To study explores the effect of HLEC on the secreted proteins of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells (SKOV3-PM4) with directional highly lymphatic metastasis.
Supernatants of four groups of cultured cells, namely, SKOV3 (A), SKOV3+HLEC (B), SKOV3-PM4 (C), SKOV3-PM4+HLEC (D), were collected, and their proteins were detected by antibody arrays and iTRAQ-2D-LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF/MS. Significantly differential proteins were further analyzed via bioinformatics and validated in human serums and cell media via ELISA.
Results of antibody arrays and mass spectrometry demonstrated that GRN and VEGFA were upregulated in group C (compared with group A), whereas IGFBP7 and SPARC were downregulated in group D (compared with group C). Comprehensive bioinformatics analysis results showed that IGFBP7 and VEGFA were closely linked to each other. Further validation with serums showed statistical significance in VEGFA and IGFBP7 levels among groups of patients with ovarian cancers, benign tumors, and control groups. Two proteins were upegulated in the first group. VEGFA in the control group was downregulated. For IGFBP, upregulation in the control group and down-regulation in the first group were also observed.
The HLEC microenvironment is closely associated with directional metastasis to lymph nodes and with differential proteins including cell stromal proteins and adhesion factors. The upregulation of VEGFA and GRN and the downregulation of SPARC and IGFBP7 are closely associated with directional metastasis to lymph nodes in EOC cells.
Ovarian cancer; tumor microenvironment; lymphatic metastasis; human lymphatic capillary endothelial cells; secreted proteins
Proper cell-cycle transitions are driven by waves of ubiquitin-dependent degradation of key regulators by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and Skp1-Cullin1-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. But precisely how APC and SCF activities are coordinated to regulate cell-cycle progression remains largely unclear. We previously showed that APC/Cdh1 earmarks the SCF component Skp2 for degradation. Here, we continue to report that SCFβ-TRCP reciprocally controls APC/Cdh1 activity by governing Cdh1 ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Furthermore, we define both cyclin A and Plk1, two well-known Cdh1 substrates, as upstream modifying enzymes that promote Cdh1 phosphorylation to trigger Cdh1 ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by SCFβ-TRCP. Thus, our work reveals a negative repression mechanism for SCF to control APC, thereby illustrating an elegant dual repression system between these two E3 ligase complexes to create the ordered cascade of APC and SCF activities governing timely cell-cycle transitions.
Rosiglitazone (RGL), a synthetic agonist for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), exhibits a potent anti-inflammatory activity by attenuating local infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes in the renal interstitium. To evaluate the mechanisms that account for inhibiting inflammatory cells infiltration, we investigated the effect of RGL on chemokines secretion and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in human renal proximal tubular cells (PTCs). We demonstrated that RGL significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in a dose-dependent manner, without appreciable cytotoxicity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays clearly revealed that, RGL inhibited p65 binding to IL-8/MCP-1 gene promoters in LPS-stimulated PTCs. Interestingly, further experiments showed RGL reversed LPS-induced nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) degradation. In addition, knockdown of protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1), an indispensable small ubiquitin-like modiﬁer (SUMO) ligase, abrogated the effects of RGL on antagonizing LPS-induced IL-8/MCP-1 overexpression and NCoR degradation. These findings suggest that, RGL activates PPARγ SUMOylation, inhibiting NCoR degradation and NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated PTCs, which in turn decrease chemokines expression. The results unveil a new mechanism triggered by RGL for prevention of tubular inflammatory injury.
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently receive immunosuppressive therapy. The immune response in these patients to vaccines has not been well studied. We conducted a prospective, open label study to evaluate the serologic response to influenza vaccine in children with IBD.
Serum was obtained from 146 children and young adults with IBD (96 CD, 47 UC, 3 IC) for baseline influenza titer, immediately followed by immunization with trivalent [A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2), and B/Malaysia/2506/2004 (B)] inactivated influenza vaccine. Subjects returned for repeat titers 3-9 weeks later. Seroprotection against each influenza strain was defined as hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titer ≥40. Patients were categorized as non-immunosuppressed [(NIS), aminosalicylates only, antibiotics only, or no therapy] or immunosuppressed [(IS), any immunosuppressive agent]. IS patients were further subcategorized as: (1) tacrolimus; (2) TNF-alpha inhibitor; (3) immunomodulator; and (4) corticosteroids only.
More patients were seroprotected against strains A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 than B strain (p<0.02), regardless of immunosuppression status. The proportion seroprotected and geometric mean titers at post-vaccination were similar between NIS and IS groups for all three strains. Subanalysis of patients not seroprotected at baseline showed that those receiving anti-TNF therapy were less likely seroprotected against strain B (14%) compared to patients in the NIS group (39%, p=0.025). There were no serious vaccine-associated adverse events.
Influenza vaccination produces a high prevalence of seroprotection in IBD patients, particularly against A strains. The vaccine is well tolerated. Routine influenza vaccination in IBD patients is recommended, irrespective of whether patients receive immunosuppressive medications.
Local anesthetics are used routinely and effectively. However,
many are also known to activate neurotoxic pathways. We tested the neuroprotective
efficacy of ginkgolide B (GB), an active component of Ginkgo biloba, against
ROS-mediated neurotoxicity caused by the local anesthetic bupivacaine.
SH-SY5Y cells were treated with different concentrations of bupivacaine
alone or following preincubation with GB. Pretreatment with GB increased
SH-SY5Y cell viability and attenuated intracellular ROS accumulation, apoptosis,
mitochondrial dysfunction, and ER stress. GB suppressed bupivacaine-induced
mitochondrial depolarization and mitochondria complex I and III inhibition and increased
cleaved caspase-3 and Htra2 expression, which was strongly indicative of activation of
mitochondria-dependent apoptosis with concomitantly enhanced expressions of Grp78,
caspase-12 mRNA, protein, and ER stress. GB also improved ultrastructural changes
indicative of mitochondrial and ER damage induced by bupivacaine. These results implicate
bupivacaine-induced ROS-dependent mitochondria, ER dysfunction, and apoptosis,
which can be attenuated by GB through its antioxidant property.
AIM: To compare efficacy of combined lamivudine (LAM) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) therapy with that of entecavir (ETV) monotherapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related decompensated liver cirrhosis.
METHODS: A total of 120 naïve patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis participated in this study. Sixty patients were treated with combined LAM and ADV therapy (LAM + ADV group), while the other 60 were treated with ETV monotherapy (ETV group) for two years. Tests for liver and kidney function, alpha-fetoprotein, HBV serum markers, HBV DNA load, prothrombin time (PT), and ultrasonography or computed tomography scan of the liver were performed every 1 to 3 mo. Repeated measure ANOVA and the χ2 test were performed to compare the efficacy, side effects, and the cumulative survival rates at 48 and 96 wk.
RESULTS: Forty-five patients in each group were observed for 96 wk. No significant differences in HBV DNA negative rates and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization rates at weeks 48 (χ2 = 2.12 and 2.88) and 96 (χ2 = 3.21 and 3.24) between the two groups were observed. Hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion rate in the LAM + ADV group at week 96 was significantly higher in the ETV group (43.5% vs 36.4%, χ2 = 4.09, P < 0.05). Viral breakthrough occurred in 2 cases (4.4%) by week 48 and in 3 cases (6.7%) by week 96 in the LAM + ADV group, and no viral mutation was detected. In the ETV group, viral breakthrough occurred in 1 case (2.2%) at the end of week 96. An increase in albumin (F = 18.9 and 17.3), decrease in total bilirubin and in ALT (F = 16.5, 17.1 and 23.7, 24.8), reduced PT (F = 22.7 and 24.5), and improved Child-Turcotte-Pugh and the model for end-stage liver disease scores (F = 18.5, 17.8, and 24.2, 23.8) were observed in both groups. The cumulative rates of mortality and liver transplantation were 16.7% (10/60) and 18.3% (11/60) in the LAM + ADV and ETV groups, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Both LAM + ADV combination therapy and ETV monotherapy can effectively inhibit HBV replication, improve liver function, and decrease mortality.
Chronic hepatitis B; Decompensated liver cirrhosis; Lamivudine; Adefovir dipivoxil; Combination therapy; Entecavir
Background and Aims
The association between gallstone disease and coronary artery atherosclerotic disease (CAD) remains unclear. To clarify their relationship, patients with CAD newly diagnosed by coronary angiography were investigated in this cross-sectional study.
The study cohort consisted of 1,270 patients undergoing coronary angiography for the first time between January 2007 and September 2011. Patients with ≥50% diameter stenosis in any major coronary artery on coronary angiography were defined as being CAD positive (n = 766) and those with no stenosis as CAD negative (n = 504). Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between gallstone disease and CAD. The odds ratios (OR) of factors associated with CAD were calculated. In addition, CAD-positive and CAD-negative patients were matched one-to-one by age, gender and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the association between gallbladder disease and CAD was determined.
The prevalence of gallstone disease was significantly higher in CAD-positive than in CAD negative patients (149/766 [19.5%] vs 57/504 [11.3%], P<0.01). Gallstone disease was significantly associated with CAD (adjusted OR = 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–2.31). Following matched pairing of 320 patients per group, gallstone disease remained significantly associated with CAD (adjusted OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.08–2.65).
Gallstone disease is strongly associated with CAD diagnosed by coronary angiography.
We previously showed that L-arginine (Arg) accumulates in colorectal cancer tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which Arg accumulates and determine its biological significance. The concentration of Arg and Citrulline (Cit) in sera and tumor tissues from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The expression of Arg transporters was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarray. We also transfected the colon cancer cell line HCT-116 with siRNA specific for the Arg transporter CAT-1 and measured the induction of apoptosis by flow cytometry and cell proliferation by MTT assay. Consistent with our previous results, serum Arg and Cit concentrations in colorectal cancer patients were significantly lower than those in normal volunteers, while Arg and Cit concentrations in colorectal cancer tissues were significantly higher than in matched adjacent normal colon tissues. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the CAT-1 gene was highly overexpressed in 70.5% of colorectal cancer tissue samples relative to adjacent normal colon tissues in all 122 patients with colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarray confirmed that the expression of CAT-1 was higher in all 25 colorectal cancer tissues tested. CAT-1 siRNA significantly induced apoptosis of HCT-116 cells and subsequently inhibited cell growth by 20–50%. Our findings indicate that accumulation of L-Arg and Cit and cell growth in colorectal cancer tissues is associated with over-expression of the Arg transporter gene CAT-1. Our results may be useful for the development of molecular diagnostic tools and targeted therapy for colorectal cancer.
Brassica juncea, a worldwide cultivated crop plant, produces seeds of different colors. Seed pigmentation is due to the deposition in endothelial cells of proanthocyanidins (PAs), end products from a branch of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. To elucidate the gene regulatory network of seed pigmentation in B. juncea, transcriptomes in seed coat of a yellow-seeded inbred line and its brown-seeded near- isogenic line were sequenced using the next-generation sequencing platform Illumina/Solexa and de novo assembled. Over 116 million high-quality reads were assembled into 69,605 unigenes, of which about 71.5% (49,758 unigenes) were aligned to Nr protein database with a cut-off E-value of 10−5. RPKM analysis showed that the brown-seeded testa up-regulated 802 unigenes and down-regulated 502 unigenes as compared to the yellow-seeded one. Biological pathway analysis revealed the involvement of forty six unigenes in flavonoid biosynthesis. The unigenes encoding dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), leucoantho-cyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) for late flavonoid biosynthesis were not expressed at all or at a very low level in the yellow-seeded testa, which implied that these genes for PAs biosynthesis be associated with seed color of B. juncea, as confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis of these genes. To our knowledge, it is the first time to sequence the transcriptome of seed coat in Brassica juncea. The unigene sequences obtained in this study will not only lay the foundations for insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying seed pigmentation in B.juncea, but also provide the basis for further genomics research on this species or its allies.
Described herein is the efficient synthesis and evaluation of bioactive arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) functionalized polynorbornene based materials for cell adhesion and spreading. Polynorbornenes containing either linear or cyclic RGD peptides were synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) using the well-defined ruthenium initiator [(H2IMes)(pyr)2(Cl)2Ru=CHPh]. The random copolymerization of three separate norbornene monomers allowed for the incorporation of water-soluble polyethylene glycol (PEG) moieties, RGD cell recognition motifs, and primary amines for post-polymerization cross-linking. Following polymer synthesis, thin-film hydrogels were formed by cross-linking with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3), and the ability of these materials to support human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) adhesion and spreading was evaluated and quantified. When compared to control polymers containing either no peptide or a scrambled RDG peptide, polymers with linear or cyclic RGD at varying concentrations displayed excellent cell adhesive properties in both serum-supplemented and serum-free media. Polymers with cyclic RGD side chains maintained cell adhesion and exhibited comparable integrin binding at a 100-fold lower concentration than those carrying linear RGD peptides. The precise control of monomer incorporation enabled by ROMP allows for quantification of the impact of RGD structure and concentration on cell adhesion and spreading. The results presented here will serve to guide future efforts for the design of RGD functionalized materials with applications in surgery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.
polynorbornenes; ROMP; RGD; thin films; HUVEC; cell adhesion
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the major types of chronic inflammatory bowel disease occurring in the colon and small intestine. A growing body of research has proposed that probiotics are able to attenuate the inflammatory symptoms of these diseases in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of probiotic actions remains unclear.
Our results suggested Lactobacillus plantarum MYL26 inhibited inflammation in Caco-2 cells through regulation of gene expressions of TOLLIP, SOCS1, SOCS3, and IκBα, rather than SHIP-1 and IRAK-3.
We proposed that live/ heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum MYL26 and bacterial cell wall extract treatments impaired TLR4-NFκb signal transduction through Tollip, SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 activation, thus inducing LPS tolerance. Our findings suggest that either heat-killed probiotics or probiotic cell wall extracts are able to attenuate inflammation through pathways similar to that of live bacteria.
Lactobacillus plantarum MYL26; Lipopolysaccharide; Caco-2 cells
Rationale and objectives
A fully automated left ventricle segmentation method for the functional analysis of cine short axis (SAX) magnetic resonance (MR) images was developed, and its performance evaluated with 133 studies of subjects with diverse pathology: ischemic heart failure (n=34), non-ischemic heart failure (n=30), hypertrophy (n=32), and healthy (n=37).
Materials and methods
The proposed automatic method locates the left ventricle (LV), then for each image detects the contours of the endocardium, epicardium, papillary muscles and trabeculations. Manually and automatically determined contours and functional parameters were compared quantitatively.
There was no significant difference between automatically and manually determined end systolic volume (ESV), end diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular mass (LVM) for each of the four groups (paired sample t-test, α=0.05). The automatically determined functional parameters showed high correlations with those derived from manual contours, and the Bland-Altman analysis biases were small (1.51 mL, 1.69 mL, –0.02%, –0.66 g for ESV, EDV, EF and LVM, respectively).
The proposed technique automatically and rapidly detects endocardial, epicardial, papillary muscles’ and trabeculations’ contours providing accurate and reproducible quantitative MRI parameters, including LV mass and EF.
Left ventricular ejection fraction; left ventricular mass (LVM); cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; automated border detection; image processing
To retrospectively determine whether inapparent tumor at endorectal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging is a favorable prognostic finding in prostate cancer patients who select active surveillance for management.
Materials and Methods
Committee on Human Research approval was obtained and compliance with HIPAA regulations was observed, with waiver of requirement for written consent. Ninety-two men (mean age, 64 years; range, 43–85 years) were retrospectively identified who had biopsy-proved prostate cancer, who had undergone baseline endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging, and who had selected active surveillance for management. Their mean baseline serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 5.5 ng/mL, and the median Gleason score was 6. Two readers with 10 and 3 years of experience independently reviewed all MR images and determined whether tumor was apparent on the basis of evaluation of established morphologic and metabolic findings. Another investigator compiled data about baseline clinical stage, biopsy findings, and serum PSA measurements. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the clinical parameters and tumor apparency at MR imaging and the biochemical outcome.
At baseline MR imaging, readers 1 and 2 considered 54 and 26 patients, respectively, to have inapparent tumor (fair interobserver agreement; κ = 0.30). During a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 52 patients had a stable PSA level and 40 had an increasing PSA level. In multivariate analysis, no significant association was found between the baseline clinical stage, Gleason score, serum PSA level, or the presence of apparent tumor at endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging for either reader and the biochemical outcome (P > .05 for all).
Endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging findings of tumor apparency or inapparency in prostate cancer patients who select active surveillance for management do not appear to be of prognostic value.
Fatty liver index (FLI) was recently established to predict non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in general population, which is known to be associated with coronary artery atherosclerotic disease (CAD).
This study aims to investigate whether FLI correlates with NAFLD and with newly diagnosed CAD in a special Chinese population who underwent coronary angiography.
Patients with CAD (n = 231) and without CAD (n = 482) as confirmed by coronary angiography were included. Among them, 574 patients underwent B-ultrosonography were divided into NAFLD group (n = 209) and non-NAFLD group (n = 365). Correlation between FLI and NAFLD was analyzed using pearson’s correlation. The associations between FLI and NAFLD as well as CAD were assessed using logistic regression. The predictive accuracy of FLI for NAFLD was evaluated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis.
FLI was significantly higher in NAFLD group (37.10 ± 1.95) than in non-NAFLD group (17.70 ± 1.04), P < 0.01. FLI correlated with NAFLD (r = 0.372, P < 0.001). The algorithm for FLI had a ROC-AUC of 0.721 (95% CI: 0.678–0.764) in the prediction of NAFLD. Logistic regression analysis showed that FLI was associated with NAFLD (adjusted OR = 1.038, 95% CI: 1.029-1.047, P < 0.01). The proportion of patients with CAD did not differ among the groups of FLI ≤ 30 (32.3%), 30-60 (31.0%), and ≥60 (35.3%). No significant association was found between FLI and CAD (adjusted OR = 0.992, 95% CI: 0.981-1.003 in men and OR = 0.987, 95% CI: 0.963-1.012 in women, P > 0.05).
FLI showed good correlation with NAFLD in patients who underwent coronary angiography, but not with newly diagnosed CAD. This might be underestimated because some patients in non-CAD group may have other underlying cardiovascular diseases.
Fatty liver index; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Coronary artery atherosclerotic disease; Coronary angiography
In animal and laboratory models, cancer-associated stroma, or elements of the supporting tissue surrounding a primary tumor, has been shown to be necessary for tumor evolution and progression. However, little is understood or studied regarding the properties of intact stroma in human cancer in vivo. In addition, for breast cancer patients, the optimal volume of local tissue to treat surrounding a primary tumor is not clear. Here, we performed an interdisciplinary study of normal-appearing breast tissue using breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), correlative histology and array comparative genomic hybridization to identify a cancer-associated stroma in humans. Using a novel technique for segmenting breast fibroglandular tissue, quantifiable topographic percent enhancement mapping of the stroma surrounding invasive breast cancer was found to be significantly elevated within 2 cm of the tumor edge. This region was also found to harbor increased microvessel density, and genomic changes that were closely associated with host normal breast tissue. These findings indicate that a cancer-associated stroma may be identified and characterized in human breast cancer using non-invasive imaging techniques. Identification of a cancer-associated stroma may be further developed to help guide local therapy to reduce recurrence and morbidity in breast cancer patients.
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) can be used to noninvasively measure the dielectric state of the cell, and this data can be used to monitor cell health or apoptosis. In this study, we followed events associated with cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C)-induced apoptosis in NB4 cells using DEP analysis. Our data showed that the membrane capacitance of NB4 cells decreases from 9.42 to 7.63 mF/m2 in the first 2 hours following treatment with Ara-C, and that this decreased capacitance persists for >12 hours. Additionally, cytoplasmic conductivity decreases from 0.217 to 0.190 S/m within 2 hours of Ara-C treatment; this level is maintained for a short period of time before decreasing. We also investigated these events molecularly at the level of gene expression using microarray analysis and showed that the expression of genes related to membrane capacitance and cytoplasmic conductivity change dramatically as early as 2 hours post-Ara-C treatment, and further demonstrated a temporal relationship between the dielectric properties and key events in apoptosis. This study, integrating physical electrical properties of the cell membrane and cytoplasm with those of conductivity-related gene networks, provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of apoptosis, establishing a systematic foundation for DEP application in follow-up drug screening and development of medicines for treating leukemia.
apoptosis; dielectrophoresis; gene expression profiling; leukemia
To retrospectively determine if pretreatment endorectal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings are predictive of outcome in patients who undergo external-beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods
Committee on Human Research approval, with waiver of the requirement for informed consent, was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. Eighty men with biopsy-proved prostate cancer (mean age, 59 years; range, 47–75 years) who underwent endorectal MR imaging of the prostate prior to external-beam radiation therapy were retrospectively identified; details of baseline tumor characteristics, treatment, and outcome were recorded. Two experienced readers independently reviewed all MR imaging studies and recorded tumor T stage and the radial diameter of extracapsular extension (if present). Univariate and multivariate stepwise Cox regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between baseline imaging and clinical predictive variables and the end point of metastatic failure.
At MR imaging, readers 1 and 2, respectively, considered 50 and 60 patients to have T1 or T2 disease (ie, organ-confined disease) and 30 and 20 patients to have T3 disease. After a mean follow-up of 43 months, four patients developed metastases. Univariate Cox analysis revealed that baseline serum prostate-specific antigen level, presence of extracapsular extension at MR imaging (according to either reader), and degree of extracapsular extension (according to either reader) were all significantly (P < .05) related to the development of metastases. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that the sole independent predictive variable was mean diameter of extracapsular extension (relative hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval: 1.22, 3.48; P = .007). In particular, three of five patients with extracapsular extension of more than 5 mm at pretreatment MR imaging developed metastases 24, 43, and 63 months after therapy.
The presence and degree of extracapsular extension at MR imaging prior to external-beam radiation therapy are important predictors of posttreatment metastatic recurrence.
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is an endogenous Ca2+ mobilizing nucleotide presented in various species. NAADP mobilizes Ca2+ from acidic organelles through two pore channel 2 (TPC2) in many cell types and it has been previously shown that NAADP can potently induce neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells. Here we examined the role of TPC2 signaling in the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. We found that the expression of TPC2 was markedly decreased during the initial ES cell entry into neural progenitors, and the levels of TPC2 gradually rebounded during the late stages of neurogenesis. Correspondingly, TPC2 knockdown accelerated mouse ES cell differentiation into neural progenitors but inhibited these neural progenitors from committing to neurons. Overexpression of TPC2, on the other hand, inhibited mouse ES cell from entering the early neural lineage. Interestingly, TPC2 knockdown had no effect on the differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of mouse ES cells. Taken together, our data indicate that TPC2 signaling plays a temporal and differential role in modulating the neural lineage entry of mouse ES cells, in that TPC2 signaling inhibits ES cell entry to early neural progenitors, but is required for late neuronal differentiation.
Mutations in the SLC26A4 gene are a common cause of human hereditary hearing impairment worldwide. Previous studies have demonstrated that different SLC26A4 mutations have different pathogenetic mechanisms. By using a genotype-driven approach, we established a knock-in mouse model (i.e., Slc26a4tm2Dontuh/tm2Dontuh mice) homozygous for the common p.H723R mutation in the East Asian population. To verify the pathogenicity of the p.H723R allele in mice, we further generated mice with compound heterozygous mutations (i.e., Slc26a4tm1Dontuh/tm2Dontuh) by intercrossing Slc26a4+/tm2Dontuh mice with Slc26a4tm1Dontuh/tm1Dontuh mice, which segregated the c.919-2A>G mutation with an abolished Slc26a4 function. Mice were then subjected to audiologic assessments, a battery of vestibular evaluations, inner ear morphological studies, and noise exposure experiments. The results were unexpected; both Slc26a4tm2Dontuh/tm2Dontuh and Slc26a4tm1Dontuh/tm2Dontuh mice showed normal audiovestibular phenotypes and inner ear morphology, and they did not show significantly higher shifts in hearing thresholds after noise exposure than the wild-type mice. The results indicated not only the p.H723R allele was non-pathogenic in mice, but also a single p.H723R allele was sufficient to maintain normal inner ear physiology in heterozygous compound mice. There might be discrepancies in the pathogenicity of specific SLC26A4 mutations in humans and mice; therefore, precautions should be taken when extrapolating the results of animal studies to humans.
In this paper, a reflective photonic crystal fiber (PCF) sensor probe for temperature measurement has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The performance of the device depends on the intensity modulation of the optical signal by liquid mixtures infiltrated into the air holes of commercial LMA-8 PCFs. The effective mode field area and the confinement loss of the probe are both proved highly temperature-dependent based on the finite element method (FEM). The experimental results show that the reflected power exhibits a linear response with a temperature sensitivity of about 1 dB/°C. The sensor probe presents a tunable temperature sensitive range due to the concentration of the mixture components. Further research illustrates that with appropriate mixtures of liquids, the probe could be developed as a cryogenic temperature sensor. The temperature sensitivity is about 0.75 dB/°C. Such a configuration is promising for a portable, low-power and all-in-fiber device for temperature or refractive index monitoring in chemical or biosensing applications.
photonic crystal fiber; temperature sensor probe; liquid mixtures; finite element method; cryogenic temperature
Pneumococcal and Salmonella typhi infections are two major diseases for children in developing countries. For typhoid fever, licensed Vi polysaccharide vaccines are ineffective in children <2 year-old. While investigational Vi conjugate vaccines have been shown effective in clinical trials, they are currently only available to restricted areas. Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are highly effective in children, but suffer from some limitations including cost and limited serotype coverage. We have previously shown that a fusion conjugate vaccine, consisting of pneumococcal fusion protein PsaA and pneumolysoid (PdT) conjugated to a polysaccharide, results in enhanced antibody and CD4+ Th17 cell responses as well as protection against pneumococcal colonization and disease in mice. Here we applied this approach to develop a bivalent vaccine against pneumococcus and S. typhi. Two species-conserved pneumococcal antigens (SP1572 or SP2070) were fused to the nonhemolytic pneumolysoid PdT. SP1572-PdT was then conjugated to Vi polysaccharide and SP2070-PdT was conjugated to the pneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide (CWPS; also conserved). Mice immunized with this bivalent conjugate were protected against pneumococcal colonization and sepsis challenges, and made anti-Vi antibody concentrations higher by 40 fold compared to mice that received equimolar mixtures of the antigens. An enhanced killing of Vi-bearing Salmonellae in vitro was demonstrated from plasma of mice that received the fusion conjugate but not the mixture of antigens. Our results support further evaluation of this bivalent immunogen for the prevention of pneumococcal colonization and disease, and of typhoid fever.
Streptococcus pneumoniae; Salmonella typhi; vaccine; Vi polysaccharide
The risks attributed to drug-herb interactions, even when known, are often ignored or underestimated, especially for those involving anti-clotting drugs and Chinese medicines. The aim of this study was to structurally search and evaluate the existing evidence-based data associated with potential drug interactions between anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs and Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and evaluate the documented mechanisms, consequences, and/or severity of interactions.
Methodology and Findings
Information related to anticoagulant/antiplatelet drug-CHM interactions was retrieved from eight interaction-based textbooks, four web resources and available primary biomedical literature. The primary literature searches were conducted in English and/or Chinese from January 2000 through December 2011 using the secondary databases (e.g., PubMed, Airiti Library, China Journal full-text database). The search terms included the corresponding medical subject headings and key words. Herbs or natural products not used as a single entity CHM or in Chinese Medicinal Prescriptions were excluded from further review. The corresponding mechanisms and severity ratings of interactions were retrieved using MicroMedex®, Lexicomp® and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database®. Finally, we found 90 single entity CHMs contributed to 306 documented drug-CHM interactions. A total of 194 (63.4%) interactions were verified for its evidence describing possible mechanisms and severity. Of them, 155 interactions (79.9%) were attributable to pharmacodynamic interactions, and almost all were rated as moderate to severe interactions. The major consequences of these interactions were increased bleeding risks due to the additive anticoagulant or antiplatelet effects of the CHMs, specifically danshen, dong quai, ginger, ginkgo, licorice, and turmeric.
Conventional anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs were documented to have harmful interactions with some commonly used single entity CHMs. For those patients who are taking conventional anti-clotting medications with CHMs for cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, the potential risks of increased bleeding due to drug-CHM interactions should not be ignored.
CD40–CD40 ligand (CD40L) interactions appear to play pathogenic roles in autoimmune disease. Here we quantify CD40 expression on fibrocytes, circulating, and bone marrow–derived progenitor cells. The functional consequences of CD40 ligation are determined since these may promote tissue remodeling linked with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO).
CD40 levels on cultivated fibrocytes and orbital fibroblasts (GOFB) from patients with Graves' disease (GD), as well as fibrocyte abundance, were determined by flow cytometry. CD40 mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR, whereas response to CD40 ligation was measured by Luminex and RT-PCR. Protein kinase B (Akt) and nuclear factor (NF)–kappa B (NF-κB) signaling were determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence.
Basal CD40 expression on fibrocytes is greater than that on GOFB. IFN-γ upregulates CD40 in both cell types and its actions are mediated at the pretranslational level. Fibrocytes produce high levels of cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF-α, IL-8, MCP-1, and RANTES (Regulated on Activation, Normal T Cell Expressed and Secreted) in response to CD40L. IL-6 induction results from an increase in steady state IL-6 mRNA, and is mediated through Akt and NF-κB activation. Circulating CD40+CD45+Col1+ fibrocytes are far more frequent in vivo in donors with TAO compared with healthy subjects.
Particularly high levels of functional CD40 are displayed by fibrocytes. CD40L-provoked signaling results in the production of several cytokines. Among these, IL-6 expression is mediated through Akt and NF-κB pathways. The frequency of circulating CD40+ fibrocytes is markedly increased in patients with TAO, suggesting that this receptor might represent a therapeutic target for TAO.
Engagement of CD40 by CD40 ligand (CD154) provokes IL-6 production in fibrocytes, events that are mediated by Akt and NF-κB pathways. The functional consequences of CD40 ligation may promote tissue activation and remodeling in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.
pH-sensitive liposomes represent an effective gene vector in cancer therapy. However, their use is greatly hampered by their relatively low transfection efficiency. To improve the transfection efficiency of pH-sensitive liposomes, we prepared complexes containing 3β-[N-(N′,N′-dimethylaminoethane) carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol) and dioleoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine (DOPE) liposomes and pH-sensitive liposomes composed of cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS) and DOPE, and evaluated the influence of various factors on plasmid DNA (pDNA) transfection efficiency. All DC-Chol/DOPE liposome/pDNA and pH-sensitive liposome complexes showed similarly potent pH sensitivity. In the presence of serum-containing medium, two optimized complexes of DC-Chol/DOPE liposomes/pDNA and pH-sensitive PEGylated liposomes showed high transfection efficiency of 22.94% and 20.07%, respectively. Notably, DC-Chol/DOPE (2:3) liposomes/pH-sensitive PEGylated (1%) liposome complexes with a charge ratio of 1:1 (m/m [+/−]) showed enhanced accumulation in tumors in vivo. Our results show the influence of various factors on pDNA transfection efficiency in complexes of DC-Chol/DOPE liposomes and pH-sensitive PEGylated liposomes. Understanding of such mechanisms will lead to better design of complexes of DC-Chol/DOPE liposomes and pH-sensitive liposomes for gene therapy.
cationic liposomes; pH-sensitive liposomes; pDNA; transfection; PEGylated
Hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71(EV71) presents a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from mild febrile disease to fatal neurolocal disease. However, the mechanism of virulence is unknown.
We isolated 6 strains of EV71 from HFMD patients with or without neurological symptoms, and sequenced the whole genomes of the viruses to reveal the virulence factors of EV71.
Phylogenetic tree based on VP1 region showed that all six strains clustered into C4a of C4 sub-genotype. In the complete polypeptide, 298 positions were found to be variable in all strains, and three of these positions (ValP814/IleP814 in VP1, ValP1148/IleP1148 in 3A and Ala P1728/Cys P1728/Val P1728 in 3C) were conserved among the strains with neurovirulence, but variable in strains without neurovirulence. In the 5′-UTR region, it showed that the first 10 nucleotides were mostly conserved, however from the 11th nucleotide, nucleotide insertions and deletions were quite common. The secondary structure prediction of 5′-UTR sequences showed that two of three strains without neurovirulence (SDLY11 and SDLY48) were almost the same, and all strains with neurovirulence (SDLY96, SDLY107 and SDLY153) were different from each other. SDLY107 (a fatal strain) was found different from other strains on four positions (CP241/TP241, AP571/TP571, CP579/TP579 in 5′-UTR and TP7335/CP7335 in 3′-UTR).
The three positions (ValP814/IleP814 in VP1, ValP1148/IleP1148 in 3A and Ala P1728/Cys P1728/Val P1728 in 3C), were different between two phenotypes. These suggested that the three positions might be potential virulent positions. And the three varied positions were also found to be conserved in strains with neurovirulence, and variable in strains without neurovirulence. These might reveal that the conservation of two of the three positions or the three together were specific for the strains with neurovirulence. Varation of secondary structure of 5′-UTR, might be correlated to the changes of viral virulence. SDLY107 (a fatal strain) was found different from other strains on four positions, these positions might be related with death.
Enterovirus 71; Virulent determinant; Hand, foot and mouth disease