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1.  Autotaxin expression from synovial fibroblasts is essential for the pathogenesis of modeled arthritis 
Synovial fibroblasts from patients and mice with arthritis express autotaxin, and ablation of autotaxin in fibroblasts ameliorates disease.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a destructive arthropathy characterized by chronic synovial inflammation that imposes a substantial socioeconomic burden. Under the influence of the proinflammatory milieu, synovial fibroblasts (SFs), the main effector cells in disease pathogenesis, become activated and hyperplastic, releasing proinflammatory factors and tissue-remodeling enzymes. This study shows that activated arthritic SFs from human patients and animal models express significant quantities of autotaxin (ATX; ENPP2), a lysophospholipase D that catalyzes the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX expression from SFs was induced by TNF, and LPA induced SF activation and effector functions in synergy with TNF. Conditional genetic ablation of ATX in mesenchymal cells, including SFs, resulted in disease attenuation in animal models of arthritis, establishing the ATX/LPA axis as a novel player in chronic inflammation and the pathogenesis of arthritis and a promising therapeutic target.
doi:10.1084/jem.20112012
PMCID: PMC3348105  PMID: 22493518
2.  Soluble TNF Mediates the Transition from Pulmonary Inflammation to Fibrosis 
PLoS ONE  2006;1(1):e108.
Background
Fibrosis, the replacement of functional tissue with excessive fibrous tissue, can occur in all the main tissues and organ systems, resulting in various pathological disorders. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis is a prototype fibrotic disease involving abnormal wound healing in response to multiple sites of ongoing alveolar epithelial injury.
Methodology/Principal Findings
To decipher the role of TNF and TNF-mediated inflammation in the development of fibrosis, we have utilized the bleomycin-induced animal model of Pulmonary Fibrosis and a series of genetically modified mice lacking components of TNF signaling. Transmembrane TNF expression is shown to be sufficient to elicit an inflammatory response, but inadequate for the transition to the fibrotic phase of the disease. Soluble TNF expression is shown to be crucial for lymphocyte recruitment, a prerequisite for TGF-b1 expression and the development of fibrotic lesions. Moreover, through a series of bone marrow transfers, the necessary TNF expression is shown to originate from the non-hematopoietic compartment further localized in apoptosing epithelial cells.
Conclusions
These results suggest a primary detrimental role of soluble TNF in the pathologic cascade, separating it from the beneficial role of transmembrane TNF, and indicate the importance of assessing the efficacy of soluble TNF antagonists in the treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000108
PMCID: PMC1762410  PMID: 17205112

Results 1-2 (2)