Cisplatin (DDP) has been one of the most widely used chemotherapy drugs for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. However, the increase in the number of DDP-resistant cancer cells has become a major impediment in the clinical management of cancer. In the present study, for the first time, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to demonstrate that nedaplatin (NDP) could have a stronger inhibitory effect than DDP alone in DDP-resistant A549 (A549DDP) cells and that it could attenuate the resistance of these cells. Additionally, flow cytometry analysis showed that the apoptosis rate of these resistant cells when exposed to NDP was markedly increased and the number of cells in the G2 stage of the cell cycle was significantly increased. Furthermore, western blot analysis indicated that NDP decreased the protein expression of P-glycoprotein, tumor protein p53 and B-cell lymphoma 2, and increased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein, all of which could possibly improve the NDP intracellular drug concentration and promote cell apoptosis. These observations suggested that NDP could have higher efficacy in DDP-resistant lung cancer cells, and further studies applying more detailed analyses are warranted to elucidate the mechanism(s) behind this effect.
non-small cell lung cancer; resistance; cisplatin; nedaplatin
The cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a membrane protein related to lipid metabolism. We show that HCV infection in vitro increased CD36 expression in either surface or soluble form. HCV attachment was facilitated through a direct interaction between CD36 and HCV E1 protein, causing enhanced entry and replication. The HCV co-receptor effect of CD36 was independent of that of SR-BI. CD36 monoclonal antibodies neutralized the effect of CD36 and reduced HCV replication. CD36 inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO), which directly bound CD36 but not SR-BI, significantly interrupted HCV entry, and therefore inhibited HCV replication. SSO’s antiviral effect was seen only in HCV but not in other viruses. SSO in combination with known anti-HCV drugs showed additional inhibition against HCV. SSO was considerably safe in mice. Conclusively, CD36 interacts with HCV E1 and might be a co-receptor specific for HCV entry; thus, CD36 could be a potential drug target against HCV.
Phthalates are environmental chemicals with reproductive toxicity and estrogenic effects in animals. They are of increasing concern to human health.
To determine whether phthalate levels in semen were associated with infertility.
Using semen samples from 107 infertile and 94 fertile men, the presence and quantity of five phthalate esters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using data collected from questionnaires and clinical examinations, the correlation between phthalate exposure and semen quality was analyzed.
The cumulative levels of the measured phthalate esters were significantly higher in the infertility group compared to the control group (P<0·05). Concentrations of the five phthalate esters in men varied by age with older men showing higher cumulative levels.
The presence of phthalates may contribute to male infertility in our study population.
Male infertility; Semen; Phthalates; High-performance liquid chromatography
Incarvillea sinensis is a Bignoniaceae plant used to treat rheumatism and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine. As a major component of I. sinensis, incarvillateine has shown analgesic activity in mice formalin tests. Using a series of animal models, this study further evaluated the effects of incarvillateine against acute, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain. Incarvillateine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently attenuated acetic acid-induced writhing, but did not affect thermal threshold in the hot plate test. In a Complete Freund’s Adjuvant model, incarvillateine inhibited both thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema, and increased interleukin-1β levels. Additionally, incarvillateine attenuated mechanical allodynia induced by spared nerve injury or paclitaxel, whereas normal mechanical sensation was not affected. Incarvillateine did not affect locomotor activity and time on the rotarod at analgesic doses, and no tolerance was observed after 7 consecutive daily doses. Moreover, incarvillateine-induced antinociception was attenuated by theophylline, 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine, and 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, but not naloxone, indicating that the effects of incarvillateine on chronic pain were related to the adenosine system, but not opioid system. These results indicate that incarvillateine is a novel analgesic compound that is effective against inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and that its effects are associated with activation of the adenosine system.
Huangqi Sanxian decoction (HQSXD) is routinely used for the treatment of osteoporosis in the Chinese traditional healthcare system. However, the targets and mechanism underlying the effect of HQSXD on osteoporosis have not been documented. In the present study, seropharmacology and proteomic approaches (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry) were used to investigate the effects and possible target proteins of HQSXD on osteoblast. We found that HQSXD-treated rat serum significantly enhanced osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization. In HQSXD-S-treated osteoblasts, there were increases in the expression of N-formyl peptide receptor 2 and heparan sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 3A1 and reduction in the expression of alpha-spectrin, prohibitin, and transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1. The identified proteins are associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, signal transcription, and cell growth. These findings might provide valuable insights into the mechanism of antiosteoporotic effect affected by HQSXD treatment in osteoblasts.
In our effort to
develop effective neuroprotectants as potential
treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), hybrid compounds of
curcumin and melatonin, two natural products that have been extensively
studied in various AD models, were designed, synthesized, and biologically
characterized. A lead hybrid compound (7) was discovered
to show significant neuroprotection with nanomolar potency (EC50 = 27.60 ± 9.4 nM) in MC65 cells, a cellular AD model.
Multiple in vitro assay results established that 7 exhibited
moderate inhibitory effects on the production of amyloid-β oligomers
(AβOs) in MC65 cells, but not on the aggregation of Aβ
species. It also exhibited significant antioxidative properties. Further
mechanistic studies demonstrated that 7’s antioxidant
effects correlate well with its neuroprotective potency for MC65 cells,
and these effects might be due to its interference with the interactions
of AβOs within the mitochondria of MC65 cells. Furthermore, 7 was confirmed to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and
deliver a sufficient amount to brain tissue after oral administration.
Collectively, these results strongly support the hybridization approach
as an efficient strategy to help identify novel scaffolds with a desired
pharmacology, and strongly encourage further optimization of 7 to develop more potent neuroprotectants for AD.
Neuroprotectants; hybridization; Alzheimer’s
disease; curcumin; melatonin
Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range.
dustfall; heavy metals; bus station; health risk
The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of low-dose 90Sr-90Y therapy combined with the topical application of 0.5% timolol maleate solution for the treatment of superficial infantile hemangiomas (IHs). A total of 72 infants with hemangiomas were allocated at random into the observation group (17 cases aged ≤3 months, 20 cases aged >3 months) or the control group (15 cases aged ≤3 months, 20 cases aged >3 months). The observation group was treated with low-dose 90Sr-90Y combined with timolol, while the control group received an identical dose of 90Sr-90Y with physiological saline. Data were collected for statistical analysis, and treatment efficacy was compared between the two groups. In the observation group, 100% (37/37) of subjects exhibited an ‘excellent’ response to the treatment, while 94.1% (16/17) of patients aged ≤3 months and 85.0% (17/20) aged >3 months were classed as being cured. In the control group, the treatment was classed as ‘effective’ in 100% (35/35) of the subjects, while the excellent response rate was 86.7% (13/15) among the infants aged ≤3 months and 75.0% (15/20) among the infants aged >3 months. The ‘cure’ rates in the control group were 66.7% (10/15) and 60.0% (12/20) for the ≤3-month- and >3-month-old subjects, respectively. The excellent response and cure rates were notably higher in the observation group than those in the control group. Comparison between the two groups revealed a χ2 value of 13.90 (P<0.01) for excellent responses in subjects aged ≤3 months, while for patients aged >3 months the χ2 value was 28.57 (P<0.01). Analysis of the cure responses gave similar results [≤3 months, χ2=23.22 (P<0.01); >3 months, χ2=15.67 (P<0.01)]. At 3–4 months after the first course of treatment, the cure rate was 33.3% (11/33) in the observation group, which was significantly higher than the rate of 18.32% (4/22) in the control group (χ2=5.92, P<0.05). No serious adverse reactions were observed in either group. In summary, low-dose 90Sr-90Y therapy combined with the topical application of 0.5% timolol maleate induces a rapid response in superficial IH, with excellent efficacy and no obvious adverse reactions, and may represent a clinically applicable intervention.
90Sr-90Y application; low dose; timolol maleate; superficial infantile hemangioma; topical
Diverse cellulolytic bacteria are essential for maintaining high lignocellulose degradation ability in biogas digesters. However, little was known about functional genes and gene clusters of dominant cellulolytic bacteria in biogas digesters. This is the foundation to understand lignocellulose degradation mechanisms of biogas digesters and apply these gene resource for optimizing biofuel production. A combination of metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene clone library methods was used to investigate the dominant cellulolytic bacteria and their glycoside hydrolase (GH) genes in two biogas digesters. The 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the dominant cellulolytic bacteria were strains closely related to Clostridium straminisolvens and an uncultured cellulolytic bacterium designated BG-1. To recover GH genes from cellulolytic bacteria in general, and BG-1 in particular, a refined assembly approach developed in this study was used to assemble GH genes from metagenomic reads; 163 GH-containing contigs ≥ 1 kb in length were obtained. Six recovered GH5 genes that were expressed in E. coli demonstrated multiple lignocellulase activities and one had high mannanase activity (1255 U/mg). Eleven fosmid clones harboring the recovered GH-containing contigs were sequenced and assembled into 10 fosmid contigs. The composition of GH genes in the 163 assembled metagenomic contigs and 10 fosmid contigs indicated that diverse GHs and lignocellulose degradation mechanisms were present in the biogas digesters. In particular, a small portion of BG-1 genome information was recovered by PhyloPythiaS analysis. The lignocellulase gene clusters in BG-1 suggested that it might use a possible novel lignocellulose degradation mechanism to efficiently degrade lignocellulose. Dominant cellulolytic bacteria of biogas digester possess diverse GH genes, not only in sequences but also in their functions, which may be applied for production of biofuel in the future.
Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an individualized medicine by observing the symptoms and signs (symptoms in brief) of patients. We aim to extract the meaningful herb-symptom relationships from large scale TCM clinical data. Methods. To investigate the correlations between symptoms and herbs held for patients, we use four clinical data sets collected from TCM outpatient clinical settings and calculate the similarities between patient pairs in terms of the herb constituents of their prescriptions and their manifesting symptoms by cosine measure. To address the large-scale multiple testing problems for the detection of herb-symptom associations and the dependence between herbs involving similar efficacies, we propose a network-based correlation analysis (NetCorrA) method to detect the herb-symptom associations. Results. The results show that there are strong positive correlations between symptom similarity and herb similarity, which indicates that herb-symptom correspondence is a clinical principle adhered to by most TCM physicians. Furthermore, the NetCorrA method obtains meaningful herb-symptom associations and performs better than the chi-square correlation method by filtering the false positive associations. Conclusions. Symptoms play significant roles for the prescriptions of herb treatment. The herb-symptom correspondence principle indicates that clinical phenotypic targets (i.e., symptoms) of herbs exist and would be valuable for further investigations.
Preoperative jaundice is frequent in gallbladder cancer (GBC) and indicates advanced disease. Resection is rarely recommended to treat advanced GBC. An aggressive surgical approach for advanced GBC remains lacking because of the association of this disease with serious postoperative complications and poor prognosis. This study aims to re-assess the prognostic value of jaundice for the morbidity, mortality, and survival of GBC patients who underwent surgical resection with curative intent.
GBC patients who underwent surgical resection with curative intent at a single institution between January 2003 and December 2012 were identified from a prospectively maintained database.
A total of 192 patients underwent surgical resection with curative intent, of whom 47 had preoperative jaundice and 145 had none. Compared with the non-jaundiced patients, the jaundiced patients had significantly longer operative time (p < 0.001) and more intra-operative bleeding (p = 0.001), frequent combined resections of adjacent organs (23.4% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.001), and postoperative complications (12.4% vs. 34%, p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative jaundice was the only independent predictor of postoperative complications. The jaundiced patients had lower survival rates than the non-jaundiced patients (p < 0.001). However, lymph node metastasis and gallbladder neck tumors were the only significant risk factors of poor prognosis. Non-curative resection was the only independent predictor of poor prognosis among the jaundiced patients. The survival rates of the jaundiced patients with preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) were similar to those of the jaundiced patients without PBD (p = 0.968). No significant differences in the rate of postoperative intra-abdominal abscesses were found between the jaundiced patients with and without PBD (n = 4, 21.1% vs. n = 5, 17.9%, p = 0.787).
Preoperative jaundice indicates poor prognosis and high postoperative morbidity but is not a surgical contraindication. Gallbladder neck tumors significantly increase the surgical difficulty and reduce the opportunities for radical resection. Gallbladder neck tumors can independently predict poor outcome. PBD correlates with neither a low rate of postoperative intra-abdominal abscesses nor a high survival rate.
Gallbladder cancer; Jaundice; Curative resection; Preoperative biliary drainage; Prognosis
Nearly 85 % of lung-cancer-specific epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) sensitive mutations comprise a substitution at position 858 (21L858R) and deletion mutants in exon 19 (19del). The aim of this study was to assess the role of EGFR mutation subtypes in predicting the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) and the prognosis of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
We systematically searched for eligible articles investigating the association between EGFR mutation subtypes and the efficacy of EGFR TKIs and the prognosis of patients with NSCLC. The summary risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD) were calculated using meta-analysis. In addition, we used variance analysis for the progression-free survival data (PFS) and used the rank sum test for the overall survival data.
We identified 22 eligible trials involving 1,082 patients. The objective response rate of the 19del mutation group was significantly higher than the 21L858R mutation group (RR 1.23; 95 % CI 1.12–1.36; P < 0.0001). The PFS (MD 3.55; 95 % CI 0.90–6.20; P = 0.009; MD 2.57; 95 % CI 0.51–4.62; P = 0.01) and overall survival (OS) (MD 10.52; 95 % CI 5.10–15.93; P = 0.0001) of the 19del mutation group were significantly longer than the 21L858R mutation group; the same results were observed in the variance analysis and rank sum test.
The 19del mutation may be a more efficient clinical marker for predicting the response of patients with NSCLC to EGFR TKIs. Furthermore, patients with the 19del mutation have both a longer PFS and OS. The 19del mutation is also the prognostic factor for patients with NSCLC.
NSCLC; EGFR; EGFR TKIs; Meta-analysis
Metastasis to the thyroid is extremely rare. There is a lack of awareness of and adequate preparation for this situation, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. We describe a rare case of a 61-year-old man in whom a primary distal esophageal carcinoma gave rise to a metastatic palpable mass in the thyroid gland. Palliative bilateral near-total thyroidectomy was performed with pathology showing squamous cell carcinoma and tracheostomy was carried out simultaneously due to airway compression with related symptoms. A review of the literature only reveals 4 similar cases. Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary malignant lesion is seldom encountered, however, in order to make appropriate treatment, the most critical problem is to distinguish the difference between the above two and the final diagnosis can only be confirmed on pathologic examination. Although the prognosis of thyroid metastasis is commonly felt to be poor, improvement of living quality and prolongation of survival may be obtained in such patients through correct diagnosis and treatment.
Thyroid metastasis; esophageal neoplasms; squamous cell carcinoma
Mucin-producing bile duct tumors (MPBTs) are unusual, and we present our experience with nine surgically proven cases.
Between November 2002 and November 2012, 9 patients with surgically proven MPBTs (including history of relevant hepatobiliary surgery in 6 patients) were encountered. Their clinical, imaging, and surgical findings were reviewed.
The most common symptom is intermittent jaundice, which occurs in seven patients. The diagnostic specificity was 77.8% by preoperative Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). All the patients underwent ipsilateral hemihepatectomy or remnant hemihepatectomy, accompanied caudate lobectomy in one case and concomitant Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy in four cases. Postoperative course was uneventful. One patient, who had intra-abdominal recurrence 59 months after surgery, was received reoperation without recurrence at the last follow-up. The remaining eight patients were alive without disease recurrence.
Based on our follow up of 9 cases that were surgically treated for MPBTs, we conclude that ipsilateral hemihepatectomy is a safe surgical procedure with an observed recurrence risk of 11.1% and all long-term survival.
Clostridium ultunense BS is the first isolated strain (type strain) of C. ultunense that was identified as a mesophilic syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacterium (SAOB). Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which will help us to elucidate the mechanism of syntrophic acetate oxidization.
Salinity is a major abiotic stress affecting plant growth and development. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of salt response and defense in plants will help in efforts to improve the salt tolerance of crops. Brachypodium distachyon is a new model plant for wheat, barley, and several potential biofuel grasses. In the current study, proteome and phosphoproteome changes induced by salt stress were the focus. The Bd21 leaves were initially treated with salt in concentrations ranging from 80 to 320 mm and then underwent a recovery process prior to proteome analysis. A total of 80 differentially expressed protein spots corresponding to 60 unique proteins were identified. The sample treated with a median salt level of 240 mm and the control were selected for phosphopeptide purification using TiO2 microcolumns and LC-MS/MS for phosphoproteome analysis to identify the phosphorylation sites and phosphoproteins. A total of 1509 phosphoproteins and 2839 phosphorylation sites were identified. Among them, 468 phosphoproteins containing 496 phosphorylation sites demonstrated significant changes at the phosphorylation level. Nine phosphorylation motifs were extracted from the 496 phosphorylation sites. Of the 60 unique differentially expressed proteins, 14 were also identified as phosphoproteins. Many proteins and phosphoproteins, as well as potential signal pathways associated with salt response and defense, were found, including three 14-3-3s (GF14A, GF14B, and 14-3-3A) for signal transduction and several ABA signal-associated proteins such as ABF2, TRAB1, and SAPK8. Finally, a schematic salt response and defense mechanism in B. distachyon was proposed.
In order to study the effect of microgravity on the proliferation of mammalian osteosarcoma cells and osteoblasts, the changes in cell proliferation, spindle structure, expression of MAD2 or BUB1, and effect of MAD2 or BUB1 on the inhibition of cell proliferation is investigated by keeping mammalian osteosarcoma cells and osteoblasts under simulated microgravity in a rotating wall vessel (2D-RWVS) bioreactor. Experimental results indicate that the effect of microgravity on proliferation inhibition, incidence of multipolar spindles, and expression of MAD2 or BUB1 increases with the extension of treatment time. And multipolar cells enter mitosis after MAD2 or BUB1 is knocked down, which leads to the decrease in DNA content, and decrease the accumulation of cells within multipolar spindles. It can therefore be concluded that simulated microgravity can alter the structure of spindle microtubules, and stimulate the formation of multipolar spindles together with multicentrosomes, which causes the overexpression of SAC proteins to block the abnormal cells in metaphase, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. By clarifying the relationship between cell proliferation inhibition, spindle structure and SAC changes under simulated microgravity, the molecular mechanism and morphology basis of proliferation inhibition induced by microgravity is revealed, which will give experiment and theoretical evidence for the mechanism of space bone loss and some other space medicine problems.
Pyropia haitanensis has a biphasic life cycle with macroscopic gametophytic blade (n) and microscopic filamentous conchocelis (2n) phase. Its gametophytic blades have long been believed to be mainly dioecious. However, when crossing the red mutant (R, ♀) with the wild type (W, ♂), the parental colors were segregated in F1 blades, of which 96.1% were linearly sectored with 2–4 color sectors. When color sectors were excised from the color-sectored blades and cultured singly, 99.7% of the color sectors appeared to be unisexual with an equal sex ratio. Although the sex of color sector did not genetically link with its color, the boundaries of both sex and color sectors coincided precisely. About 87.9% of the examined color-sectored blades were monoecious and the percentage increased with the number of color sectors of a blade. The gametophytic blades from each conchocelis strain produced by parthenogenesis of the excised color sectors were unisexual and unicolor, showing the same sex and color as their original sectors. These results indicate that most of the sexually reproduced Py. haitanensis blades are monoecious, and their sex is controlled by segregation of a pair of alleles during meiosis of conchospore, forming a sex-sectored tetrad. During the subsequent development of blades, one or two lower cell(s) of the tetrad contribute mainly to rhizoid formation, and rarely show their sexual phenotype, leading to reduced frequency of full sex phenotype of the meiotic blades. Moreover, the aberrant segregations of sex genes or color genes in a few of F1 blades were probably due to gene conversions, but there was no sex transfer in Py. haitanensis.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus HZ-31 strain is different from any other previously sequenced porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains. It contains a 59-amino acid (aa) discontinuous deletion in aa 467 to 474, aa 498 to 519, and aa 533 to 561 of nsp2. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this novel Chinese virulent PRRSV variant.
One of the most important theories of the traditional Chinese medicine is the exterior-interior relationship between the lung and the large intestine; so far, little direct experimental evidence has been reported to support such relationship. Here we for the first time investigated the mutual interactions between the lung and the large intestine by examining the relevancies between the pulmonary functions and the rectal resting pressure in the rat models of asthma and constipation. We also evaluated the effects of the lung homogenate and the large intestine homogenate on the isolated large intestine muscle strip and the isolated tracheal spiral, respectively. Our results showed that the pulmonary resistance and pulmonary compliance were closely related to the rectal resting pressure in the asthmatic rat model, while the rectal resting pressure was much correlated with the pulmonary resistance in the rat model of constipation. Moreover, it was shown that the lung homogenate could specifically contract the isolated large intestine muscle strip. Overall, this study provided new lines of evidence for the theory and highlighted the potential application in the treatment of the corresponding diseases.
Macrotermitinae (fungus-cultivating termites) are major decomposers in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia and Africa. They have specifically evolved mutualistic associations with both a Termitomyces fungi on the nest and a gut microbiota, providing a model system for probing host-microbe interactions. Yet the symbiotic roles of gut microbes residing in its major feeding caste remain largely undefined. Here, by pyrosequencing the whole gut metagenome of adult workers of a fungus-cultivating termite (Odontotermes yunnanensis), we showed that it did harbor a broad set of genes or gene modules encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) relevant to plant fiber degradation, particularly debranching enzymes and oligosaccharide-processing enzymes. Besides, it also contained a considerable number of genes encoding chitinases and glycoprotein oligosaccharide-processing enzymes for fungal cell wall degradation. To investigate the metabolic divergence of higher termites of different feeding guilds, a SEED subsystem-based gene-centric comparative analysis of the data with that of a previously sequenced wood-feeding Nasutitermes hindgut microbiome was also attempted, revealing that SEED classifications of nitrogen metabolism, and motility and chemotaxis were significantly overrepresented in the wood-feeder hindgut metagenome, while Bacteroidales conjugative transposons and subsystems related to central aromatic compounds metabolism were apparently overrepresented here. This work fills up our gaps in understanding the functional capacities of fungus-cultivating termite gut microbiota, especially their roles in the symbiotic digestion of lignocelluloses and utilization of fungal biomass, both of which greatly add to existing understandings of this peculiar symbiosis.
To evaluate the effect of irradiation on microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands.
Methods and Materials
A single 25-Gy dose of irradiation (IR) was delivered to parotid glands of 6 miniature pigs. Three other animals served as non-IR controls. Local blood flow rate in glands was measured pre- and post-IR with an ultrasonic Doppler analyzer. Samples of parotid gland tissue were taken at 4 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks after IR for microvascular density (MVD) analysis and sphingomyelinase (SMase) assay. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining (anti-CD31 and anti-AQP1) were used to assess morphological changes. MVD was determined by calculating the number of CD31- or AQP1-stained cells per field. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. The activity of acid and neutral Mg2+-dependent SMase (ASMase and NSMase, respectively) was also assayed.
Local parotid gland blood flow rate decreased rapidly at 4 h post-IR and remained below control levels throughout the 14-day observation period. Parotid MVD also declined from 4 to 24 hours and remained below control levels thereafter. The activity levels of ASMase and NSMase in parotid glands increased rapidly from 4 to 24 h post-IR and then declined gradually. The frequency of detecting apoptotic nuclei in the glands followed similar kinetics.
Single-dose IR led to a significant reduction of MVD and local blood flow rate, indicating marked damage to microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. The significant and rapid increases of ASMase and NSMase activity levels may be important in this IR-induced damage.
Salivary glands; Radiotherapy; Microvessel density; Endothelial cells; Sphingomyelinase
Long-term strain improvements through repeated mutagenesis and screening have generated a hyper-producer of cellulases and hemicellulases from Penicillium decumbens 114 which was isolated 30 years ago. Here, the genome of the hyper-producer P. decumbens JU-A10-T was sequenced and compared with that of the wild-type strain 114-2. Further, the transcriptomes and secretomes were compared between the strains. Selective hyper-production of cellulases and hemicellulases but not all the secreted proteins was observed in the mutant, making it a more specific producer of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Functional analysis identified that changes in several transcriptional regulatory elements played crucial roles in the cellulase hyper-producing characteristics of the mutant. Additionally, the mutant showed enhanced supply of amino acids and decreased synthesis of secondary metabolites compared with the wild-type. The results clearly point out that we can target gene regulators and promoters with minimal alterations of the genetic content but maximal effects in genetic engineering.