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1.  Degradable Lipid Nanoparticles with Predictable In Vivo siRNA Delivery Activity 
Nature communications  2014;5:4277.
One of the most significant challenges in the development of clinically-viable delivery systems for RNA interference therapeutics is to understand how molecular structures influence delivery efficacy. To this end, we synthesized 1400 degradable lipidoids and evaluated their transfection ability and structure function activity. Here we show that lipidoid nanoparticles mediate potent gene knockdown in hepatocytes and immune cell populations upon IV administration to mice (siRNA EC50 values as low as 0.01 mg/kg). Surprisingly, we identify four necessary and sufficient structural and pKa criteria that robustly predict the ability of nanoparticles to mediate greater than 95% protein silencing in vivo. Because these efficacy criteria can be dictated through chemical design, this discovery could eliminate our dependence on time-consuming and expensive cell culture assays and animal testing. Herein, we identify promising degradable lipidoids and describe new design criteria that reliably predict in vivo siRNA delivery efficacy without any prior biological testing.
doi:10.1038/ncomms5277
PMCID: PMC4111939  PMID: 24969323
2.  Harnessing a Physiologic Mechanism for siRNA Delivery With Mimetic Lipoprotein Particles 
Molecular Therapy  2012;20(8):1582-1589.
Therapeutics based on RNA interference (RNAi) have emerged as a potential new class of drugs for treating human disease by silencing the target messenger RNA (mRNA), thereby reducing levels of the corresponding pathogenic protein. The major challenge for RNAi therapeutics is the development of safe delivery vehicles for small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). We previously showed that cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs (chol-siRNA) associate with plasma lipoprotein particles and distribute primarily to the liver after systemic administration to mice. We further demonstrated enhancement of silencing by administration of chol-siRNA pre-associated with isolated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In this study, we investigated mimetic lipoprotein particle prepared from recombinant apolipoprotein A1 (apoA) and apolipoprotein E3 (apoE) as a delivery vehicle for chol-siRNAs. We show that apoE-containing particle (E-lip) is highly effective in functional delivery of chol-siRNA to mouse liver. E-lip delivery was found to be considerably more potent than apoA-containing particle (A-lip). Furthermore, E-lip–mediated delivery was not significantly affected by high endogenous levels of plasma LDL. These results demonstrate that E-lip has substantial potential as delivery vehicles for lipophilic conjugates of siRNAs.
doi:10.1038/mt.2012.33
PMCID: PMC3412494  PMID: 22850721
3.  Systemic RNAi-mediated Gene Silencing in Nonhuman Primate and Rodent Myeloid Cells 
Leukocytes are central regulators of inflammation and the target cells of therapies for key diseases, including autoimmune, cardiovascular, and malignant disorders. Efficient in vivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to immune cells could thus enable novel treatment strategies with broad applicability. In this report, we develop systemic delivery methods of siRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP) for durable and potent in vivo RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing in myeloid cells. This work provides the first demonstration of siRNA-mediated silencing in myeloid cell types of nonhuman primates (NHPs) and establishes the feasibility of targeting multiple gene targets in rodent myeloid cells. The therapeutic potential of these formulations was demonstrated using siRNA targeting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) which induced substantial attenuation of disease progression comparable to a potent antibody treatment in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In summary, we demonstrate a broadly applicable and therapeutically relevant platform for silencing disease genes in immune cells.
doi:10.1038/mtna.2011.3
PMCID: PMC3381593  PMID: 23344621
delivery; immune cell; siRNA
4.  The flounder organic anion transporter fOat has sequence, function, and substrate specificity similarity to both mammalian Oat1 and Oat3 
The flounder renal organic anion transporter (fOat) has substantial sequence homology to mammalian basolateral organic anion transporter orthologs (OAT1/Oat1 and OAT3/Oat3), suggesting that fOat may have functional properties of both mammalian forms. We therefore compared uptake of various substrates by rat Oat1 and Oat3 and human OAT1 and OAT3 with the fOat clone expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These data confirm that estrone sulfate is an excellent substrate for mammalian OAT3/Oat3 transporters but not for OAT1/Oat1 transporters. In contrast, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and adefovir are better transported by mammalian OAT1/Oat1 than by the OAT3/Oat3 clones. All three substrates were well transported by fOat-expressing Xenopus oocytes. fOat Km values were comparable to those obtained for mammalian OAT/Oat1/3 clones. We also characterized the ability of these substrates to inhibit uptake of the fluorescent substrate fluorescein in intact teleost proximal tubules isolated from the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). The rank order of the IC50 values for inhibition of cellular fluorescein accumulation was similar to that for the Km values obtained in fOat-expressing oocytes, suggesting that fOat may be the primary teleost renal basolateral Oat. Assessment of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) genome indicated the presence of a single Oat (zfOat) with similarity to both mammalian OAT1/Oat1 and OAT3/Oat3. The puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes) also has an Oat (pfOat) similar to mammalian OAT1/Oat1 and OAT3/Oat3 members. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses argue that the teleost Oat1/3-like genes diverged from a common ancestral gene in advance of the divergence of the mammalian OAT1/Oat1, OAT3/Oat3, and, possibly, Oat6 genes.
doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00326.2006
PMCID: PMC1832143  PMID: 16857889
OAT1; OAT3; renal; isolated tubules

Results 1-4 (4)