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1.  T Cell and Dendritic Cell Abnormalities Synergize to Expand Pro-Inflammatory T Cell Subsets Leading to Fatal Autoimmunity in B6.NZBc1 Lupus-Prone Mice 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e75166.
We have previously shown that B6 congenic mice with a New Zealand Black chromosome 1 (c1) 96-100 cM interval produce anti-nuclear Abs and that at least two additional genetic loci are required to convert this subclinical disease to fatal glomerulonephritis in mice with a c1 70-100 cM interval (c1(70-100)). Here we show that the number of T follicular helper and IL-21-, IFN-γ-, and IL-17-secreting CD4+ T cells parallels disease severity and the number of susceptibility loci in these mice. Immunization of pre-autoimmune mice with OVA recapitulated these differences. Differentiation of naïve T cells in-vitro under polarizing conditions and in-vivo following adoptive transfer of OVA-specific TCR transgenic cells into c1(70-100) or B6 recipient mice, revealed T cell functional defects leading to increased differentiation of IFN-γ- and IL-17-producing cells in the 96-100 cM and 88-96 cM intervals, respectively. However, in-vivo enhanced differentiation of pro-inflammatory T cell subsets was predominantly restricted to c1(70-100) recipient mice, which demonstrated altered dendritic cell function, with increased production of IL-6 and IL-12. The data provide support for the role of pro-inflammatory T cells in the conversion of subclinical disease to fatal autoimmunity and highlight the importance of synergistic interactions between individual susceptibility loci in this process.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075166
PMCID: PMC3779178  PMID: 24073245
2.  TLR Tolerance Reduces IFN-Alpha Production Despite Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Expansion and Anti-Nuclear Antibodies in NZB Bicongenic Mice 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e36761.
Genetic loci on New Zealand Black (NZB) chromosomes 1 and 13 play a significant role in the development of lupus-like autoimmune disease. We have previously shown that C57BL/6 (B6) congenic mice with homozygous NZB chromosome 1 (B6.NZBc1) or 13 (B6.NZBc13) intervals develop anti-nuclear antibodies and mild glomerulonephritis (GN), together with increased T and B cell activation. Here, we produced B6.NZBc1c13 bicongenic mice with both intervals, and demonstrate several novel phenotypes including: marked plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cell expansion, and elevated IgA production. Despite these changes, only minor increases in anti-nuclear antibody production were seen, and the severity of GN was reduced as compared to B6.NZBc1 mice. Although bicongenic mice had increased levels of baff and tnf-α mRNA in their spleens, the levels of IFN-α-induced gene expression were reduced. Splenocytes from bicongenic mice also demonstrated reduced secretion of IFN-α following TLR stimulation in vitro. This reduction was not due to inhibition by TNF-α and IL-10, or regulation by other cellular populations. Because pDC in bicongenic mice are chronically exposed to nuclear antigen-containing immune complexes in vivo, we examined whether repeated stimulation of mouse pDC with TLR ligands leads to impaired IFN-α production, a phenomenon termed TLR tolerance. Bone marrow pDC from both B6 and bicongenic mice demonstrated markedly inhibited secretion of IFN-α following repeated stimulation with a TLR9 ligand. Our findings suggest that the expansion of pDC and production of anti-nuclear antibodies need not be associated with increased IFN-α production and severe kidney disease, revealing additional complexity in the regulation of autoimmunity in systemic lupus erythematosus.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036761
PMCID: PMC3344944  PMID: 22574220
3.  Genetic Variants Near TNFAIP3 on 6q23 are Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) 
Nature genetics  2008;40(9):1059-1061.
SLE is an autoimmune disease influenced by genetic and environmental components. We performed a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) and observed novel association evidence with a variant inTNFAIP3(rs5029939, P = 2.89×10−12, OR = 2.29). We also found evidence of two independent signals of association to SLE risk, including one described in Rheumatoid Arthritis. These results establish that genetic variation inTNFAIP3contributes to differential risk for SLE and RA.
doi:10.1038/ng.200
PMCID: PMC2772171  PMID: 19165918
4.  Common variants in the NLRP3 region contribute to Crohn's disease susceptibility 
Nature genetics  2008;41(1):71-76.
We used a candidate gene approach to identify a set of SNPs, located in a predicted regulatory region on chromosome 1q44 downstream of NLRP3 (previously known as CIAS1 and NALP3), that are associated with Crohn's disease. The associations were consistently replicated in four sample sets from individuals of European descent. In the combined analysis of all samples (710 father-mother-child trios, 239 cases and 107 controls), these SNPs were strongly associated with risk of Crohn's disease (Pcombined = 3.49 × 10−9, odds ratio = 1.78, confidence interval = 1.47–2.16 for rs10733113), reaching a level consistent with the stringent significance thresholds imposed by whole-genome association studies. In addition, we observed significant associations between SNPs in the associated regions and NLRP3 expression and IL-1β production. Mutations in NLRP3 are known to be responsible for three rare autoinflammatory disorders1,2. These results suggest that the NLRP3 region is also implicated in the susceptibility of more common inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease.
doi:10.1038/ng285
PMCID: PMC2728932  PMID: 19098911

Results 1-4 (4)