The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region is strongly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility. HLA-DRB1*15:01 has the strongest effect, and several other alleles have been reported at different levels of validation. Using SNP data from genome-wide studies, we imputed and tested classical alleles and amino acid polymorphisms in 8 classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes in 5,091 cases and 9,595 controls. We identified 11 statistically independent effects overall: 6 HLA-DRB1 and one DPB1 alleles in class II, one HLA-A and two B alleles in class I, and one signal in a region spanning from MICB to LST1. This genomic segment does not contain any HLA class I or II genes and provides robust evidence for the involvement of a non-HLA risk allele within the MHC. Interestingly, this region contains the TNF gene, the cognate ligand of the well-validated TNFRSF1A MS susceptibility gene. The classical HLA effects can be explained to some extent by polymorphic amino acid positions in the peptide-binding grooves. This study dissects the independent effects in the MHC, a critical region for MS susceptibility that harbors multiple risk alleles.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease with a heritable component. Although it has been known for a long time that the strongest MS risk factor maps to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6, there are still many unresolved questions as to the identity and the nature of the risk variants within the MHC. Because the MHC has a complex structure, systematic investigation across this region has been challenging. In this study, we used state-of-the-art imputation methods coupled to statistical regression to query variants in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II genes for a role in MS risk. Starting from available SNP genotype data, we replicated the strongest risk factor, the HLA-DRB1*15:01 allele, and were able to identify 11 independent effects in total. Functional studies are now needed to understand their mechanism in MS etiology.
Folate is involved in the one-carbon metabolism that plays an essential role in the synthesis, repair and methylation of DNA. We examined whether child’s germline genetic variation in the folate pathway is associated with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and whether periconception maternal folate and alcohol intake modify the risk.
Seventy-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including 66 haplotype-tagging SNPs in 10 genes (CBS, DHFR, FOLH1, MTHFD1, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, SLC19A1, and TYMS) were genotyped in 377 ALL cases and 448 controls. Log-additive associations between genotypes and ALL risk were adjusted for age, sex, Hispanic ethnicity (when appropriate), and maternal race.
Single and haplotype SNPs analyses showed statistically significant associations between SNPs located in (or adjacent to) CBS, MTRR, TYMS/ENOFS and childhood ALL. Many regions of CBS were associated with childhood ALL in Hispanics and non-Hispanics (P <0.01). Levels of maternal folate intake modified associations with SNPs in CBS, MTRR, and TYMS.
Our data suggest the importance of genetic variability in the folate pathway and childhood ALL risk.
Case-control study; Children; DNA methylation; Folate; Genetic polymorphisms; Leukemia
Recent genome-wide studies conducted in European Whites have identified novel susceptibility genes for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We sought to examine whether these loci are susceptibility genes among Hispanics, whose reported incidence of childhood ALL is the highest of all ethnic groups in California, and whether their effects differ between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). We genotyped 13 variants in these genes among 706 Hispanic (300 cases, 406 controls) and 594 NHW (225 cases, 369 controls) participants in a matched population-based case–control study in California. We found significant associations for the five studied ARID5B variants in both Hispanics (p values of 1.0 × 10−9 to 0.004) and NHWs (p values of 2.2 × 10−6 to 0.018). Risk estimates were in the same direction in both groups (ORs of 1.53–1.99 and 1.37–1.84, respectively) and strengthened when restricted to B-cell precursor high-hyperdiploid ALL (>50 chromosomes; ORs of 2.21–3.22 and 1.67–2.71, respectively). Similar results were observed for the single CEBPE variant. Hispanics and NHWs exhibited different susceptibility loci at CDKN2A. Although IKZF1 loci showed significant susceptibility effects among NHWs (p < 1 × 10−5), their effects among Hispanics were in the same direction but nonsignificant, despite similar minor allele frequencies. Future studies should examine whether the observed effects vary by environmental, immunological, or lifestyle factors.
Childhood cancer; Leukemia; Genetic susceptibility
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with a prominent genetic component. The primary genetic risk factor is the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1*1501 allele; however, much of the remaining genetic contribution to MS has not been elucidated. The authors investigated the relation between variation in DNA repair pathway genes and risk of MS. Single-locus association testing, epistatic tests of interactions, logistic regression modeling, and nonparametric Random Forests analyses were performed by using genotypes from 1,343 MS cases and 1,379 healthy controls of European ancestry. A total of 485 single nucleotide polymorphisms within 72 genes related to DNA repair pathways were investigated, including base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, and double-strand breaks repair. A single nucleotide polymorphism variant within the general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 4 gene, GTF2H4, on chromosome 6p21.33 was significantly associated with MS (odds ratio = 0.7, P = 3.5 × 10−5) after accounting for multiple testing and was not due to linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DRB1*1501. Although other candidate genes examined here warrant further follow-up studies, collectively, these results derived from a well-powered study do not support a strong role for common variation within DNA repair pathway genes in MS.
decision trees; DNA repair; epistasis, genetic; genetic variation; multiple sclerosis
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator gene (CIITA) encodes an important transcription factor regulating genes required for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II MHC-restricted antigen presentation. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, particularly HLA class II, are strongly associated with risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Given the strong biological relationship between CIITA and HLA class II genes, a comprehensive investigation of CIITA variation in RA was conducted. This study tested 31 CIITA SNPs in 2542 RA cases and 3690 controls (N = 6232). All individuals were of European ancestry, as determined by ancestry informative genetic markers. No evidence for association between CIITA variation and RA was observed after a correction for multiple testing was applied. This is the largest study to fully characterize common genetic variation in CIITA, including an assessment of haplotypes. Results exclude even a modest role for common CIITA polymorphisms in susceptibility to RA.
rheumatoid arthritis; autoimmunity; CIITA; MHC2TA
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, and numerous studies have shown that MS has a strong genetic component. Independent studies to identify MS-associated genes have often indicated multiple signals in physically close genomic regions, although by their proximity it is not always clear if these data indicate redundant or truly independent genetic signals. Recently, three MS study samples were genotyped in parallel using an Illumina Custom BeadChip. These revealed multiple significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms within a 600 kb stretch on chromosome 16p13. Here we present a detailed analysis of variants in this region that clarifies the independent nature of these signals. The linkage disequilibrium patterns in the region and logistic regression analysis of the associations suggest that this region likely harbors three independent MS disease loci. Further, we examined cis-expression QTLs, histone modifications and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) binding data in the region. We also tested for correlated expression of the genes from the region using whole-genome expression array data from lymphoblastoid cell lines. Three of the genes show expression correlations across loci. Furthermore, in the GM12878 lymphoblastoid cell line, these three genes are in a continuous region devoid of H3K27 methylation, suggesting an open chromatin configuration. This region likely only contributes minimal risk to MS; however, investigation of this region will undoubtedly provide insight into the functional mechanisms of these genes. These data highlight the importance of taking a closer look at the expression and function of chromosome 16p13 in the pathogenesis of MS.
Accumulating evidence suggests that childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may be initiated in utero or early in the postnatal period. High birth weight (or rapid fetal growth) is associated with risk of ALL, but the mechanisms are not understood. In a population-based epidemiologic study of childhood ALL, we utilized a haplotype-based approach to assess the role of eight genes involved in fetal growth and body size regulation in 377 childhood ALL cases and 448 controls. We found significant haplotype associations with risk of childhood ALL for IGF1 among non-Hispanics and Hispanics together (p = 0.002), for IGF2 among Hispanics (p = 0.040), and for IGF2R among Hispanics and non-Hispanics (p = 0.051 and 0.009, respectively). No haplotype associations were observed for IGF1R or the studied genes involved in body size regulation, including LEP, LEPR, GHRL, and NPY. Our study is the first to identify an association between the genes involved in the IGF axis and risk of childhood ALL. These findings for childhood ALL emphasize the importance of fetal growth, when lymphoid progenitor cells are not yet fully differentiated and therefore more susceptible to malignant transformation. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings and identify specific causal variants.
IGF; Insulin-like growth factors; Leukemia; Childhood cancer; Fetal growth
Recent studies suggest that environmental exposures to pesticides, tobacco, and other xenobiotic chemicals may increase risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We sought to evaluate the role of genes involved in xenobiotic transport and metabolism in childhood ALL risk, both alone and in conjunction with household chemical exposures previously found to be associated with childhood ALL risk.
We conducted a population-based epidemiologic study of 377 cases and 448 controls in California, utilizing a haplotype-based approach to evaluate 42 xenobiotic transport and metabolism genes in conjunction with data on self-reported household chemical exposures.
We identified significant associations of childhood ALL risk with haplotypes of ABCB1, ARNT, CYP2C8, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, and IDH1. In addition, certain haplotypes showed significant joint effects with self-reported household chemical exposures on risk of childhood ALL. Specifically, elevated risks associated with use of paints in the home (ever) and indoor insecticides (pre-birth) were limited to subjects carrying specific haplotypes of CYP2C8 and ABCB1, respectively.
Our results provide support for a role of xenobiotic transport and metabolism pathways in risk of childhood ALL and indicate that genes in these pathways may modulate the risk of disease associated with use of common household chemicals. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings and localize specific causal variants.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10552-012-9947-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Xenobiotic; Chemicals; California; Childhood cancer; Epidemiology
Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been hypothesized to have an infection and immune-related etiology. The lack of immune priming in early childhood may result in abnormal immune responses to infections later in life and increase ALL risk.
The current analyses examined the association between childhood ALL and 208 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 29 adaptive immune function genes among 377 ALL cases and 448 healthy controls. Single SNPs were analyzed with a log-additive approach using logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age, Hispanic ethnicity, and race. Sliding window haplotype analyses were performed with haplotypes consisting of 2 to 6 SNPs.
Of the 208 SNPs, only rs583911 of IL12A, which encodes a critical modulator of T-cell development, remained significant after accounting for multiple testing (odds ratio for each copy of the variant G allele = 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.25–1.85, p = 2.9 × 10−5). This increased risk was stronger among first-born children of all ethnicities and among non-Hispanic children with less daycare attendance, consistent with the hypothesis regarding the role of early immune modulation in the development of childhood ALL. Haplotype analyses identified additional regions of CD28, FCGR2, GATA3, IL2RA, STAT4, and STAT6 associated with childhood ALL.
Polymorphisms of genes on the adaptive immunity pathway are associated with childhood ALL risk.
Results of this study support an immune-related etiology of childhood ALL. Further confirmation is required to detect functional variants in the significant genomic regions identified in this study, in particular for IL12A.
Fetal microchimerism (F-MC), the persistence of fetal cells in the mother, is frequently encountered following pregnancy. The high prevalence of F-MC in autoimmune disease prompts consideration of the role for immune tolerance and regulation. This study examines the association between F-MC and multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disorder, of undetermined etiology.
21 out of 51 MS-positive subjects (41%) were classified as positive for F-MC; 4 of 22 (18%) of MS-negative sibling controls, were also positive for MC (p = 0.066). Unanticipated F-MC in controls lead to re-evaluation using 30 female singleton cord blood units (CBUs) as a biological control. Four CBUs were low-level positive.
Study Design and Methods:
Seventy-three female subjects were assigned to three groups according to disease status and pregnancy history: (1) MS positive (+) women with a history of one male pregnancy before symptom onset (n = 27); (2) MS negative (−) female siblings of MS+ women with a history of one male pregnancy (n = 22); and (3) MS+ women that reported never having been pregnant (n = 24). Ten micrograms of genomic DNA obtained from peripheral blood leukocytes of each subject were analyzed for F-MC using allele-specific real-time PCR targeting the SR-Y sequence on the Y-chromosome. MC classification was dichotomous (positive vs. negative) based on PCR results.
The association between F-MC and MS warrants further study to define this relationship. F-MC in women self-reporting as nulligravid, supports previous findings that a significant proportion of pregnancies go undetected. This lead to re-validation of a Y-chromosome based assay for F-MC detection.
multiple sclerosis; microchimerism; fetal cells; autoimmune disease; twinning; pregnancy
Acute leukemias of childhood are a heterogeneous group of malignancies characterized by cytogenetic abnormalities, such as translocations and changes in ploidy. These abnormalities may be influenced by altered DNA repair and cell cycle control processes.
We examined the association between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 32 genes in DNA repair and cell cycle pathways using a haplotype-based approach, among 377 childhood ALL cases and 448 controls enrolled during 1995–2002.
We found that haplotypes in APEX1, BRCA2, ERCC2, and RAD51 were significantly associated with total ALL, while haplotypes in NBN and XRCC4, and CDKN2A were associated with structural and numerical change subtypes, respectively. In addition, we observed statistically significant interaction between exposure to 3 or more diagnostic X-rays and haplotypes of XRCC4 on risk of structural abnormality-positive childhood ALL.
These results support a role of altered DNA repair and cell cycle processes in the risk of childhood ALL, and show that this genetic susceptibility can differ by cytogenetic subtype and may be modified by exposure to ionizing radiation. To our knowledge, our study is the first to broadly examine the DNA repair and cell cycle pathways using a haplotype approach in conjunction with X-ray exposures in childhood ALL risk. If confirmed, future studies are needed to identify specific functional SNPs in the regions of interest identified in this analysis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10552-011-9848-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Leukemia; Childhood cancer; DNA repair; Genetic susceptibility
Several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been completed in multiple sclerosis. Follow-up studies of the variants with the most promising rankings, especially when supplemented by informed candidate gene selection, have proven to be extremely successful. We report here the results of a multi-stage replication analysis of the putatively associated SNPs identified in the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium non-synonymous SNP screen. In total the replication sample consisted of 3444 patients and 2595 controls. A combined analysis of the nsSNP screen and replication data provides evidence implicating a novel additional locus, rs3748816 in MMEL1 (OR=1.16, p=3.54×10−6) in multiple sclerosis susceptibility.
Multiple Sclerosis; MMEL1; genetics
Prior studies of lung cancer and CYP1A1/2 in African American and Latino populations have shown inconsistent results and not yet investigated the haplotype block structure of CYP1A1/2 or addressed potential population stratification. To investigate haplotypes in the CYP1A1/2 region and lung cancer in African Americans and Latinos, we conducted a case-control study (1998-2003). African Americans (N = 535) and Latinos (N = 412) were frequency-matched on age, sex, and self-reported race/ethnicity. We used a custom genotyping panel containing 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP1A1/2 region and 184 ancestry informative markers selected to have large allele frequency differences between Africans, Europeans, and Amerindians. Latinos exhibited significant haplotype main effects in two blocks, even after adjusting for admixture (odds ratio (OR) = 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28 – 3.19 and OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36 – 0.83) but no main effects were found among African Americans. Adjustment for admixture revealed substantial confounding by population stratification among Latinos but not African Americans. Among Latinos and African Americans interactions between smoking level and haplotypes were not statistically significant. Evidence of population stratification among Latinos underscores the importance of adjusting for admixture in lung cancer association studies, particularly in Latino populations. These results suggest a variant occurring within the CYP1A2 region may be conferring an increased risk of lung cancer in Latinos.
lung cancer; haplotype; CYP1A1/2; population stratification; admixed
HLA class II DRB1 and DQB1 represent the major type 1 diabetes (T1D) genetic susceptibility loci; however, other genes in the HLA region are also involved in T1D risk. We analyzed 1411 pedigrees (2865 affected individuals) from the type 1 diabetes genetics consortium (T1DGC) genotyped for HLA classical loci and for 12 SNPs in the class III region previously shown to be associated with T1D in a subset of 886 pedigrees. Using the transmission disequilibrium test, we compared the proportion of SNP alleles transmitted from within the high risk DR3 and DR4 haplotypes to affected offspring. Markers rs4151659 (mapping to CFB) and rs7762619 (mapping 5′ of LTA) were the most strongly associated with T1D on DR3 (p=1.2 × 10−9 and p=2 × 10−12 respectively) and DR4 (p=4 × 10−15 and p= 8 × 10−8 respectively) haplotypes. They remained significantly associated after stratifying individuals in analyses for B*1801, A*0101-B*0801, DPB1*0301, DPB1*0202, DPB1*0401 or DPB1*0402. Rs7762619 and rs4151659 are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r2=0.82) with each other, but a joint analysis showed that the association for each SNP was not solely due to LD. Our data support a role for more than one locus in the class III region contributing to risk of T1D.
Type 1 diabetes; DR3; DR4; linkage disequilibrium; fine mapping
As computational power improves, the application of more advanced machine learning techniques to the analysis of large genome-wide association (GWA) datasets becomes possible. While most traditional statistical methods can only elucidate main effects of genetic variants on risk for disease, certain machine learning approaches are particularly suited to discover higher order and non-linear effects. One such approach is the Random Forests (RF) algorithm. The use of RF for SNP discovery related to human disease has grown in recent years; however, most work has focused on small datasets or simulation studies which are limited.
Using a multiple sclerosis (MS) case-control dataset comprised of 300 K SNP genotypes across the genome, we outline an approach and some considerations for optimally tuning the RF algorithm based on the empirical dataset. Importantly, results show that typical default parameter values are not appropriate for large GWA datasets. Furthermore, gains can be made by sub-sampling the data, pruning based on linkage disequilibrium (LD), and removing strong effects from RF analyses. The new RF results are compared to findings from the original MS GWA study and demonstrate overlap. In addition, four new interesting candidate MS genes are identified, MPHOSPH9, CTNNA3, PHACTR2 and IL7, by RF analysis and warrant further follow-up in independent studies.
This study presents one of the first illustrations of successfully analyzing GWA data with a machine learning algorithm. It is shown that RF is computationally feasible for GWA data and the results obtained make biologic sense based on previous studies. More importantly, new genes were identified as potentially being associated with MS, suggesting new avenues of investigation for this complex disease.
A variety of methods are available for estimating genetic admixture proportions in populations; however, few investigators have conducted detailed comparisons using empirical data. The authors characterized admixture proportions among self-identified African Americans (n = 535) and Latinos (n = 412) living in the San Francisco Bay Area who participated in a lung cancer case-control study (1998–2003). Individual estimates of genetic ancestry based on 184 informative markers were obtained from a Bayesian approach and 2 maximum likelihood approaches and were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman plots. Case-control differences in individual admixture proportions were assessed using 2-sample t tests and logistic regression analysis. Results indicated that Bayesian and frequentist approaches to estimating admixture provide similar estimates and inferences. No difference was observed in admixture proportions between African-American cases and controls, but Latino cases and controls significantly differed according to Amerindian and European genetic ancestry. Differences in admixture proportions between Latino cases and controls were not unexpected, since cases were more likely to have been born in the United States. Genetic admixture proportions provide a quantitative measure of ancestry differences among Latinos that can be used in analyses of genetic risk factors.
African Americans; case-control studies; epidemiologic methods; genetics, population; Hispanic Americans; linkage disequilibrium; lung neoplasms; statistics
A substantial genetic contribution to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk is conferred by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene(s) on chromosome 6p21. Previous studies in SLE have lacked statistical power and genetic resolution to fully define MHC influences. We characterized 1,610 Caucasian SLE cases and 1,470 parents for 1,974 MHC SNPs, the highly polymorphic HLA-DRB1 locus, and a panel of ancestry informative markers. Single-marker analyses revealed strong signals for SNPs within several MHC regions, as well as with HLA-DRB1 (global p = 9.99×10−16). The most strongly associated DRB1 alleles were: *0301 (odds ratio, OR = 2.21, p = 2.53×10−12), *1401 (OR = 0.50, p = 0.0002), and *1501 (OR = 1.39, p = 0.0032). The MHC region SNP demonstrating the strongest evidence of association with SLE was rs3117103, with OR = 2.44 and p = 2.80×10−13. Conditional haplotype and stepwise logistic regression analyses identified strong evidence for association between SLE and the extended class I, class I, class III, class II, and the extended class II MHC regions. Sequential removal of SLE–associated DRB1 haplotypes revealed independent effects due to variation within OR2H2 (extended class I, rs362521, p = 0.006), CREBL1 (class III, rs8283, p = 0.01), and DQB2 (class II, rs7769979, p = 0.003, and rs10947345, p = 0.0004). Further, conditional haplotype analyses demonstrated that variation within MICB (class I, rs3828903, p = 0.006) also contributes to SLE risk independent of HLA-DRB1*0301. Our results for the first time delineate with high resolution several MHC regions with independent contributions to SLE risk. We provide a list of candidate variants based on biologic and functional considerations that may be causally related to SLE risk and warrant further investigation.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production and involvement of multiple organ systems. Although the cause of SLE remains unknown, several lines of evidence underscore the importance of genetic factors. As is true for most autoimmune diseases, a substantial genetic contribution to disease risk is conferred by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene(s) on chromosome 6. This region of the genome contains a large number of genes that participate in the immune response. However, the full contribution of this genomic region to SLE risk has not yet been defined. In the current study we characterize a large number of SLE patients and family members for approximately 2,000 MHC region variants to identify the specific genes that influence disease risk. Our results, for the first time, implicate four different MHC regions in SLE risk. We provide a list of candidate variants based on biologic and functional considerations that may be causally related to SLE risk and warrant further investigation.
Folic acid taken in early pregnancy reduces risks for delivering offspring with several congenital anomalies. The mechanism by which folic acid reduces risk is unknown. Investigations into genetic variation that influences transport and metabolism of folate will help fill this data gap. We focused on 118 SNPs involved in folate transport and metabolism.
Using data from a California population-based registry, we investigated whether risks of spina bifida or conotruncal heart defects were influenced by 118 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the complex folate pathway. This case-control study included 259 infants with spina bifida and a random sample of 359 nonmalformed control infants born during 1983–86 or 1994–95. It also included 214 infants with conotruncal heart defects born during 1983–86. Infant genotyping was performed blinded to case or control status using a designed SNPlex assay. We examined single SNP effects for each of the 118 SNPs, as well as haplotypes, for each of the two outcomes.
Few odds ratios (ORs) revealed sizable departures from 1.0. With respect to spina bifida, we observed ORs with 95% confidence intervals that did not include 1.0 for the following SNPs (heterozygous or homozygous) relative to the reference genotype: BHMT (rs3733890) OR = 1.8 (1.1–3.1), CBS (rs2851391) OR = 2.0 (1.2–3.1); CBS (rs234713) OR = 2.9 (1.3–6.7); MTHFD1 (rs2236224) OR = 1.7 (1.1–2.7); MTHFD1 (hcv11462908) OR = 0.2 (0–0.9); MTHFD2 (rs702465) OR = 0.6 (0.4–0.9); MTHFD2 (rs7571842) OR = 0.6 (0.4–0.9); MTHFR (rs1801133) OR = 2.0 (1.2–3.1); MTRR (rs162036) OR = 3.0 (1.5–5.9); MTRR (rs10380) OR = 3.4 (1.6–7.1); MTRR (rs1801394) OR = 0.7 (0.5–0.9); MTRR (rs9332) OR = 2.7 (1.3–5.3); TYMS (rs2847149) OR = 2.2 (1.4–3.5); TYMS (rs1001761) OR = 2.4 (1.5–3.8); and TYMS (rs502396) OR = 2.1 (1.3–3.3). However, multiple SNPs observed for a given gene showed evidence of linkage disequilibrium indicating that the observed SNPs were not individually contributing to risk. We did not observe any ORs with confidence intervals that did not include 1.0 for any of the studied SNPs with conotruncal heart defects. Haplotype reconstruction showed statistical evidence of nonrandom associations with TYMS, MTHFR, BHMT and MTR for spina bifida.
Our observations do not implicate a particular folate transport or metabolism gene to be strongly associated with risks for spina bifida or conotruncal defects.
Variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p21 is known to influence susceptibility to multiple sclerosis with the strongest effect originating from the HLA-DRB1 gene in the class II region. The possibility that other genes in the MHC independently influence susceptibility to multiple sclerosis has been suggested but remains unconfirmed.
Using a combination of microsatellite, single nucleotide polymorphism, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, we screened the MHC in trio families looking for evidence of residual association above and beyond that attributable to the established DRB1*1501 risk haplotype. We then refined this analysis by extending the genotyping of classical HLA loci into independent cases and control subjects.
Screening confirmed the presence of residual association and suggested that this was maximal in the region of the HLA-C gene. Extending analysis of the classical loci confirmed that this residual association is partly due to allelic heterogeneity at the HLA-DRB1 locus, but also reflects an independent effect from the HLA-C gene. Specifically, the HLA-C*05 allele, or a variant in tight linkage disequilibrium with it, appears to exert a protective effect (p = 3.3 × 10−5).
Variation in the HLA-C gene influences susceptibility to multiple sclerosis independently of any effect attributable to the nearby HLA-DRB1 gene. Ann Neurol 2007
The extended major histocompatibility complex (xMHC) is the most gene-dense region of the genome and harbors a disproportionately large number of genes involved in immune function. The postulated role of infection in the causation of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) suggests that the xMHC may make an important contribution to the risk of this disease. We conducted association mapping across an approximately 4 megabase region of the xMHC using a validated panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in childhood BCP-ALL cases (n=567) enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS) compared with population controls (n=892). Logistic regression analyses of 1,145 SNPs, adjusted for age, sex, and Hispanic ethnicity indicated potential associations between several SNPs and childhood BCP-ALL. After accounting for multiple comparisons, one of these included a statistically significant increased risk associated with rs9296068 (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.19-1.66, corrected p=0.036), located in proximity to HLA-DOA. Sliding window haplotype analysis identified an additional locus located in the extended class I region in proximity to TRIM27 tagged by a haplotype comprising rs1237485, rs3118361, and rs2032502 (corrected global p=0.046). Our findings suggest that susceptibility to childhood BCP-ALL is influenced by genetic variation within the xMHC and indicate at least two important regions for future evaluation.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator gene (CIITA) encodes an important transcription factor required for HLA class II MHC-restricted antigen presentation. MHC genes, including the HLA class II DRB1*03:01 allele, are strongly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recently the rs4774 CIITA missense variant (+1632G/C) was reported to be associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. In the current study, we investigated CIITA, DRB1*03:01 and risk of SLE using a multi-stage analysis. In stage 1, 9 CIITA variants were tested in 658 cases and 1,363 controls (N = 2,021). In stage 2, rs4774 was tested in 684 cases and 2,938 controls (N = 3,622). We also performed a meta-analysis of the pooled 1,342 cases and 4,301 controls (N = 5,643). In stage 1, rs4774*C was associated with SLE (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.07–1.44, P = 4.2 × 10−3). Similar results were observed in stage 2 (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.02–1.33, P = 8.5×10−3) and the meta-analysis of the combined dataset (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.09–1.33, Pmeta = 2.5×10−4). In all three analyses, the strongest evidence for association between rs4774*C and SLE was present in individuals who carried at least one copy of DRB1*03:01 (Pmeta= 1.9×10−3). Results support a role for CIITA in SLE, which appears to be stronger in the presence of DRB1*03:01.
systemic lupus erythematosus; autoimmunity; major histocompatibility complex; HLA; CIITA; MHC2TA
The existence of multiple inherited disorders of iron metabolism suggests genetic contributions to iron deficiency. We previously performed a genome-wide association study of iron-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using DNA from white men aged ≥25 y and women ≥50 y in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study with serum ferritin (SF) ≤12 µg/L (cases) and controls (SF >100 µg/L in men, SF >50 µg/L in women). We report a follow-up study of white, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian HEIRS participants, analyzed for association between SNPs and eight iron-related outcomes. Three chromosomal regions showed association across multiple populations, including SNPs in the TF and TMPRSS6 genes, and on chromosome 18q21. A novel SNP rs1421312 in TMPRSS6 was associated with serum iron in whites (p = 3.7×10−6) and replicated in African Americans (p = 0.0012).Twenty SNPs in the TF gene region were associated with total iron-binding capacity in whites (p<4.4×10−5); six SNPs replicated in other ethnicities (p<0.01). SNP rs10904850 in the CUBN gene on 10p13 was associated with serum iron in African Americans (P = 1.0×10−5). These results confirm known associations with iron measures and give unique evidence of their role in different ethnicities, suggesting origins in a common founder.
The primary genetic risk factor in multiple sclerosis (MS) is the HLA-DRB1*1501 allele; however, much of the remaining genetic contribution to MS has yet to be elucidated. Several lines of evidence support a role for neuroendocrine system involvement in autoimmunity which may, in part, be genetically determined. Here, we comprehensively investigated variation within eight candidate hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis genes and susceptibility to MS. A total of 326 SNPs were investigated in a discovery dataset of 1343 MS cases and 1379 healthy controls of European ancestry using a multi-analytical strategy. Random Forests, a supervised machine-learning algorithm, identified eight intronic SNPs within the corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor 1 or CRHR1 locus on 17q21.31 as important predictors of MS. On the basis of univariate analyses, six CRHR1 variants were associated with decreased risk for disease following a conservative correction for multiple tests. Independent replication was observed for CRHR1 in a large meta-analysis comprising 2624 MS cases and 7220 healthy controls of European ancestry. Results from a combined meta-analysis of all 3967 MS cases and 8599 controls provide strong evidence for the involvement of CRHR1 in MS. The strongest association was observed for rs242936 (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.74–0.90, P = 9.7 × 10−5). Replicated CRHR1 variants appear to exist on a single associated haplotype. Further investigation of mechanisms involved in HPA axis regulation and response to stress in MS pathogenesis is warranted.
The MHC class II transactivator gene (CIITA) is an important transcription factor regulating gene required for HLA class II MHC-restricted antigen presentation. Association with HLA class II variation, particularly HLA-DRB1*1501, has been well-established for multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, the −168A/G CIITA promoter variant (rs3087456) has been reported to be associated with MS. Thus, a multi-stage investigation of variation within CIITA, DRB1*1501 and MS was undertaken in 6108 individuals. In stage 1, 24 SNPs within CIITA were genotyped in 1320 cases and 1363 controls (n = 2683). Rs4774 (missense +1614G/C; G500A) was associated with MS (P = 4.9 × 10−3), particularly in DRB1*1501 +individuals (P = 1 × 10−4). No association was observed for the −168A/G promoter variant. In stage 2, rs4774 was genotyped in 973 extended families; rs4774*C was also associated with increased risk for MS in DRB1*1501+ families (P = 2.3 × 10−2). In a third analysis, rs4774 was tested in cases and controls (stage 1) combined with one case per family (stage 2) for increased power. Rs4774*C was associated with MS (P = 1 × 10−3), particularly in DRB1*1501+ cases and controls (P = 1 × 10−4). Results obtained from logistic regression analysis showed evidence for interaction between rs4774*C and DRB1*1501 associated with risk for MS (ratio of ORs = 1.72, 95% CI 1.28–2.32, P = 3 × 10−4). Furthermore, rs4774*C was associated with DRB1*1501+ MS when conditioned on the presence (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.19–2.37, P = 1.9 × 10−3) and absence (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15–1.95, P = 2.3 × 10−3) of CLEC16A rs6498169*G, a putative MS risk allele adjacent to CIITA. Our results provide strong evidence supporting a role for CIITA variation in MS risk, which appears to depend on the presence of DRB1*1501.
The existence of multiple inherited disorders of iron metabolism in man, rodents and other vertebrates suggests genetic contributions to iron deficiency. To identify new genomic locations associated with iron deficiency, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using DNA collected from white men aged ≥25 y and women ≥50 y in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study with serum ferritin (SF) ≤ 12 µg/L (cases) and iron replete controls (SF>100 µg/L in men, SF>50 µg/L in women). Regression analysis was used to examine the association between case-control status (336 cases, 343 controls) and quantitative serum iron measures and 331,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes, with replication analyses performed in a sample of 71 cases and 161 controls from a population of white male and female veterans screened at a US Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center. Five SNPs identified in the GWAS met genome-wide statistical significance for association with at least one iron measure, rs2698530 on chr. 2p14; rs3811647 on chr. 3q22, a known SNP in the transferrin (TF) gene region; rs1800562 on chr. 6p22, the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene; rs7787204 on chr. 7p21; and rs987710 on chr. 22q11 (GWAS observed P<1.51×10−7 for all). An association between total iron binding capacity and SNP rs3811647 in the TF gene (GWAS observed P = 7.0×10−9, corrected P = 0.012) was replicated within the VA samples (observed P = 0.012). Associations with the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene also were replicated. The joint analysis of the HEIRS and VA samples revealed strong associations between rs2698530 on chr. 2p14 and iron status outcomes. These results confirm a previously-described TF polymorphism and implicate one potential new locus as a target for gene identification.