For more than 2 billion years, microbes have reigned on our planet, evolving or outlasting many obstacles they have encountered. In the 20th century, this trend took a dramatic turn with the introduction of antibiotics and vaccines. Nevertheless, since then, microbes have progressively eroded the effectiveness of previously successful antibiotics by developing resistance, and many infections have eluded conventional vaccine design approaches. Moreover, the emergence of resistant and more virulent strains of bacteria has outpaced the development of new antibiotics over the last few decades. These trends have had major economic and health impacts at all levels of the socioeconomic spectrum – we need breakthrough innovations that could effectively manage microbial infections and deliver solutions that stand the test of time. The application of nanotechnologies to medicine, or nanomedicine, which has already demonstrated its tremendous impact on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, is rapidly becoming a major driving force behind ongoing changes in the antimicrobial field. Here we provide an overview on the current progress of nanomedicine in the management of microbial infection, including diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, drug delivery, medical devices, and vaccines, as well as perspectives on the opportunities and challenges in antimicrobial nanomedicine.
Nanomedicine; Microbial infection; Diagnosis; Therapy; Drug delivery; Medical device; Vaccine
The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between endogenous testosterone concentrations and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men and women with and without type 2 diabetes.
The study comprised 1109 subjects ≥40 years of age (mean age 62 ± 12 years) participating in a baseline survey in Sweden in 1993–94. Information about smoking habits and physical activity was obtained using validated questionnaires. Serum concentrations of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were obtained using radioimmunoassay. Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was based on WHO’s 1985 criteria. Individual patient information on incident AMI was ascertained by record linkage with national inpatient and mortality registers from baseline through 2011.
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes at baseline was 10.0 % in men and 7.5 % in women. During a mean follow-up of 14.1 years (±5.3), there were 74 events of AMI in men and 58 in women. In age-adjusted Cox models, a significant inverse association between concentrations of testosterone and AMI-morbidity was found in men with type 2 diabetes (HR = 0.86 CI (0.75–0.98)). In a final model also including waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and active smoking, the association still remained statistically significant (HR = 0.754 CI (0.61–0.92)).
Low concentrations of testosterone predicted AMI in men with type 2 diabetes independent of other risk factors. Trials with testosterone investigating the effect regarding cardiovascular outcome are still lacking. Future trials in this field should take into account a modification effect of diabetes.
Switchable; thermally responsive; bacteria; ToF-SIMS; Escherichia coli
The goal of this study was to simulate in vitro the spontaneous electrical wave activity associated with retinal development and investigate if such biometrically designed signals can enhance differentiation of mouse retinal progenitor cells (mRPC). To this end, we cultured cells on an electroconductive transplantable polymer, polypyrrole (PPy) and measured gene expression and morphology of the cells. Custom-made 8-well cell culture chambers were designed to accommodate PPy deposited onto indium tin oxide-coated (ITO) glass slides, with precise control of the PPy film thickness. mRPCs were isolated from post-natal day 1 (P1) green fluorescent protein positive (GFP+) mice, expanded, seeded onto PPY films, allowed to adhere for 24 hours, and then subjected to electrical stimulation (100 μA pulse trains, 5 s in duration, once per minute) for 4 days. Cultured cells and non-stimulated controls were processed for immunostaining and confocal analysis, and for RNA extraction and quantitative PCR. Stimulated cells expressed significantly higher levels of the early photoreceptor marker cone-rod homebox (CRX, the earliest known marker of photoreceptor identity), and protein kinase-C (PKC), and significantly lower levels of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Consistently, stimulated cells developed pronounced neuronal morphologies with significantly longer dendritic processes and larger cell bodies than non-stimulated controls. Taken together, the experimental evidence shows that the application of an electrical stimulation designed based on retinal development can be implemented to direct and enhance retinal differentiation of mRPCs, suggesting a role for biomimetic electrical stimulation in directing progenitor cells toward neural fates.
We report the engineering of a novel lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle (NP) as a robust drug delivery platform, with high drug encapsulation yield, tunable and sustained drug release profile, excellent serum stability, and potential for differential targeting of cells or tissues. The NP is comprised of three distinct functional components: i) a hydrophobic polymeric core where poorly water-soluble drugs can be encapsulated; ii) a hydrophilic polymeric shell with anti-biofouling properties to enhance NP stability and systemic circulation half-life; and iii) a lipid monolayer at the interface of the core and the shell that acts as a molecular fence to promote drug retention inside the polymeric core, thereby enhancing drug encapsulation efficiency, increasing drug loading yield, and controlling drug release. The NP is prepared by self-assembly through a single-step nanoprecipitation method in a reproducible and predictable manner, making it potentially suitable for scale-up
polymeric nanoparticles; liposome; self-assembly; nanoprecipitation; drug delivery
Particle size, stiffness and surface functionality are important in determining the injection site, safety and efficacy of injectable soft-tissue fillers. Methods to produce soft injectable biomaterials with controlled particle characteristics are therefore desirable. Here we report a method based on suspension photopolymerization and semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) to synthesize soft, functionalizable, spherical hydrogel microparticles (MP) of independently tunable size and stiffness. MP were prepared using acrylated forms of polyethylene glycol (PEG), gelatin and hyaluronic acid. Semi-IPN MP of PEG-diacrylate and PEG were used to study the effect of process parameters on particle characteristics. The process parameters were systematically varied to produce MP with size ranging from 115 to 515 μm and stiffness ranging from 190 to 1600 Pa. In vitro studies showed that the MP thus prepared were cytocompatible. The ratio and identity of the polymers used to make the semi-IPN MP were varied to control their stiffness and to introduce amine groups for potential functionalization. Slow-release polymeric particles loaded with Rhodamine or dexamethasone were incorporated in the MP as a proof-of-principle of drug incorporation and release from the MP. This work has implications in preparing injectable biomaterials of natural or synthetic polymers for applications as soft-tissue fillers.
Soft-tissue filler; Hydrogel; Microparticles; Suspension photopolymerization
Iron–sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential for mitochondrial metabolism, but their regulation in pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains enigmatic. We demonstrate that alterations of the miR-210-ISCU1/2 axis cause Fe-S deficiencies in vivo and promote PH. In pulmonary vascular cells and particularly endothelium, hypoxic induction of miR-210 and repression of the miR-210 targets ISCU1/2 down-regulated Fe-S levels. In mouse and human vascular and endothelial tissue affected by PH, miR-210 was elevated accompanied by decreased ISCU1/2 and Fe-S integrity. In mice, miR-210 repressed ISCU1/2 and promoted PH. Mice deficient in miR-210, via genetic/pharmacologic means or via an endothelial-specific manner, displayed increased ISCU1/2 and were resistant to Fe-S-dependent pathophenotypes and PH. Similar to hypoxia or miR-210 overexpression, ISCU1/2 knockdown also promoted PH. Finally, cardiopulmonary exercise testing of a woman with homozygous ISCU mutations revealed exercise-induced pulmonary vascular dysfunction. Thus, driven by acquired (hypoxia) or genetic causes, the miR-210-ISCU1/2 regulatory axis is a pathogenic lynchpin causing Fe-S deficiency and PH. These findings carry broad translational implications for defining the metabolic origins of PH and potentially other metabolic diseases sharing similar underpinnings.
endothelial; iron–sulfur; metabolism; microRNA; mitochondria
B-cells are promising candidate autologous antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to prime antigen-specific T-cells both in vitro and in vivo. However to date, a significant barrier to utilizing B-cells as APCs is their low capacity for non-specific antigen uptake compared to “professional” APCs such as dendritic cells. Here we utilize a microfluidic device that employs many parallel channels to pass single cells through narrow constrictions in high throughput. This microscale “cell squeezing” process creates transient pores in the plasma membrane, enabling intracellular delivery of whole proteins from the surrounding medium into B-cells via mechano-poration. We demonstrate that both resting and activated B-cells process and present antigens delivered via mechano-poration exclusively to antigen-specific CD8+T-cells, and not CD4+T-cells. Squeezed B-cells primed and expanded large numbers of effector CD8+T-cells in vitro that produced effector cytokines critical to cytolytic function, including granzyme B and interferon-γ. Finally, antigen-loaded B-cells were also able to prime antigen-specific CD8+T-cells in vivo when adoptively transferred into mice. Altogether, these data demonstrate crucial proof-of-concept for mechano-poration as an enabling technology for B-cell antigen loading, priming of antigen-specific CD8+T-cells, and decoupling of antigen uptake from B-cell activation.
Augmentation of immunogenicity can be achieved by particulate delivery of an antigen and by its co-administration with an adjuvant. However, many adjuvants initiate strong systemic inflammatory reactions in vivo, leading to potential adverse events and safety concerns. We have developed a synthetic vaccine particle (SVP) technology that enables co-encapsulation of antigen with potent adjuvants. We demonstrate that co-delivery of an antigen with a TLR7/8 or TLR9 agonist in synthetic polymer nanoparticles results in a strong augmentation of humoral and cellular immune responses with minimal systemic production of inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, antigen encapsulated into nanoparticles and admixed with free TLR7/8 agonist leads to lower immunogenicity and rapid induction of high levels of inflammatory cytokines in the serum (e.g., TNF-α and IL-6 levels are 50- to 200-fold higher upon injection of free resiquimod (R848) than of nanoparticle-encapsulated R848). Conversely, local immune stimulation as evidenced by cellular infiltration of draining lymph nodes and by intranodal cytokine production was more pronounced and persisted longer when SVP-encapsulated TLR agonists were used. The strong local immune activation achieved using a modular self-assembling nanoparticle platform markedly enhanced immunogenicity and was equally effective whether antigen and adjuvant were co-encapsulated in a single nanoparticle formulation or co-delivered in two separate nanoparticles. Moreover, particle encapsulation enabled the utilization of CpG oligonucleotides with the natural phosphodiester backbone, which are otherwise rapidly hydrolyzed by nucleases in vivo. The use of SVP may enable clinical use of potent TLR agonists as vaccine adjuvants for indications where cellular immunity or robust humoral responses are required.
Synthetic nanoparticle vaccine; TLR agonist; Adjuvant; CpG; R848; Resiquimod
High-throughput production of nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled quality is critical for their clinical translation into effective nanomedicines for diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we report a simple and versatile coaxial turbulent jet mixer that can synthesize a variety of NPs at high throughput up to 3 kg/d, while maintaining the advantages of homogeneity, reproducibility, and tunability that are normally accessible only in specialized microscale mixing devices. The device fabrication does not require specialized machining and is easy to operate. As one example, we show reproducible, high-throughput formulation of siRNA-polyelectrolyte polyplex NPs that exhibit effective gene knockdown but exhibit significant dependence on batch size when formulated using conventional methods. The coaxial turbulent jet mixer can accelerate the development of nanomedicines by providing a robust and versatile platform for preparation of NPs at throughputs suitable for in vivo studies, clinical trials, and industrial-scale production.
nanoparticles; mixer; turbulent jet; nanomedicine; nanoprecipitation; rapid mixing; large-scale; microfluidics
A new class of material resistant to bacterial attachment has been discovered that is formed from polyacrylates with hydrocarbon pendant groups. In this study, the relationship between the nature of the hydrocarbon moiety and resistance to bacteria is explored, comparing cyclic, aromatic, and linear chemical groups. A correlation is shown between bacterial attachment and a parameter derived from the partition coefficient and the number of rotatable bonds of the materials' pendant groups. This correlation is applicable to 86% of the hydrocarbon pendant moieties surveyed, quantitatively supporting the previous qualitative observation that bacteria are repelled from poly(meth)acrylates containing a hydrophilic ester group when the pendant group is both rigid and hydrophobic. This insight will help inform and predict the further development of polymers resistant to bacterial attachment.
low-fouling; molecular descriptors; polymer microarrays; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; ion mass spectrometry
Primary malignant brain tumors (BT) are the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor. Treatment of BTs is a daunting task with median survival just at 21 months. Methods of localized delivery have achieved success in treating BT by circumventing the blood brain barrier and achieving high concentrations of therapeutic within the tumor. The capabilities of localized delivery can be enhanced by utilizing mircoelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology to deliver drugs with precise temporal control over release kinetics. An intracranial MEMS based device was developed to deliver the clinically utilized chemotherapeutic temozolomide (TMZ) in a rodent glioma model. The device is a liquid crystalline polymer reservoir, capped by a MEMS microchip. The microchip contains three nitride membranes that can be independently ruptured at any point during or after implantation. The kinetics of TMZ release were validated and quantified in vitro. The safety of implanting the device intracranially was confirmed with preliminary in vivo studies. The impact of TMZ release kinetics was investigated by conducting in vivo studies that compared the effects of drug release rates and timing on animal survival. TMZ delivered from the device was effective at prolonging animal survival in a 9L rodent glioma model. Immunohistological analysis confirmed that TMZ was released in a viable, cytotoxic form. The results from the in vivo efficacy studies indicate that early, rapid delivery of TMZ from the device results in the most prolonged animal survival. The ability to actively control the rate and timing of drug(s) release holds tremendous potential for the treatment of BTs and related diseases.
MEMS; Glioma; Microchip; Temozolomide; Drug Delivery; Localized delivery
Intracellular delivery of biomolecules, such as proteins and siRNAs, into primary immune cells, especially resting lymphocytes, is a challenge. Here we describe the design and testing of microfluidic intracellular delivery systems that cause temporary membrane disruption by rapid mechanical deformation of human and mouse immune cells. Dextran, antibody and siRNA delivery performance is measured in multiple immune cell types and the approach’s potential to engineer cell function is demonstrated in HIV infection studies.
Intracellular delivery of materials is a challenge in research and therapeutic applications. Physical methods of plasma membrane disruption have recently emerged as an approach to facilitate the delivery of a variety of macromolecules to a range of cell types. We use the microfluidic CellSqueeze delivery platform to examine the kinetics of plasma membrane recovery after disruption and its dependence on the calcium content of the surrounding buffer (~5min without calcium vs. ~30s with calcium). Moreover, we illustrate that manipulation of the membrane repair kinetics can yield up to 5x improvement in delivery efficiency without significantly impacting cell viability. Membrane repair characteristics initially observed in HeLa cells are shown to translate to primary naïve murine T cells. Subsequent manipulation of membrane repair kinetics also enables the delivery of larger materials, such as antibodies, to these difficult to manipulate cells. This work provides insight into the membrane repair process in response to mechanical delivery and could potentially enable the development of improved delivery methods.
The use of tissue adhesives for internal clinical applications is limited due to a lack of materials that balance strong adhesion with biocompatibility. The use of substrate topography was explored to reduce the volume of a highly reactive and toxic glue without compromising adhesive strength. Micro-textured patches coated with a thin layer of cyanoacrylate glue achieved similar adhesion levels to patches employing large amounts of adhesive, and was superior to the level of adhesion achieved when a thin coating was applied to a non-textured patch. In vivo studies demonstrated reduced tissue inflammation and necrosis for patterned patches with a thinly coated layer of reactive glue, thus overcoming a significant challenge with existing tissue adhesives such as cyanoacrylate. Closure of surgical stomach and colon defects in a rat model was achieved without abdominal adhesions. Harnessing the synergy between surface topography and reactive chemistry enables controlled tissue adhesion with an improved biocompatibility profile without requiring changes in the chemical composition of reactive tissue glues.
wet tissue adhesive; microtextured; biodegradable glue; bioinspired; biocompatibility
Highly stretchable neural interface of concurrent robust electrical and mechanical properties is developed with a conducting polymer film as the sole conductor for both electrodes and leads. This neural interface offers benefits of conducting polymer electrodes in a demanding stretchable format, including low electrode impedance and high charge injection capacity, due to large electroactive surface area of the electrode.
Conducting polymer; polypyrrole; stretchable multielectrode array; conformal; neural interface
Depth resolved and en face OCT visualization in vivo may have important clinical applications in endoscopy. We demonstrate a high speed, two-dimensional (2D) distal scanning capsule with a micromotor for fast rotary scanning and a pneumatic actuator for precision longitudinal scanning. Longitudinal position measurement and image registration were performed by optical tracking of the pneumatic scanner. The 2D scanning device enables high resolution imaging over a small field of view and is suitable for OCT as well as other scanning microscopies. Large field of view imaging for screening or surveillance applications can also be achieved by proximally pulling back or advancing the capsule while scanning the distal high-speed micromotor. Circumferential en face OCT was demonstrated in living swine at 250 Hz frame rate and 1 MHz A-scan rate using a MEMS tunable VCSEL light source at 1300 nm. Cross-sectional and en face OCT views of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract were generated with precision distal pneumatic longitudinal actuation as well as proximal manual longitudinal actuation. These devices could enable clinical studies either as an adjunct to endoscopy, attached to an endoscope, or as a swallowed tethered capsule for non-endoscopic imaging without sedation. The combination of ultrahigh speed imaging and distal scanning capsule technology could enable both screening and surveillance applications.
(170.4500) Optical coherence tomography; (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging; (170.2150) Endoscopic imaging; (170.2680) Gastrointestinal
To date semi-empirical or surrogate modeling has demonstrated great success in the prediction of the biologically relevant properties of polymeric materials. For the first time, a correlation between the chemical structures of poly(β-amino esters) and their efficiency in transfecting DNA was established using the novel technique of logical analysis of data (LAD). Linear combination and explicit representation models were introduced and compared in the framework of the present study. The most successful regression model yielded satisfactory agreement between the predicted and experimentally measured values of transfection efficiency (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.77; mean absolute error, 3.83). It was shown that detailed analysis of the rules provided by the LAD algorithm offered practical utility to a polymer chemist in the design of new biomaterials.
combinatorial library; computational modeling; machine-learning algorithms; polymeric gene delivery; prediction of biological response
Dysfunctional endothelium contributes to more disease than any other tissue in the body. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have the potential to help study and treat endothelial cells in vivo by durably silencing multiple genes simultaneously, but efficient siRNA delivery has so far remained challenging. Here we show that polymeric nanoparticles made of low molecular weight polyamines and lipids can deliver siRNA to endothelial cells with high efficiency, thereby facilitating the simultaneous silencing of multiple endothelial genes in vivo. Unlike lipid or lipid-like nanoparticles, this formulation does not significantly reduce gene expression in hepatocytes or immune cells even at the dosage necessary for endothelial gene silencing. It mediates the most durable non-liver silencing reported to date, and facilitates the delivery of siRNAs that modify endothelial function in mouse models of vascular permeability, emphysema, primary tumour growth, and metastasis. We believe these nanoparticles improve the ability to study endothelial gene function in vivo, and may be used to treat diseases caused by vascular dysfunction.
Currently, there are no clinically approved surgical glues that are nontoxic, bind strongly to tissue, and work well within wet and highly dynamic environments within the body. This is especially relevant to minimally invasive surgery that is increasingly performed to reduce postoperative complications, recovery times, and patient discomfort. We describe the engineering of a bioinspired elastic and biocompatible hydrophobic light-activated adhesive (HLAA) that achieves a strong level of adhesion to wet tissue and is not compromised by preexposure to blood. The HLAA provided an on-demand hemostatic seal, within seconds of light application, when applied to high-pressure large blood vessels and cardiac wall defects in pigs. HLAA-coated patches attached to the interventricular septum in a beating porcine heart and resisted supraphysiologic pressures by remaining attached for 24 hours, which is relevant to intracardiac interventions in humans. The HLAA could be used for many cardiovascular and surgical applications, with immediate application in repair of vascular defects and surgical hemostasis.
In a 1994–1998 cross-sectional study of a multiethnic sample of 2,211 men and women in San Diego, California, the authors estimated prevalence of the major manifestations of chronic venous disease: spider veins, varicose veins, trophic changes, and edema by visual inspection; superficial and deep functional disease (reflux or obstruction) by duplex ultrasonography; and venous thrombotic events based on history. Venous disease increased with age, and, compared with Hispanics, African Americans, and Asians, non-Hispanic Whites had more disease. Spider veins, varicose veins, superficial functional disease, and superficial thrombotic events were more common in women than men (odds ratio (OR) = 5.4, OR = 2.2, OR = 1.9, and OR = 1.9, respectively; p < 0.05), but trophic changes and deep functional disease were less common in women (OR = 0.7 for both; p < 0.05). Visible (varicose veins or trophic changes) and functional (superficial or deep) disease were closely linked; 92.0% of legs were concordant and 8.0% discordant. For legs evidencing both trophic changes and deep functional disease, the age-adjusted prevalences of edema, superficial events, and deep events were 48.2%, 11.3%, and 24.6%, respectively, compared with 1.7%, 0.6%, and 1.3% for legs visibly and functionally normal. However, visible disease did not invariably predict functional disease, or vice versa, and venous thrombotic events occurred in the absence of either.
cross-sectional studies; diagnostic imaging; ethnic groups; population; thrombosis; ultrasonics; veins
Although Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells have been expanded in vitro as organoids, homogeneous culture of these cells has not been possible thus far. Here we show that two small molecules, CHIR99021 and valproic acid, synergistically maintain self-renewal of mouse Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells, resulting in nearly homogeneous cultures. The colony-forming efficiency of cells from these cultures is ~100-fold greater than that of cells cultured in the absence of CHIR99021 and valproic acid, and multilineage differentiation ability is preserved. We made use of these homogeneous cultures to identify conditions employing simultaneous modulation of Wnt and Notch signaling to direct lineage differentiation into mature enterocytes, goblet cells and Paneth cells. Expansion in these culture conditions may be feasible for Lgr5+ cells from the mouse stomach and colon and from the human small intestine. These methods provide new tools for the study and application of multiple intestinal epithelial cell types.
One of the most significant challenges in the development of clinically-viable
delivery systems for RNA interference therapeutics is to understand how molecular
structures influence delivery efficacy. To this end, we synthesized 1400 degradable
lipidoids and evaluated their transfection ability and structure function activity. Here
we show that lipidoid nanoparticles mediate potent gene knockdown in hepatocytes and
immune cell populations upon IV administration to mice (siRNA EC50 values as
low as 0.01 mg/kg). Surprisingly, we identify four necessary and sufficient structural and
pKa criteria that robustly predict the ability of nanoparticles to mediate greater than
95% protein silencing in vivo. Because these efficacy criteria can be dictated
through chemical design, this discovery could eliminate our dependence on time-consuming
and expensive cell culture assays and animal testing. Herein, we identify promising
degradable lipidoids and describe new design criteria that reliably predict in
vivo siRNA delivery efficacy without any prior biological testing.
Taking a nanoparticle (NP) from discovery to clinical translation has been slow compared to small molecules, in part by the lack of systems that enable their precise engineering and rapid optimization. In this work we have developed a microfluidic platform for the rapid, combinatorial synthesis and optimization of NPs. The system takes in a number of NP precursors from which a library of NPs with varying size, surface charge, target ligand density, and drug load is produced in a reproducible manner. We rapidly synthesized 45 different formulations of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) NPs of different size and surface composition, and screened and ranked the NPs for their ability to evade macrophage uptake in vitro. Comparison of the results to pharmacokinetic studies in vivo in mice revealed a correlation between in vitro screen and in vivo behavior. Next, we selected NP synthesis parameters that resulted in longer blood half-life and used the microfluidic platform to synthesize targeted NPs with varying targeting ligand density (using a model targeting ligand against cancer cells). We screened NPs in vitro against prostate cancer cells as well as macrophages, identifying one formulation that exhibited high uptake by cancer cells yet similar macrophage uptake compared to non-targeted NPs. In vivo, the selected targeted NPs showed a 3.5-fold increase in tumor accumulation in mice compared to non-targeted NPs. The developed microfluidic platform in this work represents a tool that could potentially accelerate the discovery and clinical translation of NPs.
Microfluidics; nanoparticle; nanomedicine; rapid synthesis; mixing