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1.  Decreased Circulating Visfatin Is Associated with Improved Disease Activity in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: Data from the PERAC Cohort 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e103495.
Objective
To evaluate circulating visfatin and its relationship with disease activity and serum lipids in patients with early, treatment-naïve rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Methods
Serum visfatin was measured in 40 patients with early RA before and after three months of treatment and in 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Disease activity was assessed using the Disease Activity Score for 28 joints (DAS28) at baseline and at three and 12 months. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether improved disease activity is related to serum visfatin or a change in visfatin level.
Results
Serum visfatin was significantly elevated in early RA patients compared to healthy controls (1.92±1.17 vs. 1.36±0.93 ng/ml; p = 0.034) and significantly decreased after three months of treatment (to 0.99±0.67 ng/ml; p<0.001). Circulating visfatin and a change in visfatin level correlated with disease activity and improved disease activity over time, respectively. A decrease in visfatin after three months predicted a DAS28 improvement after 12 months. In addition, decreased serum visfatin was not associated with an improved atherogenic index but was associated with an increase in total cholesterol level.
Conclusion
A short-term decrease in circulating visfatin may represent an independent predictor of long-term disease activity improvement in patients with early RA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103495
PMCID: PMC4113419  PMID: 25068448
2.  Resistin in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(3):R111.
Introduction
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the serum levels and local expression of resistin in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies to controls, and to determine the relationship between resistin levels, inflammation and disease activity.
Methods
Serum resistin levels were determined in 42 patients with inflammatory myopathies and 27 healthy controls. The association among resistin levels, inflammation, global disease activity and muscle strength was examined. The expression of resistin in muscle tissues from patients with inflammatory myopathies and healthy controls was evaluated. Gene expression and protein release from resistin-stimulated muscle and mononuclear cells were assessed.
Results
In patients with inflammatory myopathies, the serum levels of resistin were significantly higher than those observed in controls (8.53 ± 6.84 vs. 4.54 ± 1.08 ng/ml, P < 0.0001) and correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (r = 0.328, P = 0.044) and myositis disease activity assessment visual analogue scales (MYOACT) (r = 0.382, P = 0.026). Stronger association was observed between the levels of serum resistin and CRP levels (r = 0.717, P = 0.037) as well as MYOACT (r = 0.798, P = 0.007), and there was a trend towards correlation between serum resistin and myoglobin levels (r = 0.650, P = 0.067) in anti-Jo-1 positive patients. Furthermore, in patients with dermatomyositis, serum resistin levels significantly correlated with MYOACT (r = 0.667, P = 0.001), creatine kinase (r = 0.739, P = 0.001) and myoglobin levels (r = 0.791, P = 0.0003) and showed a trend towards correlation with CRP levels (r = 0.447, P = 0.067). Resistin expression in muscle tissue was significantly higher in patients with inflammatory myopathies compared to controls, and resistin induced the expression of interleukins (IL)-1β and IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in mononuclear cells but not in myocytes.
Conclusions
The results of this study indicate that higher levels of serum resistin are associated with inflammation, higher global disease activity index and muscle injury in patients with myositis-specific anti-Jo-1 antibody and patients with dermatomyositis. Furthermore, up-regulation of resistin in muscle tissue and resistin-induced synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mononuclear cells suggest a potential role for resistin in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies.
doi:10.1186/ar3836
PMCID: PMC3446487  PMID: 22577940
3.  Pentosidine, an Advanced Glycation End-Product, May Reflect Clinical and Morphological Features of Hand Osteoarthritis 
The study investigates pentosidine levels, an advanced glycation end-product, in patients with erosive and non-erosive hand osteoarthritis (HOA) and determine its potential association with clinical findings and imaging-defined joint damage.
Pentosidine was measured by HPLC in serum and urine of 53 females with HOA (31 erosive and 22 non-erosive HOA) and normalised to the total serum protein or urinary creatinine, respectively. Pain, joint stiffness and disability were assessed by the Australian/Canadian OA hand index (AUSCAN). The hand radiographs scored according to the Kallman grading scale were assessed to determine a baseline value and reassessed after two years.
The levels of urine pentosidine, but not of serum pentosidine, were higher in patients with erosive HOA than in non-erosive HOA (p=0.039). Urinary pentosidine correlated with CRP (r=0.302, p=0.031), ESR (r=0.288, p=0.041) and AUSCAN (r=0.408, p=0.003). Serum pentosidine, but not in urine, significantly correlated with the Kallman radiographic score in erosive HOA at the baseline (r=0.409, p=0.022) and after 2 years (r=0.385, p=0.032). However, when corrected for age and disease duration, only correlation between urine pentosidine and AUSCAN remained significant (r=0.397, p=0.004).
Our data suggest that serum and urine pentosidine levels may relate to the distinctive clinical and morphological features of HOA.
doi:10.2174/1874312901206010064
PMCID: PMC3377906  PMID: 22715350
Hand osteoarthritis (HOA); pentosidine; erosive disease; biomarker; radiographs.

Results 1-3 (3)