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1.  TorsinA participates in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation 
Nature communications  2011;2:393.
TorsinA is an AAA+ ATPase located within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope, with a mutant form causing early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1). Here we report a new function for torsinA in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Retro-translocation and proteosomal degradation of a mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTRΔF508) was inhibited by downregulation of torsinA or overexpression of mutant torsinA, and facilitated by increased torsinA. Retro-translocation of cholera toxin was also decreased by downregulation of torsinA. TorsinA associates with proteins implicated in ERAD, including Derlin-1, VIMP, and p97. Further, torsinA reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress in nematodes overexpressing CFTRΔF508, and fibroblasts from DYT1 dystonia patients are more sensitive than controls to endoplasmic reticulum stress and less able to degrade mutant CFTR. Therefore, compromised ERAD function in the cells of DYT1 patients may increase sensitivity to endoplasmic reticulum stress with consequent alterations in neuronal function contributing to the disease state.
doi:10.1038/ncomms1383
PMCID: PMC3529909  PMID: 21750546
dystonia; movement disorder; secretory pathway; retro-translocation; protein degradation; proteosome; cystic fibrosis; cholera toxin
2.  Untethering the Nuclear Envelope and Cytoskeleton: Biologically Distinct Dystonias Arising from a Common Cellular Dysfunction 
Most cases of early onset DYT1 dystonia in humans are caused by a GAG deletion in the TOR1A gene leading to loss of a glutamic acid (ΔE) in the torsinA protein, which underlies a movement disorder associated with neuronal dysfunction without apparent neurodegeneration. Mutation/deletion of the gene (Dst) encoding dystonin in mice results in a dystonic movement disorder termed dystonia musculorum, which resembles aspects of dystonia in humans. While torsinA and dystonin proteins do not share modular domain architecture, they participate in a similar function by modulating a structural link between the nuclear envelope and the cytoskeleton in neuronal cells. We suggest that through a shared interaction with the nuclear envelope protein nesprin-3α, torsinA and the neuronal dystonin-a2 isoform comprise a bridge complex between the outer nuclear membrane and the cytoskeleton, which is critical for some aspects of neuronal development and function. Elucidation of the overlapping roles of torsinA and dystonin-a2 in nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum dynamics should provide insights into the cellular mechanisms underlying the dystonic phenotype.
doi:10.1155/2012/634214
PMCID: PMC3352338  PMID: 22611399
3.  siRNA knock-down of mutant torsinA restores processing through secretory pathway in DYT1 dystonia cells 
Human molecular genetics  2008;17(10):1436-1445.
Most cases of the dominantly inherited movement disorder, early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1) are caused by a mutant form of torsinA lacking a glutamic acid residue in the C-terminal region (torsinAΔE). TorsinA is an AAA1 protein located predominantly in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope apparently involved in membrane structure/movement and processing of proteins through the secretory pathway. A reporter protein Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) shows a reduced rate of secretion in primary fibroblasts from DYT1 patients expressing endogenous levels of torsinA and torsinAΔE when compared with control fibroblasts expressing only torsinA. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides were identified, which downregulate the levels of torsinA or torsinAΔE mRNA and protein by over 65% following transfection. Transfection of siRNA for torsinA message in control fibroblasts expressing Gluc reduced levels of luciferase secretion compared with the same cells non-transfected or transfected with a non-specific siRNA. Transfection of siRNA selectively inhibiting torsinAΔE message in DYT fibroblasts increased lucifer-ase secretion when compared with cells non-transfected or transfected with a non-specific siRNA. Further, transduction of DYT1 cells with a lentivirus vector expressing torsinA, but not torsinB, also increased secretion. These studies are consistent with a role for torsinA as an ER chaperone affecting processing of proteins through the secretory pathway and indicate that torsinAΔE acts to inhibit this torsinA activity. The ability of allele-specific siRNA for torsinAΔE to normalize secretory function in DYT1 patient cells supports its potential role as a therapeutic agent in early onset torsion dystonia.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddn032
PMCID: PMC2861568  PMID: 18258738
4.  siRNA knock-down of mutant torsinA restores processing through secretory pathway in DYT1 dystonia cells 
Human Molecular Genetics  2008;17(10):1436-1445.
Most cases of the dominantly inherited movement disorder, early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1) are caused by a mutant form of torsinA lacking a glutamic acid residue in the C-terminal region (torsinAΔE). TorsinA is an AAA+ protein located predominantly in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope apparently involved in membrane structure/movement and processing of proteins through the secretory pathway. A reporter protein Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) shows a reduced rate of secretion in primary fibroblasts from DYT1 patients expressing endogenous levels of torsinA and torsinAΔE when compared with control fibroblasts expressing only torsinA. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides were identified, which downregulate the levels of torsinA or torsinAΔE mRNA and protein by over 65% following transfection. Transfection of siRNA for torsinA message in control fibroblasts expressing Gluc reduced levels of luciferase secretion compared with the same cells non-transfected or transfected with a non-specific siRNA. Transfection of siRNA selectively inhibiting torsinAΔE message in DYT fibroblasts increased luciferase secretion when compared with cells non-transfected or transfected with a non-specific siRNA. Further, transduction of DYT1 cells with a lentivirus vector expressing torsinA, but not torsinB, also increased secretion. These studies are consistent with a role for torsinA as an ER chaperone affecting processing of proteins through the secretory pathway and indicate that torsinAΔE acts to inhibit this torsinA activity. The ability of allele-specific siRNA for torsinAΔE to normalize secretory function in DYT1 patient cells supports its potential role as a therapeutic agent in early onset torsion dystonia.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddn032
PMCID: PMC2861568  PMID: 18258738

Results 1-4 (4)