A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell that has the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have advantages in accessibility and abundance compared to other kinds of stem cells and produce many growth factors and hormones.
We investigated whether ADSC cultured media could be used as a therapy for atopic dermatitis.
ADSC cultured media was topically applied twice daily for 5 days to oxazolone-treated atopic dermatitis-like hairless mice.
Topical application of ADSC cultured media improved the epidermal permeability barrier and keratinocyte differentiation, and restored the predominant Th2 phenotype when compared to vehicle. ADSC cultured media-treated epidermis also showed an increase in the expression of antimicrobial peptides cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide, mouse beta-defensein 3.
Topical ADSC cultured media could be useful in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.
Adipose-derived stem cell; Atopic dermatitis; Oxazolone
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by formation of blisters following minor trauma. It has been traditionally categorized by the level of basement membrane zone separation into EB simplex (EBS), junctional EB (JEB), and dystrophic EB (DEB). Recently, hemidesmosomal EB has been proposed as a fourth category, which includes EB with muscular dystrophy and EB with pyloric atresia. We report here on a case of concomitant occurrence of EB and pyloric atresia, a rare form of EB.
Hemidesmosomal epidermolysis bullosa; Pyloric atresia
Acrodermatitis enteropathica is classified as a congenital autosomal recessive type and an acquired transient type. This disease manifests as acral and periorificial dermatitis, alopecia, intractable diarrhea, and failure to thrive. Whereas the autosomal hereditary type is caused by malabsorption of zinc in the intestine, the acquired type is caused by low nutritional support or decreased peripheral release of zinc from blood. We experienced a case of a 5-month old, breast feeding, full-term female presenting with only acral bullous dermatitis without diarrhea, periorificial dermatitis and an abnormal serum zinc level.
Acrodermatitis enteropathica; Palmoplantar; Zinc
Atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini is a form of dermal atrophy that manifests as either single or multiple, sharply demarcated, hyperpigmented, non-indurated patches. These patches are marked by a slight depression of the skin, with an abrupt edge (i.e., the "cliff-drop" borders), usually located on the backs of adolescents or young adults. The pathophysiology of the disease is unknown, but some authors have suggested a role of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. A 35-year-old woman visited our department because of asymptomatic, hypopigmented, depressed patches on her chest and back lasting for three months. Laboratory evaluations were normal, except for positive serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi. Histologic examination revealed a significantly decreased thickness of the dermis. The patient underwent treatment with oral doxycycline 200 mg/day for six weeks, after which the depth of depression was improved. Herein, we report a case of atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini, associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection, successfully treated with oral doxycycline.
Atrophoderma pasini pierini; Borrelia burgdorferi; Doxycycline
Rosacea is a common chronic cutaneous disorder that primarily occurs on the convex surfaces of the central face and is often characterized by exacerbations and remissions. A case of a 52-yr-old woman visited our clinic in February 2008 complaining typical features of rosacea including multiple pinhead to rice-sized erythematous papules. We applied various conventional treatments including topical benzoyl peroxide and metronidazole as well as oral metronidazole, isotretinoin, and doxycycline. The lesions were not controlled but were rather aggravated by complications from these treatments. Therefore, we prescribed oral azithromycin, which has anti-inflammatory effects and reduces reactive oxygen species. Ten weeks after the administration of oral azithromycin, 500 mg per day for 2 weeks, the lesions had mostly disappeared and no specific side effects related to the azithromycin were noted. Oral azithromycin dosing 500 mg/day for 2 weeks is effective for treatment of intractable rosacea.
Tight junction (TJ) is recognized as a second barrier of the skin. Altered expression of TJ proteins in various skin diseases characterized by the abnormal permeability barrier such as psoriasis suggests that TJ could be affected by stratum corneum (SC) barrier status. However, the physiological relationship between SC and TJ barrier remains to be investigated. Therefore, we examined the effect of SC barrier disruption on the expression of TJ proteins, claudin (Cldn)-1 and Cldn-4, and TJ barrier function in hairless mouse skin. We also investigated whether the alterations in epidermal Ca2+ affected TJ proteins expression in vivo. Repeated tape-stripping induced a sequential change of the expression and function of TJ. As early as 15-30 minutes after tape-stripping, downregulation of Cldn-1 and Cldn-4 immunoreactivity and protein level without change in mRNA level was found. This was accompanied by the abnormal leakage of lanthanum. However, by 1 hour Cldn-1 and Cldn-4 immunolocalization recovered along with normalized lanthanum permeation pattern. Moreover, the mRNA and protein levels of Cldn-1 and Cldn-4 were increased by 1 to 6 hours after tape-stripping. Inhibition of calcium loss by immersion of barrier-disrupted skin into a high Ca2+ solution prevented the dislocation of Cldn-1 and Cldn-4. Occlusion of barrier-disrupted skin delayed the restoration of Cldn-1 and Cldn-4. Our results suggest that the alteration of epidermal Ca2+ gradient caused by SC barrier perturbation affects the TJ structure and function and the faster recovery of TJ as compared to the SC barrier may imply the protective homeostatic mechanism of skin barrier.
Tight junction; claudin-1; claudin-4; calcium gradient; stratum corneum permeability barrier
Tinea incognito (TI) is a dermatophytic infection which has lost its typical clinical appearance because of improper use of steroids or calcineurin inhibitors. The incidence of TI is increasing nowadays. We conducted retrospective review on 283 patients with TI from 25 dermatology training hospitals in Korea from 2002-2010 to investigate the demographical, clinical, and mycological characteristics of TI, and to determine the associated risk factors. More than half (59.3%) patients were previously treated by non-dermatologists or self-treated. The mean duration of TI was 15.0 ± 25.3 months. The most common clinical manifestations were eczema-like lesion, psoriasis-like, and lupus erythematosus-like lesion. The trunk and face were frequently involved, and 91 patients (32.2%) also had coexisting fungal infections. Among 67 isolated strains, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently detected (73.1%). This is the largest study of TI reported to date and the first investigational report concerning TI in Korea. We suggest that doctors should consider TI when a patient has intractable eczema-like lesions accompanied by tinea pedis/unguium. Furthermore, there should be a policy change, which would make over-the-counter high-potency topical steroids less accessible in some countries, including Korea.
Calcineurin Inhibitor; Dermatophytoses; Korea; Steroid; Tinea; Tinea Incognito
Conventional treatment methods for acne vulgaris have various side effects such as the development of bacterial resistance, phototoxicity, vertigo, gastro-intestinal problems, and drug eruptions. To minimize such side effects, light and thermal methods have been alternately suggested. This study characterized a new acne vulgaris treatment device (AVTD) that combines both light and thermal methods and evaluated its clinical efficacy.
We characterized the thermal and light properties of the AVTD itself and evaluated its thermal characteristics in ex vivo porcine skin samples. The Arrhenius equation was used to calculate the skin thermal injury coefficient to confirm the skin safety of the AVTD. Finally, the clinical efficacy of the AVDT was evaluated by analyzing cross-polarization and erythema index images, which were obtained from 13 volunteers undergoing treatment with the AVTD.
The temperature of the AVTD itself was maintained at 49.1 °C on the tip and 39.7 °C in the porcine skin samples. The peak intensity of the light-emitting diode (LED) light was observed at 468 nm. The skin safety of the AVTD was confirmed and 84.2% of the volunteers presented positive treatment results.
The treatment of acne using the AVTD resulted in a high treatment rate in a clinical study, minimizing side effects. On the basis of these results, we can be sure that the AVTD may be effectively used for the treatment of acne vulgaris.
acne vulgaris; Propionibacterium acnes; light; heat; therapy
Digital color image analysis is currently considered as a routine procedure in dermatology. In our previous study, a multimodal facial color imaging modality (MFCIM), which provides a conventional, parallel- and cross-polarization, and fluorescent color image, was introduced for objective evaluation of various facial skin lesions. This study introduces a commercial version of MFCIM, DermaVision-PRO, for routine clinical use in dermatology and demonstrates its dermatological feasibility for cross-evaluation of skin lesions.
Sample images of subjects with actinic keratosis or non-melanoma skin cancers were obtained at four different imaging modes. Various image analysis methods were applied to cross-evaluate the skin lesion and, finally, extract valuable diagnostic information. DermaVision-PRO is potentially a useful tool as an objective macroscopic imaging modality for quick prescreening and cross-evaluation of facial skin lesions.
DermaVision-PRO may be utilized as a useful tool for cross-evaluation of widely distributed facial skin lesions and an efficient database management of patient information.
DermaVision-PRO; Actinic keratosis; Cross-evaluation; Multimodal imaging
Eradication regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection have some side effects, compliance problems, relapses, and antibiotic resistance. Therefore, alternative anti-H. pylori or supportive antimicrobial agents with fewer disadvantages are necessary for the treatment of H. pylori. We investigated the pH-(5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0) and concentration (0.032, 0.064, 0.128, 0.256, 0.514, and 1.024 mg/mL)-dependent antibacterial activity of crude urushiol extract from the sap of the Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes) against 3 strains (NCTC11637, 69, and 219) of H. pylori by the agar dilution method. In addition, the serial (before incubation, 3, 6, and 10 min after incubation) morphological effects of urushiol on H. pylori were examined by electron microscopy. All strains survived only within pH 6.0-9.0. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the extract against strains ranged from 0.064 mg/mL to 0.256 mg/mL. Urushiol caused mainly separation of the membrane, vacuolization, and lysis of H. pylori. Interestingly, these changes were observed within 10 min following incubation with the 1×minimal inhibitory concentrations of urushiol. The results of this work suggest that urushiol has potential as a rapid therapeutic against H. pylori infection by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane.
Urushiol; Helicobacter pylori; Anti-Infective Agents
While glucocorticoids (GC) exert beneficial effects (anti-inflammatory), they also have adverse effects on the epidermis including decreased epidermal differentiation, decreased keratinocyte proliferation, and decreased cutaneous permeability barrier homeostasis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop strategies to prevent these GC toxicities using simultaneous topical treatments in clobetasol-treated mice. While a triple-lipid mixture of stratum-corneum lipids (ceramide, free fatty acid, and cholesterol) was previously shown to reverse the GC-induced abnormality in cutaneous barrier function (Kao, et al. 2003), this lipid mixture did not prevent the GC-induced abnormalities in either keratinocyte proliferation or differentiation. Since activators of PPAR α, β/δ, γ, and LXR, regulate keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation and improve permeability barrier homeostasis, we next assessed the effects of these activators during concurrent GC treatment. Co-application of either ciglitazone (PPAR γ activator), clofibrate (PPARα activator), or 22R (OH) cholesterol (LXR activator) with clobetasol prevented the decrease in involucrin, filaggrin and loricrin expression. In contrast, a PPAR β/δ activator (GW501516) normalized only the expression of involucrin and filaggrin, but not loricrin. Moreover, topical application of PPARα, β/δ, or LXR activators partially prevented the decrease in keratinocyte proliferation in GC-treated murine skin, as measured by PCNA, while no effect was seen after co-treatment with PPAR γ activators. Finally, PPAR γ and PPARβ/δ activators but not PPAR α and LXR activators improved permeability barrier homeostasis in GC treated mice. Together, these studies demonstrate that PPAR and LXR activators can prevent several of the adverse effects of topical GC on the epidermis.
keratinocyte proliferation; epidermal differentiation; permeability barrier; involucrin; loricrin; filaggrin; stratum corneum
Human epidermis elaborates two small cationic, highly hydrophobic antimicrobial peptides (AMP), β-defensin 2 (hBD2), and the carboxypeptide cleavage product of human cathelicidin (hCAP18), LL-37, which are co-packaged along with lipids within epidermal lamellar bodies (LBs) before their secretion. Because of their colocalization, we hypothesized that AMP and barrier lipid production could be coregulated by altered permeability barrier requirements. mRNA and immunostainable protein levels for mBD3 and cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) (murine homologues of hBD2 and LL-37, respectively) increase 1–8 hours after acute permeability barrier disruption and normalize by 24 hours, kinetics that mirror the lipid metabolic response to permeability barrier disruption. Artificial permeability barrier restoration, which inhibits the lipid-synthetic response leading to barrier recovery, blocks the increase in AMP mRNA/protein expression, further evidence that AMP expression is linked to permeability barrier function. Conversely, LB-derived AMPs are also important for permeability barrier homeostasis. Despite an apparent increase in mBD3 protein, CRAMP−/− mice delayed permeability barrier recovery, attributable to defective LB contents and abnormalities in the structure of the lamellar membranes that regulate permeability barrier function. These studies demonstrate that (1) the permeability and antimicrobial barriers are coordinately regulated by permeability barrier requirements and (2) CRAMP is required for permeability barrier homeostasis.
Light scattering in biological tissues can be reduced by using optical clearing agents. Various physical methods in conjunction with agents have been studied to enhance the optical clearing efficacy of skin for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this study, we propose a new physical method to enhance the optical clearing potential of topically applied glycerol. A microneedle roller is used to easily create numerous transdermal microchannels prior to glycerol application. The optical clearing efficacy of skin is quantitatively evaluated with the use of a modulation transfer function target placed underneath ex vivo porcine skin samples. From cross-polarized images acquired at various time points after glycerol application, we find that samples treated with the microneedle roller resulted in an approximately two-fold increase in contrast compared to control samples 30 min after glycerol application. In conclusion, our data suggest that the microneedle roller can be a good physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of optical clearing agents, and hence their optical clearing potential over large regions of skin.
optical clearing agent; microneedle; cross-polarization; quantitative evaluation; penetration enhancement; transdermal delivery
The skin is the first line of defense against microbial infection, and psychological stress (PS) has been shown to have adverse effects on cutaneous barrier function. Here we show that PS increased the severity of group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) cutaneous skin infection in mice; this was accompanied by increased production of endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs), which inhibited epidermal lipid synthesis and decreased lamellar body (LB) secretion. LBs encapsulate antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), and PS or systemic or topical GC administration downregulated epidermal expression of murine AMPs cathelin-related AMP and β-defensin 3. Pharmacological blockade of the stress hormone corticotrophin-releasing factor or of peripheral GC action, as well as topical administration of physiologic lipids, normalized epidermal AMP levels and delivery to LBs and decreased the severity of GAS infection during PS. Our results show that PS decreases the levels of 2 key AMPs in the epidermis and their delivery into LBs and that this is attributable to increased endogenous GC production. These data suggest that GC blockade and/or topical lipid administration could normalize cutaneous antimicrobial defense during PS or GC increase. We believe this to be the first mechanistic link between PS and increased susceptibility to infection by microbial pathogens.
Membranous lipodystrophy represents a peculiar type of fat necrosis that is present in patients with various types of skin disease. It is characterized by the presence of microcysts and macrocysts and is lined by amorphous eosinophilic material with a crenelated arabesque appearance. These findings have been associated with lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus, erythema nodosum, trauma, etc. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman who had a red to purple asymptomatic indurated plaque, approximately seven cm in diameter and on the left arm. She was a chronic hepatitis B antigen carrier and had hypertension for four years. Histopathology of the biopsied lesion showed transepidermal elimination of altered collagen and elastic fibers, as well as membranous lipodystrophy changes. There were hypertensive vascular changes including lymphohistiocytic infiltration around the vascular wall, swelling of endothelial cells, increased thickness of the vascular walls, and narrowing of the lumen. We report a case showing transepidermal elimination with membranous lipodystrophy. We carefully suggest that the secondary phenomenon of transepidermal elimination was associated with membranous lipodystrophy and degenerate connective tissues.
Transepidermal elimination; membranous lipodystrophy; hypertension