This editorial addresses the current challenges and future directions in the use of stem cells as an approach for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A wide variety of literature has been reviewed to enlighten the reader on the many facets of stem cell research that are important to consider before using them for a cell based therapy.
Stem cell therapy; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Current therapies are insufficient, making HCC an intractable disease. Our previous studies confirmed that inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer. Unfortunately, constitutive expression of PP2A in normal tissues limits the application of PP2A inhibition. Thus, a HCC-specific gene delivery system should be developed. The α-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter is commonly used in HCC-specific gene therapy strategies; however, the utility of this approach is limited due to the weak activity of the AFP promoter. It has been shown that linking the AFP enhancer with the promoter of the non-tissue-specific, human housekeeping phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk) gene can generate a strong and HCC-selective promoter.
We constructed a HCC-specific gene therapy system to target PP2A using the AFP enhancer/pgk promoter, and evaluated the efficiency and specificity of this system both in vitro and in vivo.
AFP enhancer/pgk promoter-driven expression of the dominant negative form of the PP2A catalytic subunit α (DN-PP2Acα) exerted cytotoxic effects against an AFP-positive human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B), but did not affect AFP-negative human hepatoma cells (SK-HEP-1) or normal human liver cells (L-02). Moreover, AFP enhancer/pgk promoter driven expression of DN-PP2Acα inhibited the growth of AFP-positive HepG2 tumors in nude mice bearing solid tumor xenografts, but did not affect AFP-negative SK-HEP-1 tumors.
The novel approach of AFP enhancer/pgk promoter-driven expression of DN-PP2Acα may provide a useful cancer gene therapy strategy to selectively target HCC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; AFP; Pgk; PP2A
Gray matter loss in the limbic structures was found in recent onset post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. In the present study, we measured regional gray matter volume in trauma survivors to verify the hypothesis that stress may cause different regional gray matter loss in trauma survivors with and without recent onset PTSD.
High resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained from coal mine flood disaster survivors with (n = 10) and without (n = 10) recent onset PTSD and 20 no trauma exposed normal controls. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method was used to measure the regional gray matter volume in three groups, the correlations of PTSD symptom severities with the gray matter volume in trauma survivors were also analyzed by multiple regression.
Compared with normal controls, recent onset PTSD patients had smaller gray matter volume in left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and non PTSD subjects had smaller gray matter volume in the right pulvinar and left pallidum. The gray matter volume of the trauma survivors correlated negatively with CAPS scores in the right frontal lobe, left anterior and middle cingulate cortex, bilateral cuneus cortex, right middle occipital lobe, while in the recent onset PTSD, the gray matter volume correlated negatively with CAPS scores in bilateral superior medial frontal lobe and right ACC.
The present study identified gray matter loss in different regions in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure. The gray matter volume of left dorsal ACC associated with the development of PTSD, while the gray matter volume of right pulvinar and left pallidum associated with the response to the severe stress. The atrophy of the frontal and limbic cortices predicts the symptom severities of the PTSD.
atypical pestivirus; atypical bovine pestiviruses; pestivirus; Hobi-like pestivirus; viruses; bovine viral diarrhea virus; disease; calves; Italy
Valosin containing protein (VCP) mutations are the cause of hereditary inclusion body myopathy, Paget's disease of bone, frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). VCP gene mutations have also been linked to 2% of isolated familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). VCP is at the intersection of disrupted ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy pathways, mechanisms responsible for the intracellular protein degradation and abnormal pathology seen in muscle, brain and spinal cord. We have developed the homozygous knock-in VCP mouse (VCPR155H/R155H) model carrying the common R155H mutations, which develops many clinical features typical of the VCP-associated human diseases. Homozygote VCPR155H/R155H mice typically survive less than 21 days, exhibit weakness and myopathic changes on EMG. MicroCT imaging of the bones reveal non-symmetrical radiolucencies of the proximal tibiae and bone, highly suggestive of PDB. The VCPR155H/R155H mice manifest prominent muscle, heart, brain and spinal cord pathology, including striking mitochondrial abnormalities, in addition to disrupted autophagy and ubiquitin pathologies. The VCPR155H/R155H homozygous mouse thus represents an accelerated model of VCP disease and can be utilized to elucidate the intricate molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of VCP-associated neurodegenerative diseases and for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis posits that deregulated neural stem cells (NSCs) form the basis of brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM, however, usually forms in the cerebral white matter while normal NSCs reside in subventricular and hippocampal regions. We attempted to characterize CSCs from a rare form of glioblastoma multiforme involving the neurogenic ventricular wall.
We described isolating CSCs from a GBM involving the lateral ventricles and characterized these cells with in vitro molecular biomarker profiling, cellular behavior, ex vivo and in vivo techniques.
The patient’s MRI revealed a heterogeneous mass with associated edema, involving the left subventricular zone. Histological examination of the tumor established it as being a high-grade glial neoplasm, characterized by polygonal and fusiform cells with marked nuclear atypia, amphophilic cytoplasm, prominent nucleoli, frequent mitotic figures, irregular zones of necrosis and vascular hyperplasia. Recurrence of the tumor occurred shortly after the surgical resection. CD133-positive cells, isolated from the tumor, expressed stem cell markers including nestin, CD133, Ki67, Sox2, EFNB1, EFNB2, EFNB3, Cav-1, Musashi, Nucleostemin, Notch 2, Notch 4, and Pax6. Biomarkers expressed in differentiated cells included Cathepsin L, Cathepsin B, Mucin18, Mucin24, c-Myc, NSE, and TIMP1. Expression of unique cancer-related transcripts in these CD133-positive cells, such as caveolin-1 and −2, do not appear to have been previously reported in the literature. Ex vivo organotypic brain slice co-culture showed that the CD133+ cells behaved like tumor cells. The CD133-positive cells also induced tumor formation when they were stereotactically transplanted into the brains of the immune-deficient NOD/SCID mice.
This brain tumor involving the neurogenic lateral ventricular wall was comprised of tumor-forming, CD133-positive cancer stem cells, which are likely the driving force for the rapid recurrence of the tumor in the patient.
Glioblastoma multiforme; Primary tumors; Brain tumor stem cells; Cancer stem cells; Organotypic brain slice culture
rickettsia; Rickettsia raoultii; R. raoultii–like bacteria; Candidatus Rickettsia tibetani; bacteria; spotted fever group; ticks; Dermacentor everestianus; Dermacentor niveus; Tibet; China
A 39-year-old man presented with more than 20 years history of episodic headache and one year history of dizziness, impaired vision and memory disorders. Computed tomography and Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic mass involving the pineal gland, tectum and the third ventricle and obstruction of the aqueduct. Interestingly, the fourth ventricle was not involved in this case. The pathological diagnosis was rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT). These lesions are considered low-grade tumors (WHO grade I). We describe here the fifth reported patient with a pineal gland RGNT and the eighth reported patient with a RGNT outside the fourth ventricle.
MRI; cystic mass; pineal gland; RGNT; fourth ventricle
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an aphthovirus that belongs to the Picornaviridae family and causes one of the most important animal diseases worldwide. The capacity of other picornaviruses to express foreign antigens has been extensively reported, however, little is known about FMDV. To explore the potential of FMDV as a viral vector, an 11-amino-acid (aa) HSV epitope and an 8 aa FLAG epitope were introduced into the C-terminal different regions of 3A protein of FMDV full-length infectious cDNA clone. Recombinant viruses expressing the HSV or FLAG epitope were successfully rescued after transfection of both modified constructs. Immunofluorescence assay, Western blot and sequence analysis showed that the recombinant viruses stably maintained the foreign epitopes even after 11 serial passages in BHK-21 cells. The 3A-tagged viruses shared similar plaque phenotypes and replication kinetics to those of the parental virus. In addition, mice experimentally infected with the epitope-tagged viruses could induce tag-specific antibodies. Our results demonstrate that FMDV can be used effectively as a viral vector for the delivery of foreign tags.
Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogens that impact the health of humans and animals. Few studies have been carried out on Anaplasma infections in central and southern China. This study was conducted to determine the coinfection rates of Anaplasma ovis, A. bovis, and A. phagocytophilum from 262 field blood samples of goats in these regions. The average prevalences of single infection of A. ovis, A. bovis, and A. phagocytophilum were 15.3, 16.0, and 6.1%, respectively. Coinfection of A. ovis and A. bovis was dominant, with an infection rate of 27.1%. Coinfection of A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum was 1.9% and that of A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum was 4.2%. Three-pathogen coinfection was found in three of four investigated provinces with a prevalence between 0 and 5.3%. The accuracy of the PCR results was corroborated by sequencing. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum confirmed the presence of these pathogens at the investigated sites and indicated the possible genetic diversity of A. phagocytophilum. Field blood inoculation of experimental animals led to successful identification and observation of the morphological shapes of A. bovis in the infected monocytes of sheep. Phylogenetic study with msp4 sequences of A. ovis indicated that the A. ovis genotypes from sheep in the north differed from the genotypes of goats in the investigated sites.
Most of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies about post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) focused primarily on measuring of small brain structure volume or regional brain volume changes. There were rare reports investigating cortical thickness alterations in recent onset PTSD. Recent advances in computational analysis made it possible to measure cortical thickness in a fully automatic way, along with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) that enables an exploration of global structural changes throughout the brain by applying statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to high-resolution MRI. In this paper, Laplacian method was utilized to estimate cortical thickness after automatic segmentation of gray matter from MR images under SPM. Then thickness maps were analyzed by SPM8. Comparison between 10 survivors from a mining disaster with recent onset PTSD and 10 survivors without PTSD from the same trauma indicates cortical thinning in the left parietal lobe, right inferior frontal gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus. The regional cortical thickness of the right inferior frontal gyrus showed a significant negative correlation with the CAPS score in the patients with PTSD. Our study suggests that shape-related cortical thickness analysis may be more sensitive than volumetric analysis to subtle alteration at early stage of PTSD.
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a primary etiological agent of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which is a disease of increasing importance to the pig industry worldwide. Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) have gained increasing interest for use in vaccines.
To study the potential of HMSNs for use as a protein delivery system or vaccine carriers. HMSNs were synthesized by a sol–gel/emulsion(oil-in-water/ethanol) method, purified PCV2 GST-ORF2-E protein was loaded into HMSNs, and the resulting HMSN/protein mixture was injected into mice. The uptake and release profiles of protein by HMSNs in vitro were investigated. PCV2 GST-ORF2-E specific antibodies and secretion of IFN-γ were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, spleen lymphocyte proliferation was measured by the MTS method, and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ were determined by flow cytometry.
HMSNs were found to yield better binding capacities and delivery profiles of proteins; the specific immune response induced by PCV2 GST-ORF2-E was maintained for a relatively long period of time after immunization with the HMSN/protein complex.
The findings suggest that HMSNs are good protein carriers and have high potential for use in future applications in therapeutic drug delivery.
Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs); Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2): ORF2; Delivery; Immunization; Mice
A high percentage of patients with the myeloproliferative disorder polycythemia vera (PV) harbor a Val617→Phe activating mutation in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene, and both cell culture and mouse models have established a functional role for this mutation in the development of this disease. We describe the properties of MRLB-11055, a highly potent inhibitor of both the WT and V617F forms of JAK2, that has therapeutic efficacy in erythropoietin (EPO)-driven and JAK2V617F-driven mouse models of PV. In cultured cells, MRLB-11055 blocked proliferation and induced apoptosis in a manner consistent with JAK2 pathway inhibition. MRLB-11055 effectively prevented EPO-induced STAT5 activation in the peripheral blood of acutely dosed mice, and could prevent EPO-induced splenomegaly and erythrocytosis in chronically dosed mice. In a bone marrow reconstituted JAK2V617F-luciferase murine PV model, MRLB-11055 rapidly reduced the burden of JAK2V617F-expressing cells from both the spleen and the bone marrow. Using real-time in vivo imaging, we examined the kinetics of disease regression and resurgence, enabling the development of an intermittent dosing schedule that achieved significant reductions in both erythroid and myeloid populations with minimal impact on lymphoid cells. Our studies provide a rationale for the use of non-continuous treatment to provide optimal therapy for PV patients.
We have previously evaluated the vaccine efficacies of seven tetraspanins of Echinococcus multilocularis (Em-TSP1–7) against alveolar echinococcosis (AE) by subcutaneous (s.c.) administration with Freund's adjuvant. Over 85% of liver cyst lesion number reductions (CLNR) were achieved by recombinant Em-TSP1 (rEm-TSP1) and -TSP3 (rEm-TSP3). However, to develop an efficient and safe human vaccine, the efficacy of TSP mucosal vaccines must be thoroughly evaluated.
rEm-TSP1 and -TSP3 along with nontoxic CpG ODN (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides) adjuvant were intranasally (i.n.) immunized to BALB/c mice and their vaccine efficacies were evaluated by counting liver CLNR (experiment I). 37.1% (p<0.05) and 62.1% (p<0.001) of CLNR were achieved by these two proteins, respectively. To study the protection-associated immune responses induced by rEm-TSP3 via different immunization routes (i.n. administration with CpG or s.c. immunization with Freund's adjuvant), the systemic and mucosal antibody responses were detected by ELISA (experiment II). S.c. and i.n. administration of rEm-TSP3 achieved 81.9% (p<0.001) and 62.8% (p<0.01) CLNR in the liver, respectively. Both the immunization routes evoked strong serum IgG, IgG1 and IgG2α responses; i.n. immunization induced significantly higher IgA responses in nasal cavity and intestine compared with s.c. immunization (p<0.001). Both immunization routes induced extremely strong liver IgA antibody responses (p<0.001). The Th1 and Th2 cell responses were assessed by examining the IgG1/IgG2α ratio at two and three weeks post-immunization. S.c. immunization resulted in a reduction in the IgG1/IgG2α ratio (Th1 tendency), whereas i.n. immunization caused a shift from Th1 to Th2. Moreover, immunohistochemistry showed that Em-TSP1 and -TSP3 were extensively located on the surface of E. multilocularis cysts, protoscoleces and adult worms with additional expression of Em-TSP3 in the inner part of protoscoleces and oncospheres.
Our study indicated that i.n. administration of rEm-TSP3 with CpG is able to induce both systemic and local immune responses and thus provides significant protection against AE.
Humans and rodents become infected with E. multilocularis by oral ingesting of the eggs, which then develop into cysts in the liver and progress an endless proliferation. Untreated AE has a fatality rate of >90% in humans. Tetraspanins have been identified in Schistosoma and showed potential as the prospective vaccine candidates. In our recent study, we first identified seven tetraspanins in E. multilocularis and evaluated their protective efficacies as vaccines against AE when subcutaneously administered to BALB/c mice. Mucosal immunization of protective proteins is able to induce strong local and systemic immune responses, which might play a crucial role in protecting humans against E. multilocularis infection via the intestine, blood and liver. We focused on Em-TSP3, which achieved significant vaccine efficacy via both s.c. and i.n. routes. The adjuvanticity of nontoxic CpG OND as i.n. vaccine adjuvant was evaluated. The widespread expression of Em-TSP3 in all the developmental stages of E. multilocularis, and the strong local and systemic immune responses evoked by i.n. administration of rEm-TSP3 with CpG OND adjuvant suggest that this study might open the way for developing efficient, nontoxic human mucosal vaccines against AE.
Toxoplasma gondii is an amphixenosis which has extensive hosts. In recent years, the prevalence of T. gondii in China has been reported, while little is known on the survey of T. gondii infection in northwest China, especially in yaks (Bos grunniens) and Tibetan mastiffs (Canis lupus familiaris). The current study survey the infection of T. gondii in Tibetan mastiffs and yaks in Qinghai Province, China.
The indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) was used to examine T. gondii antibodies in 1 795 serums, including 192 Tibetan mastiffs and 1603 yaks in Qinghai Province, China.
In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 8.52%. Twenty (10.42%) of 192 serums of Tibetan mastiffs and 133 (8.30%) of 1603 serums of yaks were seropositive. The seroprevalence of T.gondii infection in Tibetan mastiffs in breeding farm (1.08%) was lower than that in the field (19.19%), and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). The seroprevalence of antibodies to T.gondii in yaks ranged from 5.45% to 13.28% among the four different areas. The seroprevalence in different age groups were determined with apparent association.
The results indicated that T.gondii infection was prevalent in Tibetan mastiffs and yaks, which have implications for public health in this region. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence survey of Tibetan mastiffs infected by T. gondii in The People’s Republic of China.
Toxoplasma gondii ; Survey; Tibetan mastiff; Yak; IHAT
Curcumin, a yellow pigment derived from Curcuma longa Linn, has attracted great interest in the research of cancer during the past decades. Extensive studies documented that curcumin attenuates cancer cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Curcumin has been demonstrated to interact with multiple molecules and signal pathways, which makes it a potential adjuvant anti-cancer agent to chemotherapy. Previous investigations focus on the mechanisms of action for curcumin, which is shown to manipulate transcription factors and induce apoptosis in various kinds of human cancer. Apart from transcription factors and apoptosis, emerging studies shed light on latent targets of curcumin against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), microRNAs (miRNA), autophagy and cancer stem cell. The present review predominantly discusses significance of EGFR, miRNA, autophagy and cancer stem cell in lung cancer therapy. Curcumin as a natural phytochemicals could communicate with these novel targets and show synergism to chemotherapy. Additionally, curcumin is well tolerated in humans. Therefore, EGFR-, miRNA-, autophagy- and cancer stem cell-based therapy in the presence of curcumin might be promising mechanisms and targets in the therapeutic strategy of lung cancer.
lung cancer; curcumin; EGFR; miRNA; autophagy; cancer stem cell
Extraskeletal chondroma is a benign cartilaginous tumor that occurs predominantly in the soft tissues near small joints of the hands and feet. There are rare reports of the lesion in other sites, such as the head, neck, trunk, oral cavity, larynx, and pharynx. We present a case of an axillary mass in a 15-year-old girl who underwent MRI examination and resection, with the ultimate diagnosis of an extraskeletal chondroma, in order to expand the differential diagnosis of an axillary soft tissue mass in an adolescent.
Anaplasma ovis is an intraerythrocytic rickettsial pathogen of small ruminants. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a nucleic acid detection method in which the target DNA can be efficiently amplified with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions. In this study, a LAMP method was developed for the specific detection of A. ovis, using LAMP primers designed on the basis of the major surface protein 4 gene. LAMP was performed at 65°C for 30 min. Its specificity was confirmed by successful amplification of several A. ovis isolates and through EcoRI restriction analysis of LAMP products. No cross-reactivity with the A. marginale Lushi isolate, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, Chlamydophila psittaci, Theileria ovis, T. luwenshuni, T. uilenbergi, or the Babesia sp. Xinjiang isolate was observed. Detection using the LAMP method was compared with that using conventional PCR in 227 field samples; LAMP demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.45%. In summary, LAMP is a specific, sensitive, and rapid test for the diagnosis of A. ovis infection, with the potential to be standardized as a detection method for A. ovis in areas of endemicity.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen of which several species of animal were reported as reservoirs. Swine stands out as the major reservoir for HEV infection in humans, as suggested by the close genetic relationship of swine and human virus and cross-species infection of HEV. Up to now, the mechanism of cross-species infection of HEV from swine to humans is still unclear. This study sought to identify receptor element for genotype 4 HEV on swine liver cells using the viral overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) technique and Mass Spectrometry fingerprinting. A single virus binding band with natural molecular weight about 55 kDa was observed, and mass spectrometry revealed that this virus binding band contained 31 different proteins. Infection inhibition assay suggested that this 55 kDa protein could prevent HEV from infecting its susceptible A549 cell line, which was further confirmed by the HEV genome detecting in the inoculated cells. Further research should be performed to elucidate the accurate receptor of HEV on the swine liver cells.
Hepatitis E virus; Receptor; VOPBA; Mass Spectrometry Fingerprinting
Cancer initiating cells (CIC) are stem-like cells. CIC may contribute not only to the initiation of cancer but also to cancer recurrence because of the resistance of CIC both to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. From the MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell lines and primary culture of patient breast cancer cells, we isolated by flow cytometry a CIC subset of cells with the CD44+/CD24−or low phenotype. The CD44+/CD24−or low subset showed increased sphere formation and resistance to radiation compared to the non- CD44+/CD24−or low subset. The increased radiation resistance was not dependent on the result of altered non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair activity as both NHEJ activity and expression of the various proteins involved in NHEJ were not significantly different between the CD44+/CD24−or low and non- CD44+/CD24−or low subsets. However, activation of ATM signaling was significantly increased in CD44+/CD24−or low cells compared to non- CD44+/CD24−or low cells in both from breast cancer cell lines and primary human breast cancer cells. Application of an ATM inhibitor effectively decreased the radiation resistance of CD44+/CD24−or low subset, suggesting that targeting ATM signaling may provide a new tool to eradicate stem-like CIC and abolish the radiation resistance of breast cancer.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) uses a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) triplet for attachment to host cells and this motif is believed to be essential for virus viability. Previous sequence analyses of the 1D-encoding region of an FMDV field isolate (Asia1/JS/CHA/05) and its two derivatives indicated that two viruses, which contained an Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) or an Arg-Ser-Asp (RSD) triplet instead of the RGD integrin recognition motif, were generated serendipitously upon short-term evolution of field isolate in different biological environments. To examine the influence of single amino acid substitutions in the receptor binding site of the RDD-containing FMD viral genome on virus viability and the ability of non-RGD FMDVs to cause disease in susceptible animals, we constructed an RDD-containing FMDV full-length cDNA clone and derived mutant molecules with RGD or RSD receptor recognition motifs. Following transfection of BSR cells with the full-length genome plasmids, the genetically engineered viruses were examined for their infectious potential in cell culture and susceptible animals.
Amino acid sequence analysis of the 1D-coding region of different derivatives derived from the Asia1/JS/CHA/05 field isolate revealed that the RDD mutants became dominant or achieved population equilibrium with coexistence of the RGD and RSD subpopulations at an early phase of type Asia1 FMDV quasispecies evolution. Furthermore, the RDD and RSD sequences remained genetically stable for at least 20 passages. Using reverse genetics, the RDD-, RSD-, and RGD-containing FMD viruses were rescued from full-length cDNA clones, and single amino acid substitution in RDD-containing FMD viral genome did not affect virus viability. The genetically engineered viruses replicated stably in BHK-21 cells and had similar growth properties to the parental virus. The RDD parental virus and two non-RGD recombinant viruses were virulent to pigs and bovines that developed typical clinical disease and viremia.
FMDV quasispecies evolving in a different biological environment gained the capability of selecting different receptor recognition site. The RDD-containing FMD viral genome can accommodate substitutions in the receptor binding site without additional changes in the capsid. The viruses expressing non-RGD receptor binding sites can replicate stably in vitro and produce typical FMD clinical disease in susceptible animals.
Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex is an important endemic zoonosis whose distribution is closely related to the main ixodid tick vectors. In China, isolated cases of Lyme disease infection of humans have been reported in 29 provinces. Ticks, especially ixodid ticks are abundant and a wide arrange of Borrelia natural reservoirs are present. In this study, we developed a reverse line blot (RLB) to identify Borrelia spp. in ticks collected from sheep and cattle in 7 Provinces covering the main extensive livestock regions in China.
Four species-specific RLB oligonucleotide probes were deduced from the spacer region between the 5S-23S rRNA gene, along with an oligonucleotide probe which was common to all. The species specific probes were shown to discriminate between four genomic groups of B. burgdorferi sensu lato i.e. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. valaisiana, and to bind only to their respective target sequences, with no cross reaction to non target DNA. Furthermore, the RLB could detect between 0.1 pg and 1 pg of Borrelia DNA.
A total of 723 tick samples (Haemaphysalis, Boophilus, Rhipicephalus and Dermacentor) from sheep and cattle were examined with RLB, and a subset of 667 corresponding samples were examined with PCR as a comparison. The overall infection rate detected with RLB was higher than that of the PCR test.
The infection rate of B. burgdoreri sensu stricto was 40% in south areas; while the B. garinii infection rate was 40% in north areas. The highest detection rates of B. afzelii and B. valaisiana were 28% and 22%, respectively. Mixed infections were also found in 7% of the ticks analyzed, mainly in the North. The proportion of B. garinii genotype in ticks was overall highest at 34% in the whole investigation area.
In this study, the RLB assay was used to detect B. burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from sheep and cattle in China. The results showed that B. burdorferi senso stricto and B. afzelii were mainly distributed in the South; while B. garinii and B. valaisiana were dominant in the North. Borrelia spirochaetes were detected in Rhipicephalus spp for the first time. It is suggested that the Rhipicephalus spps might play a role in transmitting Borrelia spirochaetes.
AIM: To review the application of nutrition support in patients after surgery for colorectal cancer, and to propose appropriate nutrition strategies.
METHODS: A total of 202 consecutive surgical patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of colon cancer or rectal cancer from January 2010 to July 2010, meeting the requirements of Nutrition Risk Screening 2002, were enrolled in our study. Laboratory tests were performed to analyze the nutrition status of each patient, and the clinical outcome variables, including postoperative complications, hospital stay, cost of hospitalization and postoperative outcome, were analyzed.
RESULTS: The “non-risk” patients who did not receive postoperative nutrition support had a higher rate of postoperative complications than patients who received postoperative nutrition support (2.40 ± 1.51 vs 1.23 ± 0.60, P = 0.000), and had a longer postoperative hospital stay (23.00 ± 15.84 d vs 15.27 ± 5.89 d, P = 0.009). There was higher cost of hospitalization for patients who received preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) than for patients who did not receive preoperative TPN (62 713.50 ± 5070.66 RMB Yuan vs 43178.00 ± 3596.68 RMB Yuan, P = 0.014). Applying postoperative enteral nutrition significantly shortened postoperative fasting time (5.16 ± 1.21 d vs 6.40 ± 1.84 d, P = 0.001) and postoperative hospital stay (11.92 ± 4.34 d vs 15.77 ± 6.03 d, P = 0.002). The patients who received postoperative TPN for no less than 7 d had increased serum glucose levels (7.59 ± 3.57 mmol/L vs 6.48 ± 1.32 mmol/L, P = 0.006) and cost of hospitalization (47 724.14 ± 16 945.17 Yuan vs 38 598.73 ± 8349.79 Yuan, P = 0.000). The patients who received postoperative omega-3 fatty acids had a higher rate of postoperative complications than the patients who did not (1.33 ± 0.64 vs 1.13 ± 0.49, P = 0.041). High level of serum glucose was associated with a high risk of postoperative complications of infection.
CONCLUSION: Appropriate and moderate nutritional intervention can improve the postoperative outcome of colorectal cancer patients.
Nutritional support; Nutrition assessment; Colorectal cancer; Surgery; Prognosis
Platelets play an essential role in hemostasis and atherothrombosis. Owing to their short storage time, there is constant demand for this life-saving blood component. In this study, we report that it is feasible to generate functional megakaryocytes and platelets from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on a large scale. Differential-interference contrast and electron microscopy analyses showed that ultrastructural and morphological features of hESC-derived platelets were indistinguishable from those of normal blood platelets. In functional assays, hESC-derived platelets responded to thrombin stimulation, formed microaggregates, and facilitated clot formation/retraction in vitro. Live cell microscopy demonstrated that hESC-platelets formed lamellipodia and filopodia in response to thrombin activation, and tethered to each other as observed in normal blood. Using real-time intravital imaging with high-speed video microscopy, we have also shown that hESC-derived platelets contribute to developing thrombi at sites of laser-induced vascular injury in mice, providing the first evidence for in vivo functionality of hESC-derived platelets. These results represent an important step toward generating an unlimited supply of platelets for transfusion. Since platelets contain no genetic material, they are ideal candidates for early clinical translation involving human pluripotent stem cells.
human embryonic stem cells; functional platelets; in vivo