AIM: To examine transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) promoter methylation in gastric cancer and to determine if Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) or interleukin (IL)-1β could induce TGF-β1 hypermethylation in vitro.
METHODS: We examined the frequency and extent of TGF-β1 promoter methylation using methylation-specific PCR in the gastric tissues from 47 gastric cancer patients and 39 non-gastric cancer subjects. H. pylori infection was confirmed by a positive result from either a serological test, histological analysis or C13 urea breath test. GES-1 and MKN-45 cells co-cultured with H. pylori or treated with IL-1β for 12, 24 and 48 h in vitro tested the effects of H. pylori or IL-1β on TGF-β1.
RESULTS: Twenty-four/forty-seven (51%) cases of gastric cancer (GC) tissues showed TGF-β1 promoter methylation, 15/47 (31.9%) cases of matched non-cancerous gastric mucosa tissues from the GC patients, and 11/39 (28%) case of the normal gastric mucosa tissues from non-GC subjects showed TGF-β1 promoter methylation (51% vs 28%, P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of methylation of TGF-β1 were found in the tumor tissues than in non-tumor tissues from GC patients (0.24 ± 0.06 vs 0.17 ± 0.04, P < 0.05) and normal gastric tissues from non-GC subjects (0.24 ± 0.06 vs 0.15 ± 0.03, P < 0.05). TGF-β1 methylation was found in 48.3% of H. pylori-positive gastric mucosal tissues whereas only 23.1% of H. pylori-negative gastric mucosal tissues showed TGF-β1 methylation (48.3% vs 23.1%, P < 0.05). IL-1β appeared to induce a dose-dependent methylation of TGF-β1 and the strongest methylation was observed in GES-1 cells treated with 2.5 ng/mL of IL-1β for 48 h. Further studies showed that pre-treatment of GES-1 cells with 20 ng/mL IL-1RA for 1 h could partially abolish the effect of IL-1β on TGF-β1 methylation. Infection of GES-1 cells by H. pylori was not found to induce significant TGF-β1 promoter methylation.
CONCLUSION: Our data revealed that TGF-β1 promoter is methylated in GC patients. IL-1β may be an important mediator for H. pylori induced gene methylation during GC development.
Transforming growth factor-β1; Interleukin-1β; Methylation; Helicobacter pylori; Gastric cancer
Flotillin-2 (FLOT2) has been implicated in several signaling pathways in tumor cells. Our study aimed to investigate the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of FLOT2 in patients with breast cancer.
The expression level of FLOT2 in normal breast epithelial cells, breast cancer cell lines, and four breast cancer biopsies paired with adjacent noncancerous tissues were quantified using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. FLOT2 protein expression was analyzed in 171 archived paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of FLOT2 expression.
FLOT2 was significantly upregulated in breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples compared with normal cells and adjacent noncancerous breast tissues, respectively. IHC analysis revealed high expression levels of FLOT2 in 82 of 171 (48.0%) breast cancer specimens. Statistical analysis revealed that FLOT2 expression was significantly correlated with clinical stage (P < 0.001), T classification (P < 0.001), M classification (P < 0.001), histological differentiation (P = 0.005) and ErbB2 expression (P = 0.003). Patients with higher levels of FLOT2 expression had a shorter overall survival duration than patients with lower FLOT2 expression levels. Multivariate analysis suggested that FLOT2 expression was an independent prognostic marker for survival in patients with breast cancer.
The current results demonstrated that high FLOT2 protein expression was associated with poor outcomes in patients with breast cancer. FLOT2 could be used as a prognostic biomarker for breast cancer progression.
FLOT2; Breast cancer; Prognosis; Biomarker
In order to obtain a better molecular understanding of recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI), we collected 75 cases with repeatedly occurring uncomplicated UTI. The genetic relationships among uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. While 39 (52%) of the RUTI cases were defined as “persistence” of the same strain as the primary infecting strain, 36 (48%) were characterized by “reinfection” with a new strain that is different from the primary strain. We then examined the antimicrobial susceptibilities and phylogenetic backgrounds of 39 persistence and 86 reinfection UPEC isolates, and screened 44 virulence factor (VF) genes. We found that isolates had significant differences in the following: placement in phylogenetic group B2 (41% versus 21%; P = 0.0193) and the presence of adhesin genes iha (49% versus 28%; P = 0.0233) and papG allele I′ (51% versus 24%; P = 0.003), iron uptake genes fyuA (85% versus 58%; P = 0.0037), irp-2 (87% versus 65%; P = 0.0109), and iutA (87% versus 58%; P = 0.0014), and an aggregate VF score (median, 11 versus 9; P = 0.0030). In addition, 41% of persistence strains harbored three adhesin genes simultaneously, whereas 22% of reinfection isolates did (P = 0.0289). Moreover, 59% versus 29% (P = 0.0014) of persistence and reinfection isolates contained seven types of iron uptake genes. Taken together, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of UPEC isolates had little effect on the RUTI. Compared with reinfection strains, persistence UPEC isolates exhibited higher VF scores and carried more VF genes than may be involved in the development and progression of RUTI.
In this study, we sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the VP2 genes from twelve canine parvovirus (CPV) strains obtained from eleven domestic dogs and a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China. A novel canine parvovirus (CPV) was detected from the giant panda in China.
Nucleotide and phylogenetic analysis of the capsid protein VP2 gene classified the CPV as a new CPV-2a type. Substitution of Gln for Arg at the conserved 370 residue in CPV presents an unusual variation in the new CPV-2a amino acid sequence of the giant panda and is further evidence for the continuing evolution of the virus.
These findings extend the knowledge on CPV molecular epidemiology of particular relevance to wild carnivores.
Canine parvovirus; VP2 gene; Point mutation; Phylogenetic analysis; Giant panda
Catalase (CAT) breaks down H2O2 into H2O and O2 to protects cells from oxidative damage. However, its translational potential is limited because exogenous CAT cannot enter living cells automatically. This study is aimed to investigate if PEP-1-CAT fusion protein can effectively protect cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress due to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injury.
H9c2 cardomyocytes were pretreated with catalase (CAT) or PEP-1-CAT fusion protein followed by culturing in a hypoxia and re-oxygenation condition. Cell apoptosis were measured by Annexin V and PI double staining and Flow cytometry. Intracellular superoxide anion level was determined, and mitochondrial membrane potential was measured. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins including Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, PARP, p38 and phospho-p38 was analyzed by western blotting.
PEP-1-CAT protected H9c2 from H/R-induced morphological alteration and reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde content. Superoxide anion production was also decreased. In addition, PEP-1-CAT inhibited H9c2 apoptosis and blocked the expression of apoptosis stimulator Bax while increased the expression of Bcl-2, leading to an increased mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistically, PEP-1-CAT inhibited p38 MAPK while activating PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways, resulting in blockade of Bcl2/Bax/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
Our study has revealed a novel mechanism by which PEP-1-CAT protects cardiomyocyte from H/R-induced injury. PEP-1-CAT blocks Bcl2/Bax/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by inhibiting p38 MAPK while activating PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways.
Cell-penetrating peptide; PEP-1; Catalase; Cardiomyocyte; Apoptosis; MAPK
Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a pivotal role in subcellular location including targeting to caveolae. However, the fatty acid compositions of caveolae and the type of acylation of caveolar proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the fatty acids in caveolae and caveolin-1 bound fatty acids.
Caveolae were isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The caveolar fatty acids were extracted with Folch reagent, methyl esterificated with BF3, and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The caveolin-1bound fatty acids were immunoprecipitated by anti-caveolin-1 IgG and analyzed with GC/MS.
In contrast to the whole CHO cell lysate which contained a variety of fatty acids, caveolae mainly contained three types of fatty acids, 0.48 µg palmitic acid, 0.61 µg stearic acid and 0.83 µg oleic acid/caveolae preparation/5×107 cells. Unexpectedly, GC/MS analysis indicated that caveolin-1 was not acylated by myristic acid; instead, it was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid.
Caveolae contained a special set of fatty acids, highly enriched with saturated fatty acids, and caveolin-1 was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. The unique fatty acid compositions of caveolae and acylation of caveolin-1 may be important for caveolae formation and for maintaining the function of caveolae.
Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. In this study, we sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin (H) genes from eight canine distemper virus (CDV) isolates obtained from seven raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China.
Phylogenetic analysis of the partial hemagglutinin gene sequences showed close clustering for geographic lineages, clearly distinct from vaccine strains and other wild-type foreign CDV strains, all the CDV strains were characterized as Asia-1 genotype and were highly similar to each other (91.5-99.8% nt and 94.4-99.8% aa). The giant panda and raccoon dogs all were 549Y on the HA protein in this study, irrespective of the host species.
These findings enhance our knowledge of the genetic characteristics of Chinese CDV isolates, and may facilitate the development of effective strategies for monitoring and controlling CDV for wild canids and non-cainds in China.
Canine distemper virus; Haemagglutinin (H) gene; Genotype; Phylogenetic analysis
Dietary and medicinal uses of Panax notoginseng have been associated with reduced risk of cancer. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of P. notoginseng saponin extract (PNSE), the major bioactive ingredients in P. notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen, by high-performance liquid chromatography, and, for the first time, the anticancer effect of PNSE in the human colon cancer cell line LoVo was further evaluated. The major saponins present in PNSE were ginsenosides Rg1 (31.1%) and Rb1 (34.4%), and the total content of the eight saponins identified (notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, and Rd, and isomeric ginsenosides Rb2 and Rb3) was 81.7%, indicating that it was a highly purified standardized saponin extract. Furthermore, PNSE was found to have a markedly cytotoxic effect and antiproliferative activity against the LoVo cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that PNSE caused cell cycle arrest at S phase. Moreover, PNSE was found to possess antioxidative capacities in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay in vitro. Taken together, the present results suggest that naturally occurring PNSE may provide significant natural defense against human colon cancer.
antioxidant activity; antitumor activity; ginsenoside; high-performance liquid chromatography; notoginsenoside; Panax notoginseng
More than 30 prostate cancer (PCa) risk-associated loci have been identified in populations of European descent by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We hypothesized that a subset of these loci may be associated with PCa risk in Chinese men. To test this hypothesis, 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), one each from the 33 independent PCa risk-associated loci reported in populations of European descent, were investigated for their associations with PCa risk in a case-control study of Chinese men (1,108 cases and 1,525 controls). We found that 11 of the 33 SNPs were significantly associated with PCa risk in Chinese men (P < 0.05). The reported risk alleles were associated with increased risk for PCa, with allelic odds ratios ranging from 1.12 to 1.44. The most significant locus was located on 8q24 Region 2 (rs16901979, P = 5.14×10−9) with a genome-wide significance (P < 10−8), and three loci reached the Bonferroni correction significance level (P < 1.52×10−3), including 8q24 Region 1 (rs1447295, P = 7.04×10−6), 8q24 Region 5 (rs10086908, P = 9.24×10−4), and 8p21 (rs1512268, P = 9.39×10−4). Our results suggest that a subset of the PCa risk-associated SNPs discovered by GWAS among men of European descent is also associated with PCa risk in Chinese men. This finding provides evidence of ethnic differences and similarity in genetic susceptibility to PCa. GWAS in Chinese men are needed to identify Chinese-specific PCa risk-associated SNPs.
We report here the complete genomic sequence of the giant panda rotavirus strain CH-1. This work is the first to document the complete genomic sequence (segments 1 to 11) of the CH-1 strain, which offers an effective platform for providing authentic research experiences to novice scientists.
A recent genome-wide association study has identified five new genetic variants for prostate cancer susceptibility in a Japanese population, but it is unknown whether these newly identified variants are associated with prostate cancer risk in other populations, including Chinese men. We genotyped these five variants in a case–control study of 1524 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and 2169 control subjects from the Chinese Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ChinaPCa). We found that three of the five genetic variants were associated with prostate cancer risk (P = 4.33 × 10−8 for rs12653946 at 5p15, 4.43 × 10−5 for rs339331 at 6q22 and 8.42 × 10−4 for rs9600079 at 13q22, respectively). A cumulative effect was observed in a dose-dependent manner with increasing numbers of risk variant alleles (Ptrend = 2.58 × 10−13), and men with 5–6 risk alleles had a 2-fold higher risk of prostate cancer than men with 0–2 risk alleles (odds ratio = 2.26, 95% confidence interval = 1.78–2.87). Furthermore, rs339331 T allele was significantly associated with RFX6 and GPRC6A higher messenger RNA expression, compared with the C allele. However, none of the variants was associated with clinical stage, Gleason score or family history. These results provide further evidence that the risk loci identified in Japanese men also contribute to prostate cancer susceptibility in Chinese men.
Poor survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) compromised the efficacy of stem cell therapy for ischemic diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of PEP-1-CAT transduction in MSC survival and its effect on ischemia-induced angiogenesis.
MSC apoptosis was evaluated by DAPI staining and quantified by Annexin V and PI double staining and Flow Cytometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activities were simultaneously measured. MSC mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed with JC-1 staining. MSC survival in rat muscles with gender-mismatched transplantation of the MSC after lower limb ischemia was assessed by detecting SRY expression. MSC apoptosis in ischemic area was determined by TUNEL assay. The effect of PEP-1-CAT-transduced MSC on angiogenesis in vivo was determined in the lower limb ischemia model.
PEP-1-CAT transduction decreased MSC apoptosis rate while down-regulating MDA content and blocking LDH release as compared to the treatment with H2O2 or CAT. However, SOD activity was up-regulated in PEP-1-CAT-transduced cells. Consistent with its effect on MSC apoptosis, PEP-1-CAT restored H2O2-attenuated mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistically, PEP-1-CAT blocked H2O2-induced down-regulation of PI3K/Akt activity, an essential signaling pathway regulating MSC apoptosis. In vivo, the viability of MSC implanted into ischemic area in lower limb ischemia rat model was increased by four-fold when transduced with PEP-1-CAT. Importantly, PEP-1-CAT-transduced MSC significantly enhanced ischemia-induced angiogenesis by up-regulating VEGF expression.
PEP-1-CAT-transduction was able to increase MSC viability by regulating PI3K/Akt activity, which stimulated ischemia-induced angiogenesis.
AIM: To clarify the role of activated Notch2 in the invasiveness of gastric cancer.
METHODS: To investigate the invasiveness of silencing Notch2 gene expression, we established a Notch2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfected cell line using the MKN-45 gastric cancer cell line. After the successful transfection confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, migration and invasion assays were employed to evaluate the aggressiveness of the gastric cancer. RT-PCR and Western blottings were employed to confirm the down-regulation of Notch2 and to evaluate the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related gene matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), Akt, p-Akt. To confirm the relationship between PI3K-Akt and MMP9, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 was used to treat MKN-45 cells.
RESULTS: Notch2 expression was dramatically decreased after Notch2 siRNA transfection (100.00% ± 9.74% vs 11.61% ± 3.85%, P < 0.01 by qRT-PCR). There was also a marked reduction of Notch target gene Hes1 (100.00% ± 4.74% vs 61.61% ± 3.58%, P < 0.05) at the mRNA, indicating an inhibition of Notch signaling. Inhibition of Notch signaling was also confirmed by the marked reduction of Notch2 intracellular domain at the protein levels (100.00% ± 9.74% vs 65.61% ± 7.58%, P < 0.05). Down-regulation of Notch2 by siRNA enhanced tumor cell invasion (100.00% ± 21.64% vs 162.22% ± 16.84%, P < 0.05) and expression of MMP9 (1.56 fold, P < 0.05), and activated the pro-MMP9 protein to its active form (1.48 fold, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the protein levels of Akt between the two groups (100.00% ± 10.87% vs 96.61% ± 7.33%, P > 0.05), while down-regulation of Notch2 elevated p-Akt expression (100.00% ± 9.87% vs 154.61% ± 13.10%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, p-Akt and MMP9 was down-regulated in response to the inhibitor LY294002 (p-Akt 100.00% ± 8.87% vs 58.27% ± 5.01%, P < 0.05; MMP9 100.00% ± 9.17% vs 50.03% ± 4.88%, P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Notch2 may negatively regulate cell invasion by inhibiting the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in gastric cancer.
Notch2; Stomach; Cancer; Invasion; Epithelial mesenchymal transition; Matrix metallopeptidase 9; RNA interference
This study was to investigate the effect of nicotine on insulin sensitivity and explore the underlying mechanisms. Treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with nicotine (3 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks reduced 43% body weight gain and 65% blood insulin level, but had no effect on blood glucose level. Both insulin tolerance test and glucose tolerance test demonstrated that nicotine treatment enhanced insulin sensitivity. Pretreatment of rats with hexamethonium (20 mg/kg/day) to antagonize peripheral nicotinic receptors except for α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) had no effect on the insulin sensitizing effect of nicotine. However, the insulin sensitizing effect but not the bodyweight reducing effect of nicotine was abrogated in α7-nAChR knockout mice. Further, chronic treatment with PNU-282987 (0.53 mg/kg/day), a selective α7-nAChR agonist, significantly enhanced insulin sensitivity without apparently modifying bodyweight not only in normal mice but also in AMP-activated kinase-α2 knockout mice, an animal model of insulin resistance with no sign of inflammation. Moreover, PNU-282987 treatment enhanced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver in normal mice. PNU-282987 treatment also increased glucose uptake by 25% in C2C12 myotubes and this effect was total abrogated by STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201. All together, these findings demonstrated that nicotine enhanced insulin sensitivity in animals with or without insulin resistance, at least in part via stimulating α7-nAChR-STAT3 pathway independent of inflammation. Our results contribute not only to the understanding of the pharmacological effects of nicotine, but also to the identifying of new therapeutic targets against insulin resistance.
Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is an HDL receptor. Recent studies revealed that SR-BI protects against sepsis via modulating innate immunity. However, its role in adaptive immunity is unclear.
Methods and Results
SR-BI null mice exhibited impaired lymphocyte homeostasis as shown by splenomegaly and imbalanced expansion of T and B lymphocytes in the spleens. Importantly, the activated T and B lymphocytes were increased 3–4-fold, indicating a heightened active status of T and B lymphocytes. More importantly, in line with the accumulation of the activated T and B lymphocytes, SR-BI null mice developed systemic autoimmune disorders characterized by the presence of autoantibodies in circulation, the deposition of immune complexes in glomeruli, and the leukocyte infiltration in kidney. Further analyses revealed that SR-BI deficiency enhances lymphocyte proliferation, causes imbalanced IFN-g and IL-4 production in lymphocytes and elevated inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Furthermore, HDL from SR-BI null mice exhibited less capability of suppressing lymphocyte proliferation.
SR-BI regulates lymphocyte homeostasis likely through its roles in modulating the proliferation of lymphocytes, the cytokine production by lymphocytes and macrophages, and the function of HDL. Its deficiency leads to impaired lymphocyte homeostasis and autoimmune disorders. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of SR-BI in adaptive immunity.
lymphocytes; adaptive immunity; scavenger receptor BI; Scarb1; HDL
Overexpression of GOLPH3 (Golgi phosphoprotein 3, 34 kDa) is associated with the progression of many solid tumor types leading to an unfavorable clinical outcome. We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of GOLPH3 expression in the development and progression of clinically N0 (cN0) oral tongue cancer.
Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses were employed to examine GOLPH3 expression in four oral tongue cancer cell lines, primary cultured normal tongue epithelial cells (TEC), eight matched pairs of oral tongue cancer samples and adjacent noncancerous tissue samples from the same patient. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine GOLPH3 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 179 cN0 oral tongue cancer patients. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the diagnostic value and the associations of GOLPH3 expression with clinical parameters.
GOLPH3 mRNA and protein was up-regulated in oral tongue cancer cell lines and cancerous tissues compared with that in primary cultured normal tongue epithelial cells (TEC) and adjacent noncancerous tissue samples. GOLPH3 protein level was positively correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.001), T classification (P = 0.001), N classification (P = 0.043) and recurrence (P = 0.009). Patients with higher GOLPH3 expression had shorter overall survival time, whereas those with lower GOLPH3 expression had longer survival time.
Our results suggest GOLPH3 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis for cN0 oral tongue cancer patients and may represent a novel and useful prognostic indicator for cN0 oral tongue cancer.
GOLPH3; Prognosis; cN0 oral tongue cancer
Microarray data analysis presents a significant challenge to researchers who are unable to use the powerful Bioconductor and its numerous tools due to their lack of knowledge of R language. Among the few existing software programs that offer a graphic user interface to Bioconductor packages, none have implemented a comprehensive strategy to address the accuracy and reliability issue of microarray data analysis due to the well known probe design problems associated with many widely used microarray chips. There is also a lack of tools that would expedite the functional analysis of microarray results.
We present Microarray Я US, an R-based graphical user interface that implements over a dozen popular Bioconductor packages to offer researchers a streamlined workflow for routine differential microarray expression data analysis without the need to learn R language. In order to enable a more accurate analysis and interpretation of microarray data, we incorporated the latest custom probe re-definition and re-annotation for Affymetrix and Illumina chips. A versatile microarray results output utility tool was also implemented for easy and fast generation of input files for over 20 of the most widely used functional analysis software programs.
Coupled with a well-designed user interface, Microarray Я US leverages cutting edge Bioconductor packages for researchers with no knowledge in R language. It also enables a more reliable and accurate microarray data analysis and expedites downstream functional analysis of microarray results.
Microarray data analysis; Gene expression; Probe reannotation
Sixteen children (17 age mates, 17 vocabulary mates) with specific language impairment (SLI) participated in two studies. In the first, they named fantasy objects. All groups coined novel noun–noun compounds on a majority of trials but only the SLI group had difficulty ordering the nouns as dictated by semantic context. In the second study, the children described the meaning of conventional noun–noun compounds. The SLI and AM groups did not differ in parsing the nouns, but the SLI group was poorer at explaining the semantic relationships between them. Compared to vocabulary mates, a larger proportion of the SLI group successfully parsed the compounds but a smaller proportion could explain them. These difficulties may reflect problems in the development of links within the semantic lexicon.
Cell undergoes apoptosis in stressed status such as intracellular calcium overload or extracellular calcium/magnesium deficiency. The mechanisms of how deficiency of the divalent metal ions induces apoptosis remain to be defined. Scavenger receptor BI (SRBI) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor. Recent studies demonstrated that SR-BI is a stress response molecule which induces apoptosis upon serum deprivation. In this study, we assessed our hypothesis that the deficiency of calcium/magnesium induces apoptosis via SR-BI apoptotic pathway.
We employed CHO cell lines expressing vector and SR-BI to test the effect of SR-BI on apoptosis induced by deficiency of calcium, magnesium and zinc in culture medium. The regain of different metal ions in deficient medium was also performed, respectively. Cell death was detected by morphological changes and quantified by LDH cytotoxicity assay. Apoptosis was also assessed by DNA ladder assay and DNA condensation assay. The SR-BIC323G mutant cells which lack the apoptotic activity of SR-BI were employed to verify the SR-BI-dependent effect on calcium/magnesium induced apoptosis.
The deficiency of calcium/magnesium induced cell apoptosis CHO-SR-BI cells, but not in CHO-vector cells. Moreover, no apoptotic cell death was observed in SR-BIC323G mutant cells, indicating that the deficiency of divalent metal ions induces apoptosis in a SR-BI-dependent manner. Furthermore, the restoration of calcium or magnesium, but not zinc, protected CHO-SR-BI cells from apoptotic cell death, in a dose-dependent fashion.
These findings extend our understanding about how calcium and magnesium deficiency induces apoptosis.
calcium; magnesium; apoptosis; scavenger receptor BI
The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The fibrillar form of Aβ (fAβ) exerts toxic effects on neurons through mechanisms not well understood. We have shown that the aged primate cortex is selectively vulnerable to fAβ toxicity at low concentrations. In addition to neuronal loss, fAβ induced massive activation of microglia in the aged rhesus cortex. We now demonstrate that inhibition of microglia activation abolishes fAβ toxicity. Injection or pump delivery of macrophage/microglia inhibitory factor (MIF) significantly reduced activation of microglia and the volume of damage caused by fAβ. Microglia isolated from aged rhesus cortex produced substantial reactive oxygen species when stimulated by fAβ, which was inhibited by MIF in a dose-dependent manner. This is the first definitive in vivo demonstration that the fAβ-induced microglia activation and inflammation mediate, at least in part, its toxic effects on neurons. Combined with our earlier observations, these findings suggest that aged primate microglia may display an exaggerated inflammatory response to fAβ when compared with young microglia.
Amyloid toxicity; Microglia; Fibrillar; Neuronal loss; Non-human primate
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met are important in the development and homeostasis of a variety of human malignancies. However, the role of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been clearly elucidated. This study examined the effect of HGF/c-Met on proliferation and migration in several NPC cell lines. RT-PCR was used to detect the HGF gene in CNE-1, CNE-2, HK-1, HONE-1 and SUNE-1 NPC cells. However, HGF gene expression was not detected in any of these cells. Using immunoblotting analysis, the Met25 protein was identified in HONE-1, HK-1 and CNE-1 cells. Results from fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis revealed that anti-Met25 mAb specifically bound Met-expressing HONE-1, HK-1 and CNE-1 cells. It was further demonstrated that exogenous HGF was able to stimulate the proliferation of HONE-1 and HK-1 cells and the healing of scrape wounds in HONE-1 NPC cells. Our results reveal the potential therapeutic applications of combination therapy with antibodies targeting HGF in NPC patients.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma, HGF; c-Met, proliferation, migration
Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenols that impart bright color to fruits, vegetables and plants. In this study, the extraction of anthocyanins from freeze-dried fruit skin of downy rose-myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk var. Gangren) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Using 60% ethanol containing 0.1% (v/v) hydrochloric acid as extraction solvent, the optimal conditions for maximum yields of anthocyanin (4.358 ± 0.045 mg/g) were 15.7:1 (v/w) liquid to solid ratio, 64.38 °C with a 116.88 min extraction time. The results showed good fits with the proposed model for the anthocyanin extraction (R2 = 0.9944). Furthermore, the results of high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analysis of the anthocyanins extracted from the fruit skin of downy rose-myrtle revealed the presence of five anthocyanin components, which were tentatively identified as delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside.
anthocyanins; Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk; response surface methodology; HPLC-ESI-MS
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is associated with tumorigenesis and progression in diverse human cancers. The present study was aimed to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of AEG-1 in salivary gland carcinomas (SGC).
Real-time PCR and western blot analyses were employed to examine AEG-1 expression in two normal salivary gland tissues, eight SGC tissues of various clinical stages, and five pairs of primary SGC and adjacent salivary gland tissues from the same patient. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine AEG-1 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 141 SGC patients. Statistical analyses was applies to evaluate the diagnostic value and associations of AEG-1 expression with clinical parameters.
AEG-1 expression was evidently up-regulated in SGC tissues compared with that in the normal salivary gland tissues and in matched adjacent salivary gland tissues. AEG-1 protein level was positively correlated with clinical stage (P < 0.001), T classification (P = 0.008), N classification (P = 0.008) and M classifications (P = 0.006). Patients with higher AEG-1 expression had shorter overall survival time, whereas those with lower tumor AEG-1 expression had longer survival time.
Our results suggest that AEG-1 expression is associated with SGC progression and may represent a novel and valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of SGC patients.
AEG-1; Biomarker; Prognosis; Salivary gland carcinomas
Genome-wide association studies have been used successfully to detect associations between common genetic variants and complex diseases, but common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected by these studies explain only 5–10% of disease heritability. Alternatively, the common disease/rare variants hypothesis suggests that complex diseases are often caused by multiple rare variants with moderate to high effects. Under this hypothesis, the analysis of the cumulative effect of rare variants may thus help us discover the missing genetic variations. Collapsing all rare variants across a functional region is currently a popular method to find rare variants that may have a causal effect on certain diseases. However, the power of tests based on collapsing methods is often impaired by misclassification of functional variants. We develop a data-adaptive forward selection procedure that selectively chooses only variants that improve the association signal between functional regions and the disease risk. We apply our strategy to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 unrelated individuals data with quantitative traits. The type I error rate and the power of different collapsing functions are evaluated. The substantially higher power of the proposed strategy was demonstrated. The new method provides a useful strategy for the association study of sequencing data by taking advantage of the selection of rare variants.
Developmental cues to start meiosis occur late in plants. Ameiotic1 (Am1) encodes a plant-specific nuclear protein (AM1) required for meiotic entry and progression through early prophase I. Pollen mother cells (PMCs) remain mitotic in most am1 mutants including am1-489, while am1-praI permits meiotic entry but PMCs arrest at the leptotene/zygotene (L/Z) transition, defining the roles of AM1 protein in two distinct steps of meiosis. To gain more insights into the roles of AM1 in the transcriptional pre-meiotic and meiotic programs, we report here an in depth analysis of gene expression alterations in carefully staged anthers at 1 mm (meiotic entry) and 1.5 mm (L/Z) caused by each of these am1 alleles.
1.0 mm and 1.5 mm anthers of am1-489 and am1-praI were profiled in comparison to fertile siblings on Agilent® 4 × 44 K microarrays. Both am1-489 and am1-praI anthers are cytologically normal at 1.0 mm and show moderate transcriptome alterations. At the 1.5-mm stage both mutants are aberrant cytologically, and show more drastic transcriptome changes. There are substantially more absolute On/Off and twice as many differentially expressed genes (sterile versus fertile) in am1-489 than in am1-praI. At 1.5 mm a total of 4,418 genes are up- or down-regulated in either am1-489 or am1-praI anthers. These are predominantly stage-specific transcripts. Many putative meiosis-related genes were found among them including a small subset of allele-specific, mis-regulated genes specific to the PMCs. Nearly 60% of transcriptome changes in the set of transcripts mis-regulated in both mutants (N = 530) are enriched in PMCs, and only 1% are enriched in the tapetal cell transcriptome. All array data reported herein will be deposited and accessible at MaizeGDB http://www.maizegdb.org/.
Our analysis of anther transcriptome modulations by two distinct am1 alleles, am1-489 and am1-praI, redefines the role of AM1 as a modulator of expression of a subset of meiotic genes, important for meiotic progression and provided stage-specific insights into the genetic networks associated with meiotic entry and early prophase I progression.
meiosis; meiocytes; transcriptomes; leptotene/zygotene transition; pollen mother cells