PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-4 (4)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Antibody Phage Display Assisted Identification of Junction Plakoglobin as a Potential Biomarker for Atherosclerosis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47985.
To date, no plaque-derived blood biomarker is available to allow diagnosis, prognosis or monitoring of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. In this study, specimens of thrombendarterectomy material from carotid and iliac arteries were incubated in protein-free medium to obtain plaque and control secretomes for subsequent subtractive phage display. The selection of nine plaque secretome-specific antibodies and the analysis of their immunopurified antigens by mass spectrometry led to the identification of 22 proteins. One of them, junction plakoglobin (JUP-81) and its smaller isoforms (referred to as JUP-63, JUP-55 and JUP-30 by molecular weight) were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting with independent antibodies to be present in atherosclerotic plaques and their secretomes, coronary thrombi of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and macrophages differentiated from peripheral blood monocytes as well as macrophage-like cells differentiated from THP1 cells. Plasma of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) (n = 15) and ACS (n = 11) contained JUP-81 at more than 2- and 14-fold higher median concentrations, respectively, than plasma of CAD-free individuals (n = 13). In conclusion, this proof of principle study identified and verified JUP isoforms as potential plasma biomarkers for atherosclerosis. Clinical validation studies are needed to determine its diagnostic efficacy and clinical utility as a biomarker for diagnosis, prognosis or monitoring of atherosclerotic vascular diseases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047985
PMCID: PMC3480477  PMID: 23110151
2.  Mechanistic Characterization of GS-9190 (Tegobuvir), a Novel Nonnucleoside Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus NS5B Polymerase▿ 
GS-9190 (Tegobuvir) is a novel imidazopyridine inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication in vitro and has demonstrated potent antiviral activity in patients chronically infected with genotype 1 (GT1) HCV. GS-9190 exhibits reduced activity against GT2a (JFH1) subgenomic replicons and GT2a (J6/JFH1) infectious virus, suggesting that the compound's mechanism of action involves a genotype-specific viral component. To further investigate the GS-9190 mechanism of action, we utilized the susceptibility differences between GT1b and GT2a by constructing a series of replicon chimeras where combinations of 1b and 2a nonstructural proteins were encoded within the same replicon. The antiviral activities of GS-9190 against the chimeric replicons were reduced to levels comparable to that of the wild-type GT2a replicon in chimeras expressing GT2a NS5B. GT1b replicons in which the β-hairpin region (amino acids 435 to 455) was replaced by the corresponding sequence of GT2a were markedly less susceptible to GS-9190, indicating the importance of the thumb subdomain of the polymerase in this effect. Resistance selection in GT1b replicon cells identified several mutations in NS5B (C316Y, Y448H, Y452H, and C445F) that contributed to the drug resistance phenotype. Reintroduction of these mutations into wild-type replicons conferred resistance to GS-9190, with the number of NS5B mutations correlating with the degree of resistance. Analysis of GS-9190 cross-resistance against previously reported NS5B drug-selected mutations showed that the resistance pattern of GS-9190 is different from other nonnucleoside inhibitors. Collectively, these data demonstrate that GS-9190 represents a novel class of nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitors that interact with NS5B likely through involvement of the β-hairpin in the thumb subdomain.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00307-11
PMCID: PMC3165336  PMID: 21746939
3.  GS-9191 Is a Novel Topical Prodrug of the Nucleotide Analog 9-(2-Phosphonylmethoxyethyl)Guanine with Antiproliferative Activity and Possible Utility in the Treatment of Human Papillomavirus Lesions▿  
GS-9191 is a novel double prodrug of the nucleotide analog 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)guanine (PMEG) designed as a topical agent to permeate skin and be metabolized to the active nucleoside triphosphate analog in the epithelial layer. The prodrug was shown to be metabolized intracellularly to 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)-N6-cyclopropyl-2,6,diaminopurine (cPrPMEDAP) and subsequently deaminated to PMEG. The active form, PMEG diphosphate, was shown to be a potent inhibitor of DNA polymerase α and ß while showing weaker activity against mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (50% enzyme inhibition observed at 2.5, 1.6, and 59.4 μM, respectively). GS-9191 was markedly more potent than PMEG or cPrPMEDAP in a series of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cell lines, with effective concentrations to inhibit 50% cell growth (EC50) as low as 0.03, 207, and 284 nM, respectively. In contrast, GS-9191 was generally less potent in non-HPV-infected cells and primary cells (EC50s between 1 and 15 nM). DNA synthesis was inhibited by GS-9191 within 24 h of treatment; cells were observed to be arrested in S phase by 48 h and to subsequently undergo apoptosis (between 3 and 7 days). In an animal model (cottontail rabbit papillomavirus), topical GS-9191 was shown to decrease the size of papillomas in a dose-related manner. At the highest dose (0.1%), cures were evident at the end of 5 weeks, and lesions did not recur in a 30-day follow-up period. These data suggest that GS-9191 may have utility in the treatment of HPV-induced lesions.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00103-09
PMCID: PMC2704673  PMID: 19398642
4.  Chronic Administration of Tenofovir to Rhesus Macaques from Infancy through Adulthood and Pregnancy: Summary of Pharmacokinetics and Biological and Virological Effects▿  
The reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor tenofovir (TFV) is highly effective in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The current report describes extended safety and efficacy data on 32 animals that received prolonged (≥1- to 13-year) daily subcutaneous TFV regimens. The likelihood of renal toxicity (proximal renal tubular dysfunction [PRTD]) correlated with plasma drug concentrations, which depended on the dosage regimen and age-related changes in drug clearance. Below a threshold area under the concentration-time curve for TFV in plasma of ∼10 μg·h/ml, an exposure severalfold higher than that observed in humans treated orally with 300 mg TFV disoproxil fumarate (TDF), prolonged TFV administration was not associated with PRTD based on urinalysis, serum chemistry analyses, bone mineral density, and clinical observations. At low-dose maintenance regimens, plasma TFV concentrations and intracellular TFV diphosphate concentrations were similar to or slightly higher than those observed in TDF-treated humans. No new toxicities were identified. The available evidence does not suggest teratogenic effects of prolonged low-dose TFV treatment; by the age of 10 years, one macaque, on TFV treatment since birth, had produced three offspring that were healthy by all criteria up to the age of 5 years. Despite the presence of viral variants with a lysine-to-arginine substitution at codon 65 (K65R) of RT in all 28 SIV-infected animals, 6 animals suppressed viremia to undetectable levels for as long as 12 years of TFV monotherapy. In conclusion, these findings illustrate the safety and sustained benefits of prolonged TFV-containing regimens throughout development from infancy to adulthood, including pregnancy.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00350-08
PMCID: PMC2533487  PMID: 18573931

Results 1-4 (4)