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author:("roizman, bla")
1.  Detection of Antiphosphatidylserine/Prothrombin Antibodies and Their Potential Diagnostic Value 
Antiprothrombin antibodies, measured with phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex (aPS/PT) ELISA, have been reported to be associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). They are currently being evaluated as a potential classification criterion for this autoimmune disease, characterized by thromboses and obstetric complications. Given the present lack of clinically useful tests for the accurate diagnosis of APS, we aimed to evaluate in-house and commercial assays for determination of aPS/PT as a potential serological marker for APS. We screened 156 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases for antibodies against PS/PT, β2-glycoprotein I, cardiolipin and for lupus anticoagulant activity. We demonstrated a high degree of concordance between the concentrations of aPS/PT measured with the in-house and commercial assays. Both assays performed comparably relating to the clinical manifestations of APS, such as arterial and venous thromboses and obstetric complications. IgG aPS/PT represented the strongest independent risk factor for the presence of obstetric complications, among all tested aPL. Both IgG and IgM aPS/PT were associated with venous thrombosis, but not with arterial thrombosis. Most importantly, the association between the presence of IgG/IgM aPS/PT and lupus anticoagulant activity was highly significant. Taken together, aPS/PT antibodies detected with the in-house or commercial ELISA represent a promising serological marker for APS and its subsets.
PMCID: PMC3804042  PMID: 24187565
2.  Gastrointestinal-associated autoantibodies in different autoimmune diseases 
Background: Gastrointestinal (GI)-related autoantibodies (Abs) are rarely evaluated in autoimmune diseases (AID) other than inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune hepatitis and celiac disease. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of these antibodies in a wide spectrum of AID. Methods: We examined 923 serum samples representing 18 AID and compared them with 338 samples from healthy subjects. We used the BioPlex 2200-immunoassay (Bio-Rad, USA) to test samples for the presence of IgA and IgG directed at gliadin (AGA), tissue-transglutaminase (tTG), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA). Results: Prevalence of IgA AGA was significantly higher in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (7.1 %, P=0.012) and in pemphigus vulgaris (25%, P =0.008) patients, as compared with healthy controls. Presence of IgG-AGA was more common among Crohn’s disease (20.5%, P = 0.023) and rheumatoid arthritis (6.5%, P=0.027) patients. IgG anti tTG were frequently observed in APS (6.1%, P=0.012), in giant cell arteritis (11.5%, P=0.013) and in ulcerative colitis (11.1%, P=0.018) patients, and as expected, higher prevalence of ASCA (IgA 19.3% and IgG 27.7%) was found in Crohn’s disease. IgG ASCA were also found in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (4.5%, P=0.01), in Graves’ disease (5.7%, P=0.018), in cryoglobulinemia (7.1%, P=0.006), and in patients with vasculitides (6.5%, P=0.002). In contrast, lower prevalence of IgG type AGA was found in SLE (P=0.034), cryoglobulinemia (P=0.019) and vasculitides (P=0.013) patients. Conclusions: Our findings suggest an association between GI-related- Abs and a wide spectrum of AID. The clinical implication of these findings is yet to be determined.
PMCID: PMC3714189  PMID: 23885314
Gliadin (AGA); tissue-transglutaminase (tTG); Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA); autoantibodies; inflammatory bowel diseases.
4.  Nanoparticles isolated from blood: a reflection of vesiculability of blood cells during the isolation process 
Shedding of nanoparticles from the cell membrane is a common process in all cells. These nanoparticles are present in body fluids and can be harvested by isolation. To collect circulating nanoparticles from blood, a standard procedure consisting of repeated centrifugation and washing is applied to the blood samples. Nanoparticles can also be shed from blood cells during the isolation process, so it is unclear whether nanoparticles found in the isolated material are present in blood at sampling or if are they created from the blood cells during the isolation process. We addressed this question by determination of the morphology and identity of nanoparticles harvested from blood.
The isolates were visualized by scanning electron microscopy, analyzed by flow cytometry, and nanoparticle shapes were determined theoretically.
The average size of nanoparticles was about 300 nm, and numerous residual blood cells were found in the isolates. The shapes of nanoparticles corresponded to the theoretical shapes obtained by minimization of the membrane free energy, indicating that these nanoparticles can be identified as vesicles. The concentration and size of nanoparticles in blood isolates was sensitive to the temperature during isolation. We demonstrated that at lower temperatures, the nanoparticle concentration was higher, while the nanoparticles were on average smaller.
These results indicate that a large pool of nanoparticles is produced after blood sampling. The shapes of deformed blood cells found in the isolates indicate how fragmentation of blood cells may take place. The results show that the contents of isolates reflect the properties of blood cells and their interaction with the surrounding solution (rather than representing only nanoparticles present in blood at sampling) which differ in different diseases and may therefore present a relevant clinical parameter.
Video abstract
PMCID: PMC3225219  PMID: 22128248
nanoparticles; nanovesicles; microparticles; microvesicles; cell–cell communication
5.  Genetic Polymorphisms Modifying Oxidative Stress Are Associated with Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients 
Disease markers  2009;26(1):41-48.
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are involved in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Polymorphisms in genes coding for superoxide dismutases (SOD2 and SOD3), catalase (CAT), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) and inducible NO synthase (NOS2A) may influence RA activity. We determined SOD2 Ala-9Val, SOD3 Arg213Gly, CAT C-262T, TNFA G-308A, TNFA C-857T and NOS2A (CCTTT)n polymorphisms in 327 RA patients. Carriers of CAT -262T and TNFA -308A allele had lower mean disease activity score of 28 joint count (DAS28) values than patients with CAT -262CC and TNFA -308GG genotypes (p = 0.014 and p = 0.046, respectively). Patients with the combination of CAT -262T and TNFA -308A allele had lower mean DAS28 values and a higher probability for low disease activity than non-carriers (p = 0.003, OR = 3.585, 95% CI = 1.538–8.357). Our results suggest that CAT and TNFA polymorphisms alone and in combination influence the activity of RA.
PMCID: PMC3833245  PMID: 19242068
Reactive oxygen species; rheumatoid arthritis; genetic polymorphism; disease activity

Results 1-5 (5)