PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-7 (7)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  FAPP2 Gene Downregulation Increases Tumor Cell Sensitivity to Fas-Induced Apoptosis 
The gene for phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate adaptor-2 (FAPP2) encodes a cytoplasmic lipid transferase with a plekstrin homology domain that has been implicated in vesicle maturation and transport from trans-Golgi to the plasma membrane. The introduction of ribozymes targeting the FAPP2 gene in colon carcinoma cells induced their apoptosis in the presence of Fas agonistic antibody. Furthermore, by quantitative PCR we showed that a siRNA specific to FAPP2, but not a randomized siRNA control, reduced FAPP2 gene expression in tumor cells. Transfection of FAPP2 siRNA into human tumor cells then incubated with FasL resulted in reduction of viable cell numbers. Also, FAPP2 siRNA transfected glioma and breast tumor cells showed significant increases in apoptosis upon incubation with soluble FasL, but the apoptosis did not necessarily correlate with increased Fas expression. These data demonstrate a previously unknown role for FAPP2 in conferring resistance to apoptosis and indicate that FAPP2 may be a target for cancer therapy.
doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.03.126
PMCID: PMC3998642  PMID: 19341712
ribozyme; astrocytomas; apoptosis; FAPP2; apoptosis; Fas ligand; siRNA; colon carcinoma; glioma; breast tumor
2.  Persistent restoration of sensory function by immediate or delayed systemic artemin after dorsal root injury 
Nature neuroscience  2008;11(4):488-496.
Dorsal root injury results in substantial and often irreversible loss of sensory functions as a result of the limited regenerative capacity of sensory axons and the inhibitory barriers that prevent both axonal entry into and regeneration in the spinal cord. Here, we describe previously unknown effects of the growth factor artemin after crush injury of the dorsal spinal nerve roots in rats. Artemin not only promoted re-entry of multiple classes of sensory fibers into the spinal cord and re-establishment of synaptic function and simple behavior, but it also, surprisingly, promoted the recovery of complex behavior. These effects occurred after a 2-week schedule of intermittent, systemic administration of artemin and persisted for at least 6 months following treatment, suggesting a substantial translational advantage. Systemic artemin administration produced essentially complete and persistent restoration of nociceptive and sensorimotor functions, and could represent a promising therapy that may effectively promote sensory neuronal regeneration and functional recovery after injury.
doi:10.1038/nn2069
PMCID: PMC3417340  PMID: 18344995
3.  Oligonucleotide therapeutic approaches for Huntington disease 
Huntington disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a toxic expansion in the CAG repeat region of the huntingtin gene. Oligonucleotide approaches based on RNAi and antisense oligonucleotides provide promising new therapeutic strategies for direct intervention through reduced production of the causative mutant protein. Allele-specific and simultaneous mutant and wild-type allele–lowering strategies are being pursued with local delivery to the brain, each with relative merits. Delivery remains a key challenge for translational success, especially with chronic therapy. The potential of disease-modifying oligonucleotide approaches for Huntington disease will be revealed as they progress into clinical trials.
doi:10.1172/JCI45130
PMCID: PMC3026739  PMID: 21285523
4.  A combinatorial library of lipid-like materials for delivery of RNAi therapeutics 
Nature biotechnology  2008;26(5):561-569.
The safe and effective delivery of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics remains an important challenge for clinical development. The diversity of current delivery materials remains limited, in part because of their slow, multi-step syntheses. Here we describe a new class of lipid-like delivery molecules, termed lipidoids, as delivery agents for RNAi therapeutics. Chemical methods were developed to allow the rapid synthesis of a large library of over 1,200 structurally diverse lipidoids. From this library, we identified lipidoids that facilitate high levels of specific silencing of endogenous gene transcripts when formulated with either double-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA) or single-stranded antisense 2′-O-methyl (2′-O Me) oligoribonucleotides targeting microRNA (miRNA). The safety and efficacy of lipidoids were evaluated in three animal models: mice, rats and nonhuman primates. The studies reported here suggest that these materials may have broad utility for both local and systemic delivery of RNA therapeutics.
doi:10.1038/nbt1402
PMCID: PMC3014085  PMID: 18438401
5.  siRNA knock-down of mutant torsinA restores processing through secretory pathway in DYT1 dystonia cells 
Human molecular genetics  2008;17(10):1436-1445.
Most cases of the dominantly inherited movement disorder, early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1) are caused by a mutant form of torsinA lacking a glutamic acid residue in the C-terminal region (torsinAΔE). TorsinA is an AAA1 protein located predominantly in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope apparently involved in membrane structure/movement and processing of proteins through the secretory pathway. A reporter protein Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) shows a reduced rate of secretion in primary fibroblasts from DYT1 patients expressing endogenous levels of torsinA and torsinAΔE when compared with control fibroblasts expressing only torsinA. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides were identified, which downregulate the levels of torsinA or torsinAΔE mRNA and protein by over 65% following transfection. Transfection of siRNA for torsinA message in control fibroblasts expressing Gluc reduced levels of luciferase secretion compared with the same cells non-transfected or transfected with a non-specific siRNA. Transfection of siRNA selectively inhibiting torsinAΔE message in DYT fibroblasts increased lucifer-ase secretion when compared with cells non-transfected or transfected with a non-specific siRNA. Further, transduction of DYT1 cells with a lentivirus vector expressing torsinA, but not torsinB, also increased secretion. These studies are consistent with a role for torsinA as an ER chaperone affecting processing of proteins through the secretory pathway and indicate that torsinAΔE acts to inhibit this torsinA activity. The ability of allele-specific siRNA for torsinAΔE to normalize secretory function in DYT1 patient cells supports its potential role as a therapeutic agent in early onset torsion dystonia.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddn032
PMCID: PMC2861568  PMID: 18258738
6.  siRNA knock-down of mutant torsinA restores processing through secretory pathway in DYT1 dystonia cells 
Human Molecular Genetics  2008;17(10):1436-1445.
Most cases of the dominantly inherited movement disorder, early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1) are caused by a mutant form of torsinA lacking a glutamic acid residue in the C-terminal region (torsinAΔE). TorsinA is an AAA+ protein located predominantly in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope apparently involved in membrane structure/movement and processing of proteins through the secretory pathway. A reporter protein Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) shows a reduced rate of secretion in primary fibroblasts from DYT1 patients expressing endogenous levels of torsinA and torsinAΔE when compared with control fibroblasts expressing only torsinA. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides were identified, which downregulate the levels of torsinA or torsinAΔE mRNA and protein by over 65% following transfection. Transfection of siRNA for torsinA message in control fibroblasts expressing Gluc reduced levels of luciferase secretion compared with the same cells non-transfected or transfected with a non-specific siRNA. Transfection of siRNA selectively inhibiting torsinAΔE message in DYT fibroblasts increased luciferase secretion when compared with cells non-transfected or transfected with a non-specific siRNA. Further, transduction of DYT1 cells with a lentivirus vector expressing torsinA, but not torsinB, also increased secretion. These studies are consistent with a role for torsinA as an ER chaperone affecting processing of proteins through the secretory pathway and indicate that torsinAΔE acts to inhibit this torsinA activity. The ability of allele-specific siRNA for torsinAΔE to normalize secretory function in DYT1 patient cells supports its potential role as a therapeutic agent in early onset torsion dystonia.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddn032
PMCID: PMC2861568  PMID: 18258738
7.  siRNA Down-regulation of the PATZ1 Gene in Human Glioma Cells Increases Their Sensitivity to Apoptotic Stimuli 
Cancer therapy  2008;6(B):865-876.
Summary
The PATZ1 gene encodes a transcription factor that belongs to the BTB/POZ group of transcriptional regulators and has been implicated as a transcriptional repressor. We cloned cDNA from glioma cell lines and found they expressed transcript variant 2 of PATZ1. We designed a specific siRNA against PATZ1 and showed that this siRNA, but not a control randomized siRNA, reduced PATZ1 expression in glioma cells as determined by quantitative PCR. In a panel of human glioma cell lines incubated with proapoptotic FasL, those transfected with PATZ1 siRNA displayed reduced cell numbers by the MTT colorimetric assay, relative to those transfected with randomized siRNA. Further studies showed that in 10-08-MG, U-251MG, U-87MG, and T98G cells PATZ1 siRNA significantly increased apoptosis in response to incubation with soluble FasL, as shown by a morphologic acridine orange/ethidium bromide apoptotic assay. Using an apoptosis specific cDNA microarray we further demonstrated that down-regulation of PATZ1 by siRNA resulted in the upregulation of death receptor pro-apoptotic genes including caspase 8 and Death Receptor 5 (DR5) in U-373MG cells. Since DR5 is the receptor for TRAIL we tested whether PATZ1 downregulation also sensitized cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and found that PATZ1 siRNA, but not control siRNA, sensitized U-251MG and T98G glioma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Altogether, these data demonstrate a previously unknown role for the transcription factor PATZ1 in conferring resistance to apoptosis and indicate that modulation of PATZ1 expression may be a therapeutic strategy for gliomas.
PMCID: PMC2600477  PMID: 19081762
siRNA; astrocytomas; apoptosis; FasL; TRAIL

Results 1-7 (7)