 pandemic threat.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000138
PMCID: PMC2516931  PMID: 18769719
4.  Infection of Human Dendritic Cells with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigE Mutant Stimulates Production of High Levels of Interleukin-10 but Low Levels of CXCL10: Impact on the T-Cell Response  
Infection and Immunity  2006;74(6):3296-3304.
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 13 sigma factors. We have previously shown that mutations in some of these transcriptional activators render M. tuberculosis sensitive to various environmental stresses and can attenuate the virulence phenotype. In this work, we focused on extracytoplasmic factor σE and studied the effects induced by the deletion of its structural gene (sigE) in the infection of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). We found that the wild-type M. tuberculosis strain (H37Rv), the sigE mutant (ST28), and the complemented strain (ST29) were able to infect dendritic cells (DC) to similar extents, although at 4 days postinfection a reduced ability to grow inside MDDC was observed for the sigE mutant ST28. After mycobacterium capture, the majority of MDDC underwent full maturation and expressed both inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, and the regulatory cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-18, and beta interferon (IFN-β). Conversely, a higher level of production of IL-10 was observed in ST28-infected MDDC compared to H37Rv- or ST29-infected cell results. However, in spite of the presence of IL-10, supernatants from ST28-infected DC induced IFN-γ production by T cells similarly to those from H37Rv-infected DC culture. On the other hand, IL-10 impaired CXCL10 production in sigE mutant-infected DC and, indeed, its neutralization restored CXCL10 secretion. In line with these results, supernatants from ST28-infected cells showed a decreased capability to recruit CXCR3+ CD4+ T cells compared to those obtained from H37Rv-infected DC culture. Thus, our findings suggest that the sigE mutant-induced secretion of IL-10 inhibits CXCL10 expression and, in turn, the recruitment of activated-effector cells involved in the formation of granulomas.
doi:10.1128/IAI.01687-05
PMCID: PMC1479299  PMID: 16714557
5.  Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Enhances Influenza A Virus-Induced Expression of Antiviral Cytokines by Activating RIG-I Gene Expression 
Journal of Virology  2006;80(7):3515-3522.
Epithelial cells of the lung are the primary targets for respiratory viruses. Virus-carried single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 8, whereas dsRNA is bound by TLR3 and a cytoplasmic RNA helicase, retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I). This recognition leads to the activation of host cell cytokine gene expression. Here we have studied the regulation of influenza A and Sendai virus-induced alpha interferon (IFN-α), IFN-β, interleukin-28 (IL-28), and IL-29 gene expression in human lung A549 epithelial cells. Sendai virus infection readily activated the expression of the IFN-α, IFN-β, IL-28, and IL-29 genes, whereas influenza A virus-induced activation of these genes was mainly dependent on pretreatment of A549 cells with IFN-α or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). IFN-α and TNF-α induced the expression of the RIG-I, TLR3, MyD88, TRIF, and IRF7 genes, whereas no detectable TLR7 and TLR8 was seen in A549 cells. TNF-α also strongly enhanced IKKɛ mRNA and protein expression. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of RIG-I (ΔRIG-I) or IKKɛ, but not that of TLR3, enhanced the expression of the IFN-β, IL-28, and IL-29 genes. Furthermore, a dominant-negative form of RIG-I inhibited influenza A virus-induced IFN-β promoter activity in TNF-α-pretreated cells. In conclusion, IFN-α and TNF-α enhanced the expression of the components of TLR and RIG-I signaling pathways, but RIG-I was identified as the central regulator of influenza A virus-induced expression of antiviral cytokines in human lung epithelial cells.
doi:10.1128/JVI.80.7.3515-3522.2006
PMCID: PMC1440408  PMID: 16537619
6.  Human Dendritic Cells following Aspergillus fumigatus Infection Express the CCR7 Receptor and a Differential Pattern of Interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-23, and IL-27 Cytokines, Which Lead to a Th1 Response  
Infection and Immunity  2006;74(3):1480-1489.
Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen and causes fatal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Given the essential role of dendritic cells (DC) in initiating and regulating immune responses, we investigated the impact of A. fumigatus conidial infection on human DC. A. fumigatus conidia were rapidly internalized and induced the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha within the first 8 h. After A. fumigatus infection, the majority of DC underwent full maturation, although CCR7 expression was observed only in DC that had internalized the conidia. Additionally, the analysis of regulatory cytokines showed that infected DC simultaneously produced interleukin-12p70 (IL-12p70) and significant amounts of IL-10. IL-10 neutralization was not able to further increase IL-12p70 production from infected DC. Whereas the central role of IL-12 in the generation of Th1 cells has long been appreciated, recently two other members of the IL-12 family, IL-23 and IL-27, were reported to play important roles in the regulation of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production from naïve and memory T cells. A. fumigatus-infected DC were also able to express high levels of IL-23p19 and low levels of IL-27p28 at later stages of infection. According to this expression pattern, A. fumigatus-infected DC were able to prime IFN-γ production of naïve T cells. Thus, this study on the expression of the new IL-12 family members controlling the Th1 response sheds light on a novel aspect of the contribution of DC to anti-Aspergillus immunity.
doi:10.1128/IAI.74.3.1480-1489.2006
PMCID: PMC1418673  PMID: 16495518

Results 1-6 (6)