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1.  Impact of a Community Based Implementation of REACH II Program for Caregivers of Alzheimer's Patients 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89290.
Background
In 2009 an estimated 5.3 million people in the United States were afflicted with Alzheimer's disease, a degenerative form of dementia. The impact of this disease is not limited to the patient but also has significant impact on the lives and health of their family caregivers. The Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH II) program was developed and tested in clinical studies. The REACH II program is now being delivered by community agencies in several locations. This study examines the impact of the REACH II program on caregiver lives and health in a city in north Texas.
Study design
Family caregivers of Alzheimer's patients were assessed using an instrument covering the multi-item domains of Caregiver Burden, Depression, Self-Care, and Social Support upon enrollment in the program and at the completion of the 6 month intervention. The domain scores were analyzed using a multivariate paired t-test and Bonferroni confidence interval for the differences in pre- and post-service domain scores.
Results
A total of 494 families were enrolled in the program during the period January 1, 2011 through June 30, 2012. Of these families 177 completed the 6 month program and have pre – and post service domain scores. The median age for the caregivers was 62 years. The domain scores for Depression and Caregiver Burden demonstrated statistically significant improvements upon program completion.
Conclusion
The REACH II intervention was successfully implemented by a community agency with comparable impacts to those of the clinical trial warranting wider scale implementation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089290
PMCID: PMC3937331  PMID: 24586664
2.  A qualitative study of patients’ goals and expectations for self-management of COPD 
Background
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an illness that affects patients on multiple levels, both physically and psychologically. While there is a growing body of evidence for the efficacy of self-management among patients with COPD, little evidence is available on the optimal content and methods for delivering self-management support.
Aims
The purpose of this study was to address gaps in the literature on self-management support by examining patients’ responses to questions about goals, needs, and expectations regarding self-management using qualitative methods in a broadly representative sample of patients with moderate to severe COPD. By focusing on patients’ perceptions of their needs, we hoped to guide development of cognitive-behavioural interventions for self-management support.
Methods
Patients ≥45 years of age with a physician diagnosis of COPD were recruited as part of a larger randomised controlled trial designed to determine the effectiveness of a lifestyle behavioural intervention to increase physical activity. In-depth interviews were conducted at baseline data collection using 10 standardised open-ended questions tailored to examine factors relevant to self-management support including concerns, fears, learning needs, barriers, facilitators, and goals. All interviews were audio recorded and analysed using qualitative methods. Responses were coded by three raters into thematic categories.
Results
A sample of 47 interviews with patients of mean age 68.4 years, 53% male, 87% white were used in the analysis. The distribution of spirometric impairment based on percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was moderate (57.5%), severe (31.9%), and very severe (10.6%). In response to questions targeting needs and goals for care, three main themes (loss, fear, and desire for improved care) and seven associated sub-themes were identified. Because of breathlessness and fatigue as well as symptoms from conditions other than COPD, patients reported the loss of ability to participate in pleasurable and necessary activities of daily living and the desire to recover at least some of their functioning. They expressed problems with social isolation and uncertainty about their prognosis, as well as the hope to improve. In addition, fearful experiences associated with uncontrolled breathlessness and a wish for greater understanding and knowledge about treatment were major concerns.
Conclusions
These qualitative results suggest that the content of self-management support for patients with COPD should focus on addressing patients’ fears associated with the uncertainty, progression, and suffering of their disease, their expectations about overcoming or replacing losses, their needs for improved health literacy and their desire for improved care. These responses indicate areas where cognitive-behavioural intervention should focus in order to enhance patient self-efficacy, motivation, and behavioural change for improved self-management.
doi:10.4104/pcrj.2012.00070
PMCID: PMC3745027  PMID: 23138844
chronic disease; cognitive-behaviour; COPD; qualitative research; self-management
3.  Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis and its contribution to TB burden 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:259.
Background
The health impacts of pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis (TB) treatment have not been included in assessments of TB burden. Therefore, previous global and national TB burden estimates do not reflect the full consequences of surviving TB. We assessed the burden of TB including pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis in Tarrant County, Texas using Disability-adjusted Life Years (DALYs).
Methods
TB burden was calculated for all culture-confirmed TB patients treated at Tarrant County Public Health between January 2005 and December 2006 using identical methods and life tables as the Global Burden of Disease Study. Years of life-lost were calculated as the difference between life expectancy using standardized life tables and age-at-death from TB. Years lived-with-disability were calculated from age and gender-specific TB disease incidence using published disability weights. Non-fatal health impacts of TB were divided into years lived-with-disability-acute and years lived-with-disability-chronic. Years lived-with-disability-acute was defined as TB burden resulting from illness prior to completion of treatment including the burden from treatment-related side effects. Years lived-with-disability-chronic was defined as TB burden from disability resulting from pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis.
Results
There were 224 TB cases in the time period, of these 177 were culture confirmed. These 177 subjects lost a total of 1189 DALYs. Of these 1189 DALYs 23% were from years of life-lost, 2% were from years lived-with-disability-acute and 75% were from years lived-with-disability-chronic.
Conclusions
Our findings demonstrate that the disease burden from TB is greater than previously estimated. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis was responsible for the majority of the burden. These data demonstrate that successful TB control efforts may reduce the health burden more than previously recognized.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-259
PMCID: PMC2894771  PMID: 20482835
4.  Physician Characteristics and the Reported Effect of Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines 
Health Services Research  2008;43(2):569-581.
Objective
To explore characteristics that may contribute to the effect practice guidelines have on the practice of medicine.
Data Sources
From the third round of the Community Tracking Study, Physician Survey, 2000–2001.
Study Design
An ordinal logistic regression model was estimated to capture the full range of responses.
Principal Findings
Recent medical school graduates, women, minorities, ob-gyn specialists, physicians who use computers for information in their practices, and physicians in nonsolo practice types were significantly more likely to state practice guidelines had an effect on their practice.
Conclusions
Many barriers have prevented wide acceptance of practice guidelines among the medical community. Our findings suggest there will be positive results on guideline effects as recent graduates, women, and minorities enter the physician workforce.
doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2007.00788.x
PMCID: PMC2442364  PMID: 18484106
Evidence-based practice guidelines; physician characteristics
5.  Differences in risk factors for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) receiving needed specialty care by socioeconomic status 
BMC Pediatrics  2009;9:48.
Background
The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting CSHCN's receiving needed specialty care among different socioeconomic levels. Previous literature has shown that Socioeconomic Status (SES) is a significant factor in CHSHCN receiving access to healthcare. Other literature has shown that factors of insurance, family size, race/ethnicity and sex also have effects on these children's receipt of care. However, this literature does not address whether other factors such as maternal education, geographic location, age, insurance type, severity of condition, or race/ethnicity have different effects on receiving needed specialty care for children in each SES level.
Methods
Data were obtained from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2000–2002. The study analyzed the survey which studies whether CHSCN who needed specialty care received it. The analysis included demographic characteristics, geographical location of household, severity of condition, and social factors. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed for SES levels defined by federal poverty level: < 199%; 200–299%; ≥ 300%.
Results
For the poorest children (,199% FPL) being uninsured had a strong negative effect on receiving all needed specialty care. Being Hispanic was a protective factor. Having more than one adult in the household had a positive impact on receipt of needed specialty care but a larger number of children in the family had a negative impact. For the middle income group of children (200–299% of FPL severity of condition had a strong negative association with receipt of needed specialty care.
Children in highest income group (> 300% FPL) were positively impacted by living in the Midwest and were negatively impacted by the mother having only some college compared to a four-year degree.
Conclusion
Factors affecting CSHCN receiving all needed specialty care differed among socioeconomic groups. These differences should be addressed in policy and practice. Future research should explore the CSHCN population by income groups to better serve this population
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-9-48
PMCID: PMC2729735  PMID: 19646227

Results 1-5 (5)