AIM: To characterize an alcohol and high fat diet induced chronic pancreatitis rat model that mimics poor human dietary choices.
METHODS: Experimental rats were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli alcohol (6%) and high-fat (65%) diet (AHF) for 10 wk while control animals received a regular rodent chow diet. Weekly behavioral tests determined mechanical and heat sensitivity. In week 10 a fasting glucose tolerance test was performed, measuring blood glucose levels before and after a 2 g/kg bodyweight intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of glucose. Post mortem histological analysis was performed by staining pancreas and liver tissue sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Pancreas sections were also stained with Sirius red and fast green to quantify collagen content. Insulin-expressing cells were identified immunohistochemically in separate sections. Tissue staining density was quantified using Image J software. After mechanical and heat sensitivity became stable (weeks 6-10) in the AHF-fed animals, three different drugs were tested for their efficacy in attenuating pancreatitis associated hypersensitivity: a Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor specific agonist (2R,4R)-4-Aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (APDC, 3 mg/kg, ip; Tocris, Bristol, United Kingdom), nociceptin (20, 60, 200 nmol/kg, ip; Tocris), and morphine sulfate (3 mg/kg, μ-opioid receptor agonist; Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL, United States).
RESULTS: Histological analysis of pancreas and liver determined that unlike control rats, AHF fed animals had pancreatic fibrosis, acinar and beta cell atrophy, with steatosis in both organs. Fat vacuolization was significantly increased in AHF fed rats (6.4% ± 1.1% in controls vs 23.8% ± 4.2%, P < 0.05). Rats fed the AHF diet had reduced fasting glucose tolerance in week 10 when peak blood glucose levels reached significantly higher concentrations than controls (127.4 ± 9.2 mg/dL in controls vs 161.0 ± 8.6 mg/dL, P < 0.05). This concurred with a 3.5 fold higher incidence of single and small 2-10 cell insulin-positive cell clusters (P < 0.05). Insulin expressing islet of Langerhans cells appeared hypertrophied while islet number and area measurements were not different from controls. Weekly behavioral tests determined that mechanical and heat sensitivities were significantly increased by 4 wk on AHF diet compared to controls. Hypersensitivity was attenuated with efficacy similar to morphine with single dose treatment of either metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 agonist APDC, or nociceptin, the endogenous ligand for opioid-receptor-like 1 receptor.
CONCLUSION: The AHF diet induces a chronic alcoholic pancreatitis in rats with measurable features resembling clinical patients with chronic pancreatitis and type 3c diabetes mellitus.
Lieber-DeCarli diet; Orphanin FQ receptor; Metabotropic glutamate receptor; Liver steatosis; Pain; Behavior; Glucose tolerance; Type 3c diabetes mellitus
Chronic constriction injury of trigeminal infraorbital nerve results in transient analgesia followed by whisker pad mechanical allodynia in rats. Neuregulin1 expressed on axonal membranes binds receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB promoting Schwann cell development and remyelination. This study investigated whether orofacial mechanical allodynia is signaled by ErbB3/ErbB2 heterodimers in injured nerves.
Whisker pad mechanical allodynia (von Frey stimuli) was quantified in wild type rats and in transgenic rats with Sleeping Beauty transposon mutation for neuregulin1 transgene. Pain-related behavior was retested after intraperitoneal injection of ErbB2 inhibitor, Lapatinib, an agent shown by others to reduce breast cancer pain. Infraorbital nerve injury was evaluated histologically with myelin and neuronal biomarkers. ErbB3 changes over time were measured with western blots.
Whisker pad mechanical hypersensitivity began in week 2 in wild type rats (3.11 ± 5.93 vs. 18.72 ± 0.00g after sham surgery, n = 9, p < 0.001) indicating trigeminal neuropathic pain, but was not evident in transgenic rats (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 0.38-3.35). Initiation of statistically significant mechano-hypersensitivity was delayed until week 6 after surgery in transgenic rats (3.44 ± 4.60g vs. 18.72 ± 0.00g, n = 4, p < 0.001). Mechanical allodynia which persisted 8 weeks in wild type rats was alleviated by Lapatinib (15 ± 3.89g vs. 2.45 ± 1.13g, n = 6, p < 0.001). Infraorbital nerve damage was verified histologically. Statistically significant ErbB3 increases (weeks 5 and 10) in wild type and transgenic rats (week 10) coincided with time points when mechanical hypersensitivity was present.
Neuregulin1/ErbB3/ErbB2 is a causal mechanism in nerve injury induced trigeminal neuropathic pain. Understanding peripheral glial mechanisms after nerve injury will improve neuropathic pain treatment.
AIM: To analyze gene expression profiles in an experimental pancreatitis and provide functional reversal of hypersensitivity with candidate gene endothelin-1 antagonists.
METHODS: Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) is a chemical used as a polyvinyl carbonate stabilizer/catalyzer, biocide in agriculture, antifouling agent in paint and fabric. DBTC induces an acute pancreatitis flare through generation of reactive oxygen species. Lewis-inbred rats received a single i.v. injection with either DBTC or vehicle. Spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were taken at the peak of inflammation and processed for transcriptional profiling with a cDNA microarray biased for rat brain-specific genes. In a second study, groups of animals with DBTC-induced pancreatitis were treated with endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists [ET-A (BQ123) and ET-B BQ788)]. Spontaneous pain related mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity were measured. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-ET-A and ET-B antibodies on sections from pancreatic tissues and DRG of the T10-12 spinal segments.
RESULTS: Animals developed acute pancreatic inflammation persisting 7-10 d as confirmed by pathological studies (edema in parenchyma, loss of pancreatic architecture and islets, infiltration of inflammatory cells, neutrophil and mononuclear cells, degeneration, vacuolization and necrosis of acinar cells) and the pain-related behaviors (cutaneous secondary mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity). Gene expression profile was different in the spinal cord from animals with pancreatitis compared to the vehicle control group. Over 260 up-regulated and 60 down-regulated unique genes could be classified into 8 functional gene families: circulatory/acute phase/immunomodulatory; extracellular matrix; structural; channel/receptor/transporter; signaling transduction; transcription/translation-related; antioxidants/chaperones/heat shock; pancreatic and other enzymes. ET-1 was among the 52 candidate genes up-regulated greater than 2-fold in animals with pancreatic inflammation and visceral pain-related behavior. Treatments with the ET-A (BQ123) and ET-B (BQ-788) antagonists revealed significant protection against inflammatory pain related mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity behaviors in animals with pancreatitis (P < 0.05). Open field spontaneous behavioral activity (at baseline, day 6 and 30 min after drug treatments (BQ123, BQ788) showed overall stable activity levels indicating that the drugs produced no undesirable effects on normal exploratory behaviors, except for a trend toward reduction of the active time and increase in resting time at the highest dose (300 μmol/L). Immunocytochemical localization revealed that expression of ET-A and ET-B receptors increased in DRG from animals with pancreatitis. Endothelin receptor localization was combined in dual staining with neuronal marker NeuN, and glia marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein. ET-A was expressed in the cell bodies and occasional nuclei of DRG neurons in naïve animals. However, phenotypic expression of ET-A receptor was greatly increased in neurons of all sizes in animals with pancreatitis. Similarly, ET-B receptor was localized in neurons and in the satellite glia, as well as in the Schwann cell glial myelin sheaths surrounding the axons passing through the DRG.
CONCLUSION: Endothelin-receptor antagonists protect against inflammatory pain responses without interfering with normal exploratory behaviors. Candidate genes can serve as future biomarkers for diagnosis and/or targeted gene therapy.
Gene expression; Endothelin receptors; Pancreatitis; Pain; Dibutyltin dichloride; Hypersensitivity; Hyperalgesia
Antidromically propagated action potentials can be recorded in the proximal end of the severed medial articular nerve (MAN) on mechanical stimulation of an inflamed knee in rats and are referred to as dorsal root reflex (DRR) activity. The absence of DRR activity in normal rats suggests that the activity could be the result of hyperexcitability of spinal neurons induced by inflammation. In this study, the role of spinal type 1 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu1) receptors in the generation of DRR activity in the MAN during acute knee inflammation was investigated. Four hours after an injection of a mixture of kaolin and carrageenan (k/c) into a knee joint, DRR activity could be evoked in the ipsilateral MAN by mechanical stimulation of the inflamed limb. Spinal application of a selective mGlu1 receptor antagonist, [RS]-1-Aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid/UPF 523 (AIDA), or a potent, but less specific mGlu1 receptor antagonist, LY393053, both depressed the DRR activity significantly. AIDA and LY39053 had no effect on recordings in the MAN from noninflamed control animals. However, spinal administration of AIDA did suppress DRR activity generated by infusion of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a K+ channel blocker, into the dorsal horn of noninflamed animals. These observations suggest that mGlu1 receptors support the generation of DRR activity in the MAN following sensitization of spinal cord neurons.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor; dorsal root reflex; 4-AP; arthritis; pain
Abdominal pain is a major reason patients seek medical attention yet relatively little is known about neuronal pathways relaying visceral pain. We have previously characterized pathways transmitting information to the brain about visceral pain. Visceral pain arises from second order neurons in lamina X surrounding the spinal cord central canal. Some of the brain regions of interest receiving axonal terminations directly from lamina X were examined in the present study using enhanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and one week after induction of a rat pancreatitis model with persistent inflammation and behavioral signs of increased nociception. Analysis of imaging data demonstrates an increase in MRI signal for all the regions of interest selected including the rostral ventromedial medulla, dorsal raphe, periaqueductal grey, medial thalamus, and central amygdala as predicted by the anatomical data, as well as increases in the lateral thalamus, cingulate/retrosplenial and parietal cortex. Occipital cortex was not activated above threshold in any condition and served as a negative control. Morphine attenuated the MRI signal, and the morphine effect was antagonized by naloxone in lower brainstem sites. These data confirm activation of these specific regions of interest known as integration sites for nociceptive information important in behavioral, affective, emotional and autonomic responses to ongoing noxious visceral activation.
morphine; visceral pain; nociception; central pain; pancreatitis
Pain arising from pancreatic diseases can become chronic and difficult to treat. There is a paucity of knowledge regarding the mechanisms that sensitize neural pathways that transmit noxious information from visceral organs. In this review, neurogenic inflammation is presented as a possible amplifier of the noxious signal from peripheral organs including the pancreas. The nerve pathways that transmit pancreatic pain are also reviewed as a conduit of the amplified signals. It is likely that components of these visceral pain pathways can also be sensitized after neurogenic inflammation.
Inflammatory pain; Pancreatitis; Visceral pain
This study assessed the efficacy of pancreatic surface delivered enkephalin (ENK)-encoding herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) on spontaneous behaviors and spinal cord and pancreatic enkephalin expression in an experimental pancreatitis model. Replication-defective HSV-1 with proenkephalin complementary DNA (cDNA) (HSV-ENK) or control β-galactosidase cDNA (HSV-β-gal), or media vehicle (Veh) was applied to the pancreatic surface of rats with dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC)-induced pancreatitis. Spontaneous exploratory behavioral activity was monitored on days 0 and 6 post DBTC and vector treatments. The pancreas, thoracic dorsal root ganglia (DRG, T9-10), and spinal cord (T9-10) were immunostained for metenkephalin (met-ENK), β-gal, and HSV-1 proteins. Spinal cord was also immunostained for c-Fos, and pancreas was stained for the inflammatory marker regulated on activation, normal T-cells expressed and secreted (RANTES), mu-opioid receptor, and hemotoxylin/eosin. On day 6, compared to pancreatitis and vector controls, the DBTC/HSV-ENK treated rats had significantly improved spontaneous exploratory activities, increased met-ENK staining in the pancreas and spinal cord, and normalized c-Fos staining in the dorsal horn. Histopathology of pancreas in DBTC/HSV-ENK treated rats showed preservation of acinar cells and cytoarchitecture with minimal inflammatory cell infiltrates, compared to severe inflammation and acinar cell loss seen in DBTC/HSV-β-gal and DBTC/Veh treated rats. Targeted transgene delivery and met-ENK expression successfully produced decreased inflammation in experimental pancreatitis.
Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) is a complex and multifactorial syndrome. Many contributing factors result in development of dysfunctional pain in a significant number of patients. Drugs developed to treat a variety of pain states fall short of providing effective analgesia for patients with chronic pancreatitis, often providing minimal to partial pain relief over time with significant side effects. Recently, availability of selective pharmacological tools has enabled great advances in our knowledge of the role of the cannabinoid receptors in pathophysiology. In particular, cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has emerged as an attractive target for management of chronic pain, as demonstrated in several studies with inflammatory and neuropathic preclinical pain models. In this study, the analgesic efficacy of a novel, highly selective CB2 receptor agonist, LY3038404 HCl, is investigated in a chronic pancreatitis pain model, induced with an alcohol/high fat (AHF) diet.
Rats fed the AHF diet developed visceral pain-like behaviors detectable by week 3 and reached a maximum at week 5 that persists as long as the diet is maintained. Rats with AHF induced chronic pancreatitis were treated with LY3038404 HCl (10 mg/kg, orally, twice a day for 9 days). The treated animals demonstrated significantly alleviated pain related behaviors after 3 days of dosing, including increased paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT), prolonged abdominal withdrawal latencies (ABWL), and decreased nocifensive responses to noxious 44°C hotplate stimuli. Terminal histological analysis of pancreatic tissue sections from the AHF chronic pancreatitis animals demonstrated extensive injury, including a global pancreatic gland degeneration (cellular atrophy), vacuolization (fat deposition), and fibrosis. After the LY3038404 HCl treatment, pancreatic tissue was significantly protected from severe damage and fibrosis. LY3038404 HCl affected neither open field exploratory behaviors nor dark/light box preferences as measures of higher brain and motor functions.
LY3038404 HCl, a potent CB2 receptor agonist, possesses tissue protective and analgesic properties without effects on higher brain function. Thus, activation of CB2 receptors is suggested as a potential therapeutic target for visceral inflammation and pain management.
Alcohol; CB2; Pain; Ki67; Hyperalgesia; Pancreas; Behavioral testing; 44°C hotplate test; Tissue repair; High fat
Many aspects of tissue damage following acute or chronic inflammatory reactions can be directly attributed to the concomitant biosynthesis and release of inducible early pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Conversely, systemic inflammation is impacted by consequences of tissue damage. Dysregulated TNFα contributes to numerous pathophysiological conditions including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and arthritis. Inflammatory stimuli trigger proteolytic cleavage and shedding of extracellular domains of TNFα receptors giving rise to two soluble fragments (p55 sTNFR1 and p75 sTNFR2) that block further binding, activity and synthesis of TNFα. We hypothesized that absence of sTNFR inhibitory feedback control would result in accumulated high levels of TNFα and other inflammatory factors promoting the cardinal signs of chronic inflammation and pain.
The present study reports a translational murine model of chronic arthritis precipitated by two consecutive inflammatory insults. The “double hit” procedures provoke a chronic inflammatory response and pain related behaviors in mice that are dually deficient in p55 (TNFR1) and p75 (TNFR2). The inflammation and pain related behaviors are transient in similarly treated wild type (WT) mice. The complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) method was used initially to induce knee joint inflammation, tactile mechanical and heat hypersensitivity, and gait disturbance. After these transient effects of the insult were resolved, a recrudescence persisting at least through 23 weeks was promoted by gastrointestinal (GI) insult with dilute intra-colonic mustard oil (MO) only in the mutant mice and was reversed by a P2X7 antagonist. Serum Proteome Profiling analysis revealed high levels of serum inflammatory factors TNFα, RANTES, CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10), and CCL2 (MCP-1).
In conclusion, these data suggest that impaired signaling of TNFα due to deficit of the two protective soluble p55 and p75 sTNFR inhibitory factors plays a pivotal role in re-activation of the immune response to GI insult that can produce recrudescence of inflammatory injury and a chronic pain state through promotion of high levels of serum inflammatory factors.
TNFα; recrudescence; autoimmune; arthritis; P2X7
Background: Previous studies have demonstrated elevated levels of excitatory amino acids (EAA) glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp) in the synovial fluid (SF) of patients with active arthritis. The source of SF EAA concentrations are thought in large part to be secondary to passive diffusion from the plasma across synovial membranes and less so, reflective of local synovial pathology. Objective: This descriptive report assesses the hypothesis that the SF EAA levels reflect inflammatory processes of the joint and are not dependent on plasma levels. Methods: Simultaneously drawn plasma and SF samples were obtained from 14 recently deceased cadavers and 10 patients with active arthritis. Plasma and SF EAA and other amino acid (AA) levels were determined by HPLC. SF: Plasma compartment concentration ratios were calculated to assess if SF EAA levels were similar to plasma levels. Results: In the cadavers with no antemortem arthritis, the mean SF: Plasma ratios for Glu and Asp were 4-5-fold lower than the mean ratios seen for 9 other AAs, showing specific discrepancies of EAA levels between plasma and synovial fluid. In 9 patients with active arthritis, the SF: Plasma concentration ratios were higher in samples derived from inflammatory arthropathies. Conclusions: Clinical samples demonstrated distinct, independent compartmental EAA concentrations between blood and joint compartments in support that local arthritic processes rather than plasma influence SF EAA concentrations. The SF EAA levels, whether from local cell production, local neurogenic sources, and/or transport-gradient mechanisms, parallel local pathology in the joint compartment and thus serve as surrogate biomarkers of local inflammatory processes.
Glutamate; aspartate; synovial fluid; arthritis; biomarker; neurotransmitter
Trigeminal neuropathic pain attacks can be excruciating for patients, even after being lightly touched. Although there are rodent trigeminal nerve research models to study orofacial pain, few models have been applied to studies in mice. A mouse trigeminal inflammatory compression (TIC) model is introduced here which successfully and reliably promotes vibrissal whisker pad hypersensitivity.
The chronic orofacial neuropathic pain model is induced after surgical placement of chromic gut suture in the infraorbital nerve fissure in the maxillary bone. Slight compression and chemical effects of the chromic gut suture on the portion of the infraorbital nerve contacted cause mild nerve trauma. Nerve edema is observed in the contacting infraorbital nerve bundle as well as macrophage infiltration in the trigeminal ganglia. Centrally in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, increased immunoreactivity for an activated microglial marker is evident (OX42, postoperative day 70). Mechanical thresholds of the affected whisker pad are significantly decreased on day 3 after chromic gut suture placement, persisting at least 10 weeks. The mechanical allodynia is reversed by suppression of microglial activation. Cold allodynia was detected at 4 weeks.
A simple, effective, and reproducible chronic mouse model mimicking clinical orofacial neuropathic pain (Type 2) is induced by placing chromic gut suture between the infraorbital nerve and the maxillary bone. The method produces mild inflammatory compression with significant continuous mechanical allodynia persisting at least 10 weeks and cold allodynia measureable at 4 weeks.
Orofacial neuropathic pain; Infraorbital nerve; Inflammation; Nerve compression; Chromic gut suture; Mechanical allodynia; Trigeminal ganglia; Trigeminal nucleus; Mice; Hypersensitivy; Tic douloureux
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are important membrane sensors on peripheral nerve endings and on supportive non-neuronal synoviocytes in the knee joint. TRPV 1 ion channels respond with activation of calcium and sodium fluxes to pH, thermal, chemical, osmotic, mechanical and other stimuli abundant in inflamed joints. In the present study, the kaolin/carrageenan (k/c) induced knee joint arthritis model in rats, as well as primary and clonal human synoviocyte cultures were used to understand the reciprocal interactions between reactive nitroxidative species (ROS) and functional TRPV1 channels. ROS generation was monitored with ROS sensitive dyes using live cell imaging in vitro and in spinal tissue histology, as well as with measurement of ROS metabolites in culture media using HPLC.
Functional responses in the experimental arthritis model, including increased nociceptive responses (thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia), knee joint temperature reflecting local blood flow, and spinal cord ROS elevations were reduced by the ROS scavenger PBN after intraperitoneal pretreatment. Increases in TRPV1 and ROS, generated by synoviocytes in vitro, were reciprocally blocked by TRPV1 antagonists and the ROS scavenger. Further evidence is presented that synoviocyte responses to ROS and TRPV1 activation include increases in TNFα and COX-2, both measured as an indicator of the inflammation in vitro.
The results demonstrate that contributions of ROS to pronociceptive responses and neurogenic inflammation are mediated both centrally and peripherally. Responses are mediated by TRPV1 locally in the knee joint by synoviocytes, as well as by ROS-induced sensitization in the spinal cord. These findings and those of others reported in the literature indicate reciprocal interactions between TRPV1 and ROS play critical roles in the pathological and nociceptive responses active during arthritic inflammation.
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of a glutamate receptor antagonist or a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor on the central visceral nociceptive amplification process present in an experimental pancreatitis model. The acute pancreatitis model was produced by combining intraductal infusion of an irritative bile salt, glycodeoxycholic acid (GDOC), with intraperitoneal injection of a CCK analogue, caerulein, in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Exploratory activities were measured with an automated photobeam activity system and compared among different treatment groups. To confirm the inflammation, the pancreas was weighed and compared histologically with those taken from naive rats.
Exploratory activity changed significantly in rats with experimental pancreatitis (i.e., rearing events, rearing time, active time, distance traveled, and total activity all were decreased; whereas resting time was increased). The inflamed pancreatic tissues were edematous, with moderate to marked acinar atrophy and inflammatory infiltrate. Intrathecal administration (at the T7–T9 spinal levels) of an NMDA receptor antagonist (D-AP5, 1 μg) or a selective PKC inhibitor (GF109203X, 0.15 μg) significantly reversed the changes in exploratory activity when compared with the vehicle-treated group of rats with experimental pancreatitis.
Our results demonstrate that pancreatitis pain is the result of central pain processes that play a role in the amplification of responses to peripheral visceral input through NMDA receptor activation and PKC phosphorylation signaling pathways.
Nociception; Pain; Exploratory activity; Inflammation; Signal transduction
Morphine sulfate has long been used for analgesia, but clinical applications can be limited by side effects, tolerance, and potential for addiction at therapeutic doses. An agent that produces therapeutic analgesia when coadministered with low-dose morphine could have important clinical uses. The anticonvulsant agent gabapentin has been identified as having antihyperalgesic properties acting on the α2δ1 subunit of N-type voltage-activated calcium channels on dorsal root ganglia neurons. In this study, intrathecal gabapentin, which by itself is ineffective when administered spinally, was combined with low-dose morphine and tested in an acute bradykinin-induced pancreatitis model in rats.
An intrathecal catheter was surgically inserted into the subarachnoid space of male Sprague-Dawley rats. A laparotomy was performed for ligation and cannulation of the bile-pancreatic duct. Rats were pretreated intrathecally with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, gabapentin, morphine, or combined gabapentin and morphine 30 min before bradykinin injection into the bile-pancreatic duct. Spontaneous behavioral activity (cage crossing, rearing, and hind limb extension) was monitored before drug injection (baseline) and after bradykinin injection into the bile-pancreatic duct to assess visceral pain.
Spinal pretreatment with up to 300 μg gabapentin alone was not effective in reducing hind limb extension in this model, but did restore some cage crossing and rearing behaviors. Spinal treatment with low-dose morphine reduced hind limb extension only. Spinal pretreatment with combined gabapentin and subtherapeutic doses of morphine sulfate resulted in restoration of all spontaneous behaviors to surgical baseline levels including elimination of hind limb extension.
Combined spinal administration of gabapentin and low doses of morphine significantly reduces pain-related behaviors in this acute rat pancreatitis model, whereas these agents were ineffective when used alone in this dose range. These data suggest that the α2δ1 subunit of the N-type voltage-activated Ca2+ channels is involved in transmission of this visceral pain, likely through effects on primary afferent endings in the spinal cord. Thus, gabapentin may be an effective adjuvant to initial low dose spinal opioid therapy for clinical management of visceral pain.
To determine the release pattern of serotonin and noradrenaline in the spinal cord in response to transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) delivered at low or high frequency.
Prospective randomized allocation of 3 treatments.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (weight range, 250–350g).
Knee joints of rats were inflamed with a mixture of 3% carrageenan and 3% kaolin for 24 hours prior to placement of push-pull cannulae into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Push-pull samples were collected in 10-minute intervals before, during, and after treatment with low-frequency TENS (4Hz), high-frequency TENS (100Hz), or sham TENS. TENS was applied to the inflamed knee joint for 20 minutes at sensory intensity and 100-μs pulse duration. Push-pull samples were analyzed for serotonin and noradrenaline by high performance liquid chromatography with coulemetric detection.
Main Outcome Measures
Spinal concentrations of serotonin and noradrenaline.
Low-frequency TENS significantly increased serotonin concentrations during and immediately after treatment. There was no change in serotonin with high-frequency TENS, nor was there a change in noradrenaline with low- or high-frequency TENS.
Low-frequency TENS releases serotonin in the spinal cord to produce antihyperalgesia by activation of serotonin receptors.
Hyperalgesia; Pain; Rehabilitation; Serotonin; Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation
We have shown functional expression of several TRP channels on human synovial cells, proposing significance in known calcium dependent proliferative and secretory responses in joint inflammation. The present study further characterizes synoviocyte TRP expression and activation responses to thermal and osmotic stimuli after pre-treatment with proinflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, EC50 1.3221 × 10-10g/L).
Fluorescent imaging of Fura-2 loaded human SW982 synoviocytes reveals immediate and delayed cytosolic calcium oscillations elicited by (1) TRPV1 agonists capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (20 – 40% of cells), (2) moderate and noxious temperature change, and (3) osmotic stress TRPV4 activation (11.5% of cells). TNF-alpha pre-treatment (1 ng/ml, 8 – 16 hr) significantly increases (doubles) capsaicin responsive cell numbers and [Ca2+]i spike frequency, as well as enhances average amplitude of temperature induced [Ca2+]i responses. With TNF-alpha pre-treatment for 8, 12, and 16 hr, activation with 36 or 45 degree bath solution induces bimodal [Ca2+]i increase (temperature controlled chamber). Initial temperature induced rapid transient spikes and subsequent slower rise reflect TRPV1 and TRPV4 channel activation, respectively. Only after prolonged TNF-alpha exposure (12 and 16 hr) is recruitment of synoviocytes observed with sensitized TRPV4 responses to hypoosmolarity (3–4 fold increase). TNF-alpha increases TRPV1 (8 hr peak) and TRPV4 (12 hr peak) immunostaining, mRNA and protein expression, with a TRPV1 shift to membrane fractions.
TNF-α provides differentially enhanced synoviocyte TRPV1 and TRPV4 expression and [Ca2+]i response dependent on the TRP stimulus and time after exposure. Augmented relevance of TRPV1 and TRPV4 as inflammatory conditions persist would provide calcium mediated cell signaling required for pathophysiological responses of synoviocytes in inflammatory pain states.
Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) is activated by low pH/protons and is well known to be involved in hyperalgesia during inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine, is involved in nociceptive responses causing hyperalgesia through TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1) activation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is also prominently increased in inflamed tissue. The present study investigated TNFR1 receptors in primary cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after TRPV1 activation and the involvement of ROS. C57BL/6 mice, both TRPV1 knockout and wild type, were used for immunofluorescent and live cell imaging. The L4 and L5 DRGs were dissected bilaterally and cultured overnight. TRPV1 was stimulated with capsaicin or its potent analog, resiniferatoxin. ROS production was measured with live cell imaging and TNFR1 was detected with immunofluorescence in DRG primary cultures. The TRPV1 knockout mice, TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, and ROS scavenger, N-tert-Butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN), were employed to explore the functional relationship among TRPV1, ROS and TNFR1 in these studies.
The results demonstrate that TRPV1 activation increases TNFR1 receptors and ROS generation in primary cultures of mouse DRG neurons. Activated increases in TNFR1 receptors and ROS production are absent in TRPV1 deficient mice. The PBN blocks increases in TNFR1 and ROS production induced by capsaicin/resiniferatoxin.
TRPV1 activation increases TNFR1 in cultured mouse DRG neurons through a ROS signaling pathway, a novel sensitization mechanism in DRG neurons.
A chronic pancreatitis model was developed in young male Lewis rats fed a high-fat and alcohol liquid diet beginning at three weeks. The model was used to assess time course and efficacy of a replication defective herpes simplex virus type 1 vector construct delivering human cDNA encoding preproenkephalin (HSV-ENK).
Most surprising was the relative lack of inflammation and tissue disruption after HSV-ENK treatment compared to the histopathology consistent with pancreatitis (inflammatory cell infiltration, edema, acinar cell hypertrophy, fibrosis) present as a result of the high-fat and alcohol diet in controls. The HSV-ENK vector delivered to the pancreatic surface at week 3 reversed pancreatitis-associated hotplate hypersensitive responses for 4–6 weeks, while control virus encoding β-galactosidase cDNA (HSV-β-gal) had no effect. Increased Fos expression seen bilaterally in pain processing regions in control animals with pancreatitis was absent in HSV-ENK-treated animals. Increased met-enkephalin staining was evident in pancreas and lower thoracic spinal cord laminae I–II in the HSV-ENK-treated rats.
Thus, clear evidence is provided that site specific HSV-mediated transgene delivery of human cDNA encoding preproenkephalin ameliorates pancreatic inflammation and significantly reduces hypersensitive hotplate responses for an extended time consistent with HSV mediated overexpression, without tolerance or evidence of other opiate related side effects.