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1.  Molecularly Self-Assembled Nucleic Acid Nanoparticles for Targeted In Vivo siRNA Delivery 
Nature nanotechnology  2012;7(6):389-393.
Nanoparticles are employed for delivering therapeutics into cells1,2. However, size, shape, surface chemistry and the presentation of targeting ligands on the surface of nanoparticles can affect circulation half-life and biodistribution, cell specific internalization, excretion, toxicity, and efficacy3-7. A variety of materials have been explored for delivering small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) - a therapeutic agent that suppresses the expression of targeted genes8,9. However, conventional delivery nanoparticles such as liposomes and polymeric systems are heterogeneous in size, composition and surface chemistry, and this can lead to suboptimal performance, lack of tissue specificity and potential toxicity10-12. Here, we show that self-assembled DNA tetrahedral nanoparticles with a well-defined size can deliver siRNAs into cells and silence target genes in tumours. Monodisperse nanoparticles are prepared through the self-assembly of complementary DNA strands. Because the DNA strands are easily programmable, the size of the nanoparticles and the spatial orientation and density of cancer targeting ligands (such as peptides and folate) on the nanoparticle surface can be precisely controlled. We show that at least three folate molecules per nanoparticle is required for optimal delivery of the siRNAs into cells and, gene silencing occurs only when the ligands are in the appropriate spatial orientation. In vivo, these nanoparticles showed a longer blood circulation time (t1/2 ∼ 24.2 min) than the parent siRNA (t1/2 ∼ 6 min).
doi:10.1038/nnano.2012.73
PMCID: PMC3898745  PMID: 22659608
2.  Lipid Nanoparticle Delivery of siRNA to Silence Neuronal Gene Expression in the Brain 
Manipulation of gene expression in the brain is fundamental for understanding the function of proteins involved in neuronal processes. In this article, we show a method for using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) to efficiently silence neuronal gene expression in cell culture and in the brain in vivo through intracranial injection. We show that neurons accumulate these LNPs in an apolipoprotein E–dependent fashion, resulting in very efficient uptake in cell culture (100%) with little apparent toxicity. In vivo, intracortical or intracerebroventricular (ICV) siRNA-LNP injections resulted in knockdown of target genes either in discrete regions around the injection site or in more widespread areas following ICV injections with no apparent toxicity or immune reactions from the LNPs. Effective targeted knockdown was demonstrated by showing that intracortical delivery of siRNA against GRIN1 (encoding GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR)) selectively reduced synaptic NMDAR currents in vivo as compared with synaptic AMPA receptor currents. Therefore, LNP delivery of siRNA rapidly manipulates expression of proteins involved in neuronal processes in vivo, possibly enabling the development of gene therapies for neurological disorders.
doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.65
PMCID: PMC3889191  PMID: 24301867
3.  Influence of Polyethylene Glycol Lipid Desorption Rates on Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of siRNA Lipid Nanoparticles 
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) encapsulating short interfering RNAs that target hepatic genes are advancing through clinical trials, and early results indicate the excellent gene silencing observed in rodents and nonhuman primates also translates to humans. This success has motivated research to identify ways to further advance this delivery platform. Here, we characterize the polyethylene glycol lipid (PEG-lipid) components, which are required to control the self-assembly process during formation of lipid particles, but can negatively affect delivery to hepatocytes and hepatic gene silencing in vivo. The rate of transfer from LNPs to plasma lipoproteins in vivo is measured for three PEG-lipids with dialkyl chains 14, 16, and 18 carbons long. We show that 1.5 mol % PEG-lipid represents a threshold concentration at which the chain length exerts a minimal effect on hepatic gene silencing but can still modify LNPs pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Increasing the concentration to 2.5 and 3.5 mol % substantially compromises hepatocyte gene knockdown for PEG-lipids with distearyl (C18) chains but has little impact for shorter dimyristyl (C14) chains. These data are discussed with respect to RNA delivery and the different rates at which the steric barrier disassociates from LNPs in vivo.
doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.66
PMCID: PMC3894582  PMID: 24345865
drug delivery; hepatocyte; lipid nanoparticles; polyethylene glycol; siRNA; prenatal diagnosis
4.  2′-Fluoro RNA Shows Increased Watson-Crick H-Bonding Strength and Stacking relative to RNA: Evidence from NMR and Thermodynamic Data** 
doi:10.1002/anie.201204946
PMCID: PMC3757553  PMID: 23055396
2'-F RNA; RNA; NMR; hydrogen bonding; stacking; thermodynamics
5.  Promoter RNA links transcriptional regulation of inflammatory pathway genes 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;41(22):10086-10109.
Although many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been discovered, their function and their association with RNAi factors in the nucleus have remained obscure. Here, we identify RNA transcripts that overlap the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) promoter and contain two adjacent binding sites for an endogenous miRNA, miR-589. We find that miR-589 binds the promoter RNA and activates COX-2 transcription. In addition to miR-589, fully complementary duplex RNAs that target the COX-2 promoter transcript activate COX-2 transcription. Activation by small RNA requires RNAi factors argonaute-2 (AGO2) and GW182, but does not require AGO2-mediated cleavage of the promoter RNA. Instead, the promoter RNA functions as a scaffold. Binding of AGO2 protein/small RNA complexes to the promoter RNA triggers gene activation. Gene looping allows interactions between the promoters of COX-2 and phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4A), an adjacent pro-inflammatory pathway gene that produces arachidonic acid, the substrate for COX-2 protein. miR-589 and fully complementary small RNAs regulate both COX-2 and PLA2G4A gene expression, revealing an unexpected connection between key steps of the eicosanoid signaling pathway. The work demonstrates the potential for RNA to coordinate locus-dependent assembly of related genes to form functional operons through cis-looping.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt777
PMCID: PMC3905862  PMID: 23999091
6.  RNA duplexes with abasic substitutions are potent and allele-selective inhibitors of huntingtin and ataxin-3 expression 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;41(18):8788-8801.
Abasic substitutions within DNA or RNA are tools for evaluating the impact of absent nucleobases. Because of the importance of abasic sites in genetic damage, most research has involved DNA. Little information is available on the impact of abasic substitutions within RNA or on RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we examine the effect of abasic substitutions on RNAi and allele-selective gene silencing. Huntington's disease (HD) and Machado Joseph Disease (MJD) are severe neurological disorders that currently have no cure. HD and MJD are caused by an expansion of CAG repeats within one mRNA allele encoding huntingtin (HTT) and ataxin-3 (ATX-3) proteins. Agents that silence mutant HTT or ATX-3 expression would remove the cause of HD or MJD and provide an option for therapeutic development. We describe flexible syntheses for abasic substitutions and show that abasic RNA duplexes allele-selectively inhibit both mutant HTT and mutant ATX-3. Inhibition involves the RNAi protein argonaute 2, even though the abasic substitution disrupts the catalytic cleavage of RNA target by argonaute 2. Several different abasic duplexes achieve potent and selective inhibition, providing a broad platform for subsequent development. These findings introduce abasic substitutions as a tool for tailoring RNA duplexes for gene silencing.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt594
PMCID: PMC3794577  PMID: 23887934
7.  Multivalent Cyclic RGD Conjugates for Targeted Delivery of siRNA 
Bioconjugate chemistry  2011;22(8):1673-1681.
We have designed, synthesized and tested conjugates of chemically modified luciferase siRNA (Luc-siRNA) with bi-, tri- and tetravalent cyclic(arginine-glycine-aspartic) peptides (cRGD) that selectively bind to the αvβ3 integrin. The cellular uptake, subcellular distribution and pharmacological effects of the cRGD conjugated Luc-siRNAs as compared to un-conjugated controls were examined using a luciferase reporter cassette stably transfected into αvβ3 positive M21+ human melanoma cells. The M21+ cells exhibited receptor-mediated uptake of cRGD-siRNA conjugates but not of unconjugated control siRNA. The fluorophore-tagged cRGD-siRNA conjugates were taken up by a caveolar endocytotic route and primarily accumulated in cytosolic vesicles. The bi-, tri- and tetravalent cRGD conjugates were taken up by M21+ cells to approximately the same degree. However, there were notable differences in their pharmacological effectiveness. The tri- and tetravalent versions produced progressive, dose-dependent reductions in luciferase expression, while the bivalent version had little effect. The basis for this divergence of uptake and effect is currently unclear. Nonetheless the high selectivity and substantial ‘knock down’ effects of the multivalent cRGD-siRNA conjugates suggest that this targeting and delivery strategy deserves further exploration.
doi:10.1021/bc200235q
PMCID: PMC3718025  PMID: 21755983
8.  A Small-RNA Enhancer of Viral Polymerase Activity 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(24):13475-13485.
Influenza A virus (IAV) is an unremitting virus that results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Key to the viral life cycle is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a heterotrimeric complex responsible for both transcription and replication of the segmented genome. Here, we demonstrate that the viral polymerase utilizes a small RNA enhancer to regulate enzymatic activity and maintain stoichiometric balance of the viral genome. We demonstrate that IAV synthesizes small viral RNAs (svRNAs) that interact with the viral RdRp in order to promote genome replication in a segment-specific manner. svRNAs localize to the nucleus, the site of IAV replication, are synthesized from the positive-sense genomic intermediate, and interact within a novel RNA binding channel of the polymerase PA subunit. Synthetic svRNAs promote polymerase activity in vitro, while loss of svRNA inhibits viral RNA synthesis in a segment-specific manner. Taking these observations together, we mechanistically define svRNA as a small regulatory enhancer RNA, which functions to promote genome replication and maintain segment balance through allosteric modulation of polymerase activity.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02295-12
PMCID: PMC3503082  PMID: 23035211
10.  Harnessing a Physiologic Mechanism for siRNA Delivery With Mimetic Lipoprotein Particles 
Molecular Therapy  2012;20(8):1582-1589.
Therapeutics based on RNA interference (RNAi) have emerged as a potential new class of drugs for treating human disease by silencing the target messenger RNA (mRNA), thereby reducing levels of the corresponding pathogenic protein. The major challenge for RNAi therapeutics is the development of safe delivery vehicles for small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). We previously showed that cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs (chol-siRNA) associate with plasma lipoprotein particles and distribute primarily to the liver after systemic administration to mice. We further demonstrated enhancement of silencing by administration of chol-siRNA pre-associated with isolated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In this study, we investigated mimetic lipoprotein particle prepared from recombinant apolipoprotein A1 (apoA) and apolipoprotein E3 (apoE) as a delivery vehicle for chol-siRNAs. We show that apoE-containing particle (E-lip) is highly effective in functional delivery of chol-siRNA to mouse liver. E-lip delivery was found to be considerably more potent than apoA-containing particle (A-lip). Furthermore, E-lip–mediated delivery was not significantly affected by high endogenous levels of plasma LDL. These results demonstrate that E-lip has substantial potential as delivery vehicles for lipophilic conjugates of siRNAs.
doi:10.1038/mt.2012.33
PMCID: PMC3412494  PMID: 22850721
11.  Formulation of Small Activating RNA Into Lipidoid Nanoparticles Inhibits Xenograft Prostate Tumor Growth by Inducing p21 Expression 
Application of RNA interference (RNAi) in the clinic has improved with the development of novel delivery reagents (e.g., lipidoids). Although RNAi promises a therapeutic approach at silencing gene expression, practical methods for enhancing gene production still remain a challenge. Previously, we reported that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can activate gene expression by targeting promoter sequence in a phenomenon termed RNA activation (RNAa). In the present study, we investigate the therapeutic potential of RNAa in prostate cancer xenografts by using lipidoid-based formulation to facilitate in vivo delivery. We identify a strong activator of gene expression by screening several dsRNAs targeting the promoter of tumor suppressor p21WAF1/ Cip1 (p21). Chemical modification is subsequently implemented to improve the medicinal properties of the candidate duplex. Lipidoid-encapsulated nanoparticle (LNP) formulation is validated as a delivery vehicle to mediate p21 induction and inhibit growth of prostate tumor xenografts grown in nude mice following intratumoral injection. We provide insight into the stepwise creation and analysis of a putative RNAa-based therapeutic with antitumor activity. Our results provide proof-of-principle that RNAa in conjunction with lipidioids may represent a novel approach for stimulating gene expression in vivo to treat disease.
doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.5
PMCID: PMC3381590  PMID: 23343884
CDKN1A; delivery; gene activation; gene therapy; lipid nanoparticles; prostate cancer; saRNA; siRNA
12.  Systemic RNAi-mediated Gene Silencing in Nonhuman Primate and Rodent Myeloid Cells 
Leukocytes are central regulators of inflammation and the target cells of therapies for key diseases, including autoimmune, cardiovascular, and malignant disorders. Efficient in vivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to immune cells could thus enable novel treatment strategies with broad applicability. In this report, we develop systemic delivery methods of siRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP) for durable and potent in vivo RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing in myeloid cells. This work provides the first demonstration of siRNA-mediated silencing in myeloid cell types of nonhuman primates (NHPs) and establishes the feasibility of targeting multiple gene targets in rodent myeloid cells. The therapeutic potential of these formulations was demonstrated using siRNA targeting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) which induced substantial attenuation of disease progression comparable to a potent antibody treatment in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In summary, we demonstrate a broadly applicable and therapeutically relevant platform for silencing disease genes in immune cells.
doi:10.1038/mtna.2011.3
PMCID: PMC3381593  PMID: 23344621
delivery; immune cell; siRNA
13.  Activation of LDL Receptor (LDLR) Expression by Small RNAs Complementary to a Noncoding Transcript that Overlaps the LDLR Promoter 
Chemistry & biology  2010;17(12):1344-1355.
SUMMARY
Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a cell-surface receptor that plays a central role in regulating cholesterol levels. Increased levels of LDLR would lead to reduced cholesterol levels and contribute to strategies designed to treat hypercholesterolemia. We have previously shown that duplex RNAs complementary to transcription start sites can associate with noncoding transcripts and activate gene expression. Here we show that duplex RNAs complementary to the promoter of LDLR activate expression of LDLR and increase the display of LDLR on the surface of liver cells. Activation requires complementarity to the LDLR promoter and can be achieved by chemically modified duplex RNAs. Promoter-targeted duplex RNAs can overcome repression of LDLR expression by 25-hydroxycholesterol and do not interfere with activation of LDLR expression by lovastatin. These data demonstrate that small RNAs can activate LDLR expression and affect LDLR function.
doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2010.10.009
PMCID: PMC3071588  PMID: 21168770
14.  Mechanisms of single-stranded phosphorothioate modified antisense oligonucleotide accumulation in hepatocytes 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;39(11):4795-4807.
Single-stranded antisense oligonucleotides (SSOs) are used to modulate the expression of genes in animal models and are being investigated as potential therapeutics. To better understand why synthetic SSOs accumulate in the same intracellular location as the target RNA, we have isolated a novel mouse hepatocellular SV40 large T-antigen carcinoma cell line, MHT that maintains the ability to efficiently take up SSOs over several years in culture. Sequence-specific antisense effects are demonstrated at low nanomolar concentrations. SSO accumulation into cells is both time and concentration dependent. At least two distinct cellular pathways are responsible for SSO accumulation in cells: a non-productive pathway resulting in accumulation in lysosomes, and a functional uptake pathway in which the SSO gains access to the targeted RNA. We demonstrate that functional uptake, as defined by a sequence-specific reduction in target mRNA, is inhibited by brefeldin A and chloroquine. Functional uptake is blocked by siRNA inhibitors of the adaptor protein AP2M1, but not by clathrin or caveolin. Furthermore, we document that treatment of mice with an AP2M1 siRNA blocks functional uptake into liver tissue. Functional uptake of SSO appears to be mediated by a novel clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytotic process.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkr089
PMCID: PMC3113586  PMID: 21345934
15.  Effective RNAi-mediated gene silencing without interruption of the endogenous microRNA pathway 
Nature  2007;449(7163):745-747.
Systemic administration of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) effectively silences hepatocyte gene expression in rodents and primates1–3. Whether or not in vivo gene silencing by synthetic siRNA can disrupt the endogenous microRNA (miRNA) pathway remains to be addressed. Here we show that effective target-gene silencing in the mouse and hamster liver can be achieved by systemic administration of synthetic siRNA without any demonstrable effect on miRNA levels or activity. Indeed, siRNA targeting two hepatocyte-specific genes (apolipo-protein B and factor VII) that achieved efficient (~80%) silencing of messenger RNA transcripts and a third irrelevant siRNA control were administered to mice without significant changes in the levels of three hepatocyte-expressed miRNAs (miR-122, miR-16 and let-7a) or an effect on miRNA activity. Moreover, multiple administrations of an siRNA targeting the hepatocyte-expressed gene Scap in hamsters achieved long-term mRNA silencing without significant changes in miR-122 levels. This study advances the use of siRNAs as safe and effective tools to silence gene transcripts in animal studies, and supports the continued advancement of RNA interference therapeutics using synthetic siRNA.
doi:10.1038/nature06179
PMCID: PMC3019095  PMID: 17898712
16.  A combinatorial library of lipid-like materials for delivery of RNAi therapeutics 
Nature biotechnology  2008;26(5):561-569.
The safe and effective delivery of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics remains an important challenge for clinical development. The diversity of current delivery materials remains limited, in part because of their slow, multi-step syntheses. Here we describe a new class of lipid-like delivery molecules, termed lipidoids, as delivery agents for RNAi therapeutics. Chemical methods were developed to allow the rapid synthesis of a large library of over 1,200 structurally diverse lipidoids. From this library, we identified lipidoids that facilitate high levels of specific silencing of endogenous gene transcripts when formulated with either double-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA) or single-stranded antisense 2′-O-methyl (2′-O Me) oligoribonucleotides targeting microRNA (miRNA). The safety and efficacy of lipidoids were evaluated in three animal models: mice, rats and nonhuman primates. The studies reported here suggest that these materials may have broad utility for both local and systemic delivery of RNA therapeutics.
doi:10.1038/nbt1402
PMCID: PMC3014085  PMID: 18438401
17.  Unexpected origins of the enhanced pairing affinity of 2′-fluoro-modified RNA 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;39(8):3482-3495.
Various chemical modifications are currently being evaluated for improving the efficacy of short interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes as antisense agents for gene silencing in vivo. Among the 2′-ribose modifications assessed to date, 2′deoxy-2′-fluoro-RNA (2′-F-RNA) has unique properties for RNA interference (RNAi) applications. Thus, 2′-F-modified nucleotides are well tolerated in the guide (antisense) and passenger (sense) siRNA strands and the corresponding duplexes lack immunostimulatory effects, enhance nuclease resistance and display improved efficacy in vitro and in vivo compared with unmodified siRNAs. To identify potential origins of the distinct behaviors of RNA and 2′-F-RNA we carried out thermodynamic and X-ray crystallographic analyses of fully and partially 2′-F-modified RNAs. Surprisingly, we found that the increased pairing affinity of 2′-F-RNA relative to RNA is not, as commonly assumed, the result of a favorable entropic contribution (‘conformational preorganization’), but instead primarily based on enthalpy. Crystal structures at high resolution and osmotic stress demonstrate that the 2′-F-RNA duplex is less hydrated than the RNA duplex. The enthalpy-driven, higher stability of the former hints at the possibility that the 2′-substituent, in addition to its important function in sculpting RNA conformation, plays an underappreciated role in modulating Watson–Crick base pairing strength and potentially π–π stacking interactions.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1270
PMCID: PMC3082899  PMID: 21183463
18.  A Conformational Transition in the Structure of a 2′-Thiomethyl-Modified DNA Visualized at High Resolution 
Crystal structures of A-form and B-form DNA duplexes containing 2′-S-methyl-uridines reveal that the modified residues adopt a RNA-like C3′-endo pucker, illustrating that the replacement of electronegative oxygen at the 2′-carbon of RNA by sulfur does not appear to fundamentally alter the conformational preference of the sugar in the oligonucleotide context and sterics trump stereoelectronics.
doi:10.1039/b822781k
PMCID: PMC2909737  PMID: 19333476
19.  Modulation of thermal stability can enhance the potency of siRNA 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;38(20):7320-7331.
During RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) assembly the guide (or antisense) strand has to separate from its complementary passenger (or sense) strand to generate the active RISC complex. Although this process was found to be facilitated through sense strand cleavage, there is evidence for an alternate mechanism, in which the strands are dissociated without prior cleavage. Here we show that the potency of siRNA can be improved by modulating the internal thermodynamic stability profile with chemical modifications. Using a model siRNA targeting the firefly luciferase gene with subnanomolar IC50, we found that placement of thermally destabilizing modifications, such as non-canonical bases like 2,4-difluorotoluene or single base pair mismatches in the central region of the sense strand (9–12 nt), significantly improve the potency. For this particular siRNA, the strongest correlation between the decrease in thermal stability and the increase in potency was found at position 10. Controls with stabilized sugar-phosphate backbone indicate that enzymatic cleavage of the sense strand prior to strand dissociation is not required for silencing activity. Similar potency-enhancing effects were observed as this approach was applied to other functional siRNAs targeting a different site on the firefly luciferase transcript or endogenously expressed PTEN.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq568
PMCID: PMC2978349  PMID: 20610434
20.  Effect of chemical modifications on modulation of gene expression by duplex antigene RNAs that are complementary to non-coding transcripts at gene promoters 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;38(15):5242-5259.
Antigene RNAs (agRNAs) are small RNA duplexes that target non-coding transcripts rather than mRNA and specifically suppress or activate gene expression in a sequence-dependent manner. For many applications in vivo, it is likely that agRNAs will require chemical modification. We have synthesized agRNAs that contain different classes of chemical modification and have tested their ability to modulate expression of the human progesterone receptor gene. We find that both silencing and activating agRNAs can retain activity after modification. Both guide and passenger strands can be modified and functional agRNAs can contain 2′F-RNA, 2′OMe-RNA, and locked nucleic acid substitutions, or combinations of multiple modifications. The mechanism of agRNA activity appears to be maintained after chemical modification: both native and modified agRNAs modulate recruitment of RNA polymerase II, have the same effect on promoter-derived antisense transcripts, and must be double-stranded. These data demonstrate that agRNA activity is compatible with a wide range of chemical modifications and may facilitate in vivo applications.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq258
PMCID: PMC2926613  PMID: 20403811
21.  RNA Interference-Mediated Silencing of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Nucleocapsid Defines a Potent Antiviral Strategy▿  
We describe the design and characterization of a potent human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid gene-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), ALN-RSV01. In in vitro RSV plaque assays, ALN-RSV01 showed a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.7 nM. Sequence analysis of primary isolates of RSV showed that the siRNA target site was absolutely conserved in 89/95 isolates, and ALN-RSV01 demonstrated activity against all isolates, including those with single-mismatch mutations. In vivo, intranasal dosing of ALN-RSV01 in a BALB/c mouse model resulted in potent antiviral efficacy, with 2.5- to 3.0-log-unit reductions in RSV lung concentrations being achieved when ALN-RSV01 was administered prophylactically or therapeutically in both single-dose and multidose regimens. The specificity of ALN-RSV01 was demonstrated in vivo by using mismatch controls; and the absence of an immune stimulatory mechanism was demonstrated by showing that nonspecific siRNAs that induce alpha interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha lack antiviral efficacy, while a chemically modified form of ALN-RSV01 lacking measurable immunostimulatory capacity retained full activity in vivo. Furthermore, an RNA interference mechanism of action was demonstrated by the capture of the site-specific cleavage product of the RSV mRNA via rapid amplification of cDNA ends both in vitro and in vivo. These studies lay a solid foundation for the further investigation of ALN-RSV01 as a novel therapeutic antiviral agent for clinical use by humans.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00014-09
PMCID: PMC2737834  PMID: 19506055
22.  Durable protection from Herpes Simplex Virus-2 transmission following intravaginal application of siRNAs targeting both a viral and host gene 
Cell host & microbe  2009;5(1):84-94.
Summary
A vaginal microbicide should prevent pathogen transmission without disrupting tissue barriers to infection. Ideally it would not need to be applied immediately before sexual intercourse, when compliance is a problem. Intravaginal administration of small interfering RNA (siRNA) lipoplexes targeting Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) genes protects mice from HSV-2. However, protection is short-lived and the transfection lipid on its own unacceptably enhances transmission. Here we show that cholesterol-conjugated (chol)-siRNAs without lipid silence gene expression in the vagina without causing inflammation or inducing interferons. A viral siRNA prevents transmission within a day of challenge, whereas an siRNA targeting nectin-1, an HSV-2 receptor, protects for a week, but protection is delayed for a few days until the receptor is down-modulated. Combining siRNAs targeting a viral and host gene protects mice from HSV-2 for a week, irrespective of the time of challenge. Therefore, intravaginal siRNAs could provide sustained protection against viral transmission.
doi:10.1016/j.chom.2008.12.003
PMCID: PMC2654264  PMID: 19154990
23.  A viral microRNA functions as an ortholog of cellular miR-155 
Nature  2007;450(7172):1096-1099.
All metazoan eukaryotes express microRNAs (miRNAs), ∼22 nt regulatory RNAs that can repress the expression of mRNAs bearing complementary sequences1. Several DNA viruses also express miRNAs in infected cells, suggesting a role in viral replication and pathogenesis2. While specific viral miRNAs have been shown to autoregulate viral mRNAs3,4 or downregulate cellular mRNAs5,6, the function of the majority of viral miRNAs remains unknown. Here, we report that the miR-K12−11 miRNA encoded by Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) shows significant homology to cellular miR-155, including the entire miRNA “seed” region7. Using a range of assays, we demonstrate that expression of physiological levels of miR-K12−11 or miR-155 results in the downregulation of an extensive set of common mRNA targets, including genes with known roles in cell growth regulation. Our findings indicate that viral miR-K12−11 functions as an ortholog of cellular miR-155 and has likely evolved to exploit a pre-existing gene regulatory pathway in B-cells. Moreover, the known etiological role of miR-155 in B-cell transformation8-10 suggests that miR-K12−11 may contribute to the induction of KSHV-positive B-cell tumors in infected patients.
doi:10.1038/nature05992
PMCID: PMC2614920  PMID: 18075594
24.  2′-Fluoroarabino- and Arabinonucleic Acid Show Different Conformations, Resulting in Deviating RNA Affinities and Processing of Their Heteroduplexes with RNA by RNase H†‡ 
Biochemistry  2006;45(13):4141-4152.
2′-Deoxy-2′-fluoro-arabinonucleic acid (FANA) and ANA paired to RNA are substrates of RNase H. The conformation of the natural DNA:RNA hybrid substrates appears to be neither A-form nor B-form. Consistent with this the conformations of FANA and ANA were found to be intermediate between the A- and B-forms. However, FANA opposite RNA is preferred by RNase H over ANA, and the RNA affinity of FANA considerably exceeds that of ANA. By investigating the conformational boundaries of FANA and ANA residues in crystal structures of A- and B-form DNA duplexes at atomic resolution, we demonstrate that FANA and ANA display subtle conformational differences. The structural data provide insight into the structural requirements at the catalytic site of RNase H. They also allow conclusions with regard to the relative importance of stereoelectronic effects and hydration as modulators of RNA affinity.
doi:10.1021/bi052322r
PMCID: PMC2553321  PMID: 16566588
25.  Crystal structure, stability and in vitro RNAi activity of oligoribonucleotides containing the ribo-difluorotoluyl nucleotide: insights into substrate requirements by the human RISC Ago2 enzyme 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;35(19):6424-6438.
Short interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes are currently being evaluated as antisense agents for gene silencing. Chemical modification of siRNAs is widely expected to be required for therapeutic applications in order to improve delivery, biostability and pharmacokinetic properties. Beyond potential improvements in the efficacy of oligoribonucleotides, chemical modification may also provide insight into the mechanism of mRNA downregulation mediated by the RNA–protein effector complexes (RNA-induced silencing complex or RISC). We have studied the in vitro activity in HeLa cells of siRNA duplexes against firefly luciferase with substitutions in the guide strand of U for the apolar ribo-2,4-difluorotoluyl nucleotide (rF) [Xia, J. et al. (2006) ACS Chem. Biol., 1, 176–183] as well as of C for rF. Whereas an internal rF:A pair adjacent to the Ago2 (‘slicer’ enzyme) cleavage site did not affect silencing relative to the native siRNA duplex, the rF:G pair and other mismatches such as A:G or A:A were not tolerated. The crystal structure at atomic resolution determined for an RNA dodecamer duplex with rF opposite G manifests only minor deviations between the geometries of rF:G and the native U:G wobble pair. This is in contrast to the previously found, significant deviations between the geometries of rF:A and U:A pairs. Comparison between the structures of the RNA duplex containing rF:G and a new structure of an RNA with A:G mismatches with the structures of standard Watson–Crick pairs in canonical duplex RNA leads to the conclusion that local widening of the duplex formed by the siRNA guide strand and the targeted region of mRNA is the most likely reason for the intolerance of human Ago2 (hAgo2), the RISC endonuclease, toward internal mismatch pairs involving native or chemically modified RNA. Contrary to the influence of shape, the thermodynamic stabilities of siRNA duplexes with single rF:A, A:A, G:A or C:A (instead of U:A) or rF:G pairs (instead of C:G) show no obvious correlation with their activities. However, incorporation of three rF:A pairs into an siRNA duplex leads to loss of activity. Our structural and stability data also shed light on the role of organic fluorine as a hydrogen bond acceptor. Accordingly, UV melting (TM) data, osmotic stress measurements, X-ray crystallography at atomic resolution and the results of semi-empirical calculations are all consistent with the existence of weak hydrogen bonds between fluorine and the H-N1(G) amino group in rF:G pairs of the investigated RNA dodecamers.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkm664
PMCID: PMC2095806  PMID: 17881374

Results 1-25 (36)