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1.  Paternal race/ethnicity and very low birth weight 
Background
The purpose was to examine the association between paternal race/ethnicity and very low birth weight stratified by maternal race/ethnicity.
Methods
Birth data for Tarrant County, Texas 2006–2010 were analyzed. Very low birth weight was dichotomized as yes (<1,500 g) and no (≥1,500 g). Paternal race/ethnicity was categorized as Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, other, and missing. Missing observations (14.7%) were included and served as a proxy for fathers absent during pregnancy. Potential confounders included maternal age, education, and marital status, plurality, previous preterm birth, sexually transmitted disease during pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, and Kotelchuck Index of prenatal care. Logistic regressions were stratified by maternal race/ethnicity. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results
Of 145,054 births, 60,156 (41.5%) were Caucasian, 22,306 (15.4%) African American, 54,553 (37.6%) Hispanic, and 8,039 (5.5%) other mothers. There were 2,154 (1.5%) very low birth weights total, with 3.1% for African American mothers and 1.2% for all other race/ethnicities. Among Caucasian mothers, African American paternal race was associated with increased odds of very low birth weight (OR = 1.52; 95% CI:1.08-2.14). Among Hispanic mothers, African American paternal race (OR = 1.66; 95% CI:1.01-2.74) and missing paternal race/ethnicity (OR = 1.65; 95% CI:1.15-2.36) were associated with increased odds of very low birth weight.
Conclusions
Paternal race/ethnicity is an important predictor of very low birth weight among Caucasian and Hispanic mothers. Future research should consider paternal race/ethnicity and further explore the association between paternal characteristics and very low birth weight.
doi:10.1186/s12884-014-0385-z
PMCID: PMC4245806  PMID: 25406725
Very low birth weight; Maternal and child health; Birth outcomes
2.  Incidental Computer Tomography Radiologic Findings through Research Participation in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study 
Background
Although variation exists in the classification and practice of managing clinical findings in research, emerging views suggest that researchers bear some responsibility in the management of incidental findings. This study contributes to the documentation of the population characteristics and prevalence of medical findings incidental to research participation, specifically findings related to coronary calcium scores and computed tomography (CT) scans that investigated cardiovascular disparities in an asymptomatic population.
Methods
A total of 571 asymptomatic adult participants were recruited in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study. Participants completed a 16-slice CT scan of the heart and abdomen. Findings of radiology reports and 3 years of follow-up documentation were reviewed.
Results
A total of 246 clinically apparent findings were identified in 169 asymptomatic participants (32.9% of participants who completed a CT scan). Another 245 participants (48%) had findings of unknown significance, a total of 307 findings. At least 4 cases in this study led to a clinically significant intervention.
Conclusion
Although CT scans were completed for research purposes, study procedures resulted in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals who were previously asymptomatic. Potential clinical benefits in imaging research are moderated by considerations regarding possible harm and costs resulting from uncertain findings and the use of CT scans for nonclinical purposes. The continued development of protocols for the handling of incidental findings in research and the establishment of guidelines are needed to ensure that research procedures mirror the best interests of participants.
doi:10.3122/jabfm.2014.03.130250
PMCID: PMC4113722  PMID: 24808109
Computed Tomography; Incidental Findings; Medical Ethics; Practice-based Research Networks; Research Subjects
3.  Improving accuracy of medication identification in an older population using a medication bottle color symbol label system 
BMC Family Practice  2011;12:142.
Background
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate and refine an adjuvant system of color-specific symbols that are added to medication bottles and to assess whether this system would increase the ability of patients 65 years of age or older in matching their medication to the indication for which it was prescribed.
Methods
This study was conducted in two phases, consisting of three focus groups of patients from a family medicine clinic (n = 25) and a pre-post medication identification test in a second group of patient participants (n = 100). Results of focus group discussions were used to refine the medication label symbols according to themes and messages identified through qualitative triangulation mechanisms and data analysis techniques. A pre-post medication identification test was conducted in the second phase of the study to assess differences between standard labeling alone and the addition of the refined color-specific symbols. The pre-post test examined the impact of the added labels on participants' ability to accurately match their medication to the indication for which it was prescribed when placed in front of participants and then at a distance of two feet.
Results
Participants appreciated the addition of a visual aid on existing medication labels because it would not be necessary to learn a completely new system of labeling, and generally found the colors and symbols used in the proposed labeling system easy to understand and relevant. Concerns were raised about space constraints on medication bottles, having too much information on the bottle, and having to remember what the colors meant. Symbols and colors were modified if they were found unclear or inappropriate by focus group participants. Pre-post medication identification test results in a second set of participants demonstrated that the addition of the symbol label significantly improved the ability of participants to match their medication to the appropriate medical indication at a distance of two feet (p < 0.001) and approached significant improvement when placed directly in front of participants (p = 0.07).
Conclusions
The proposed medication symbol label system provides a promising adjunct to national efforts in addressing the issue of medication misuse in the home through the improvement of medication labeling. Further research is necessary to determine the effectiveness of the labeling system in real-world settings.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-12-142
PMCID: PMC3282670  PMID: 22206490
Medication labeling; medication errors; medication adherence

Results 1-3 (3)