Because of its very low human seroprevalence, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has promise as a systemic oncolytic agent for human cancer therapy. However, as demonstrated in this report, the VSV infectious titer drops by 4 log units during the first hour of exposure to nonimmune human serum. This neutralization occurs relatively slowly and is mediated by the concerted actions of natural IgM and complement. Maraba virus, whose G protein is about 80% homologous to that of VSV, is relatively resistant to the neutralizing activity of nonimmune human serum. We therefore constructed and rescued a recombinant VSV whose G gene was replaced by the corresponding gene from Maraba virus. Comparison of the parental VSV and VSV with Maraba G substituted revealed nearly identical host range properties and replication kinetics on a panel of tumor cell lines. Moreover, in contrast to the parental VSV, the VSV with Maraba G substituted was resistant to nonimmune human serum. Overall, our data suggest that VSV with Maraba G substituted should be further investigated as a candidate for human systemic oncolytic virotherapy applications.
IMPORTANCE Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising approach for the treatment of disseminated cancers, but antibody neutralization of circulating oncolytic virus particles remains a formidable barrier. In this work, we developed a pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with a glycoprotein of Maraba virus, a closely related but serologically distinct member of the family Rhabdoviridae, which demonstrated greatly diminished susceptibility to both nonimmune and VSV-immune serum neutralization. VSV with Maraba G substituted or lentiviral vectors should therefore be further investigated as candidates for human systemic oncolytic virotherapy and gene therapy applications.
STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is known to control the induction of innate immune genes in response to the recognition of cytosolic DNA species, including the genomes of viruses such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). However, while STING is essential for protection of the host against numerous DNA pathogens, sustained STING activity can lead to lethal inflammatory disease. It is known that STING utilizes interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways to exert its effects, although the signal transduction mechanisms remain to be clarified fully. Here we demonstrate that in addition to the activation of these pathways, potent induction of the Jun N-terminal protein kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway was similarly observed in response to STING activation by double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Furthermore, TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) associated with STING was found to facilitate dsDNA-mediated canonical activation of NF-κB as well as IRF3 to promote proinflammatory gene transcription. The triggering of NF-κB function was noted to require TRAF6 activation. Our findings detail a novel dsDNA-mediated NF-κB activation pathway facilitated through a STING-TRAF6-TBK1 axis and suggest a target for therapeutic intervention to plausibly stimulate antiviral activity or, alternatively, avert dsDNA-mediated inflammatory disease.
IMPORTANCE The IKK complex, which is composed of two catalytic subunits, IKKα and IKKβ, has been suggested to be essential for the activation of canonical NF-κB signaling in response to various stimuli, including cytokines (e.g., interleukin-1α [IL-1α] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]), Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands (e.g., lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and dsRNAs derived from viruses, or a synthetic analog. STING has been identified as a critical signaling molecule required for the detection of cytosolic dsDNAs derived from pathogens and viruses. However, little is known about how cytosolic dsDNA triggers NF-κB signaling. In the present study, we demonstrate that TBK1, identified as an IKK-related kinase, may predominantly control the activation of NF-κB in response to dsDNA signaling via STING through the IKKαβ activation loop. Thus, our results establish TBK1 as a downstream kinase controlling dsDNA-mediated IRF3 and NF-κB signaling dependent on STING.
Activation of the STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) pathway by microbial or self-DNA, as well as cyclic di nucleotides (CDN), results in the induction of numerous genes that suppress pathogen replication and facilitate adaptive immunity. However, sustained gene transcription is rigidly prevented to avoid lethal STING-dependent pro-inflammatory disease by mechanisms that remain unknown. We demonstrate here that after autophagy-dependent STING delivery of TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase 1) to endosomal/lysosomal compartments and activation of transcription factors IRF3 (interferon regulatory factors 3) and NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa beta), that STING is subsequently phosphorylated by serine/threonine UNC-51-like kinase (ULK1/ATG1) and IRF3 function is suppressed. ULK1 activation occurred following disassociation from its repressor adenine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), and was elicited by CDN’s generated by the cGAMP synthase, cGAS. Thus, while CDN’s may initially facilitate STING function, they subsequently trigger negative-feedback control of STING activity, thus preventing the persistent transcription of innate immune genes.
How the cell recognizes cytosolic DNA including DNA based microbes to trigger host defense related gene activation remains to be fully resolved. Here, we demonstrate that STING (for Stimulator of Interferon Genes), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) translocon associated transmembrane protein, acts to detect cytoplasmic DNA species. STING homodimers were able to complex with self (apoptotic, necrotic) or pathogen related ssDNA and dsDNA and were indispensible for HSV-1-mediated transcriptional activation of a wide array of innate immune and pro-inflammatory genes in addition to type I IFN. Our data indicates that STING instigates cytoplasmic DNA-mediated cellular defense gene transcription and facilitates adoptive responses that are required for protection of the host. In contrast, chronic STING activation may manifest inflammatory responses and possibly autoimmune disease triggered by self-DNA.
The early detection of microbes is the responsibility of the innate immune system which has evolved to sense pathogen derived molecules such as lipopolysaccharides and non-self nucleic acid, to trigger host defense countermeasures. These sensors include the RIG-I-like helicase family (RLH) that specifically recognizes viral RNA, as well as the cytoplasmic, nucleotide binding oligermerization domain (NOD)-like receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways that sense a variety of microbial derived molecules. Comprehending how the cell senses foreign DNA, generated by certain viruses, bacteria and possibly parasites has proven elusive but is of significant importance since such information could shed insight into the causes of microbial related disease, including viral associated cancers and autoimmune disorders. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are known to utilize TLR9 to detect pathogen-associated DNA and to trigger the production of type I interferon (IFN), as well as other cytokines, although alternate key DNA detecting sensors remain to be identified. Recently however, a molecule referred to as AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) was found to be essential for mediating inflammatory reactions triggered by cytoplasmic DNA. In addition, an endoplasmic reticulum associated protein referred to as STING (for Stimulator of Interferon Genes) was demonstrated as being pivotal for facilitating IFN production in response to intracelleular DNA and a variety of DNA pathogens. Here, we review recent discoveries relating to the detection of foreign DNA, including the importance of the STING and AIM2 and the activation of innate signaling pathways.
We are developing oncolytic vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSVs) for systemic treatment of multiple myeloma, an incurable malignancy of antibody-secreting plasma cells that are specifically localized in the bone marrow. One of the presumed advantages for using VSV as an oncolytic virus is that human infections are rare and preexisting anti-VSV immunity is typically lacking in cancer patients, which is very important for clinical success. However, our studies show that nonimmune human and mouse serum can neutralize clinical-grade VSV, reducing the titer by up to 4 log units in 60 min. In addition, we show that neutralizing anti-VSV antibodies negate the antitumor efficacy of VSV, a concern for repeat VSV administration. We have investigated the potential use of covalent modification of VSV with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or a function-spacer-lipid (FSL)–PEG construct to inhibit serum neutralization and to limit hepatosplenic sequestration of systemically delivered VSV. We report that in mice passively immunized with neutralizing anti-VSV antibodies, PEGylation of VSV improved the persistence of VSV in the blood circulation, maintaining a more than 1-log-unit increase in VSV genome copies for up to 1 h compared to the genome copy numbers for the non-PEGylated virus, which was mostly cleared within 10 min after intravenous injection. We are currently investigating if this increase in PEGylated VSV circulating half-life can translate to increased virus delivery and better efficacy in mouse models of multiple myeloma.
Cytosolic DNA sensing via the STING adaptor incites autoimmunity by inducing type I IFN (IFNαβ). Here we show that DNA is also sensed via STING to suppress immunity by inducing indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). STING gene ablation abolished IFNαβ and IDO induction by dendritic cells (DCs) after DNA nanoparticle (DNP) treatment. Marginal zone macrophages, some DCs and myeloid cells ingested DNPs but CD11b+ DCs were the only cells to express IFNβ, while CD11b+ non-DCs were major IL-1β producers. STING ablation also abolished DNP-induced regulatory responses by DCs and regulatory T cells (Tregs), and hallmark regulatory responses to apoptotic cells were also abrogated. Moreover, systemic cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-diGMP) treatment to activate STING induced selective IFNβ expression by CD11b+ DCs and suppressed Th1 responses to immunization. Thus, previously unrecognized functional diversity amongst physiologic innate immune cells regarding DNA sensing via STING is pivotal in driving immune responses to DNA.
In the last decade, we have gained significant understanding of the mechanism by which vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) specifically kills cancer cells. Dysregulation of translation and defective innate immunity are both thought to contribute to VSV oncolysis. Safety and efficacy are important objectives to consider in evaluating VSV as a therapy for malignant disease. Ongoing efforts may enable VSV virotherapy to be considered in the near future to treat drug-resistant ovarian cancer when other options have been exhausted. In this article, we review the development of VSV as a potential therapeutic approach for recurrent or drug-resistant ovarian cancer.
Ovarian cancer; therapy; VSV; oncolytic virus; innate immunity; STING; interferons
Current treatment options for epithelial ovarian cancer are limited and therapeutic development for recurrent and drug-resistant ovarian cancer is an urgent agenda. We investigated the potential use of genetically engineered Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) to treat ovarian cancer patients who fail to respond to available therapies. Specifically, we examined the toxicity to hosts and specificity of targeting ovarian tumors using a Wv ovarian tumor model.
We first tested recombinant VSV for oncolytic activity in a panel of human ovarian epithelial cancer, immortalized, and primary ovarian surface epithelial cells in culture. Then, we test VSV oncolytic therapy using the immune competent Wv mice that develop tubular adenomas, benign tumor lesions derived from ovarian surface epithelial cells.
The expression of GFP encoded by the recombinant VSV genome was detected in about 5% of primary ovarian surface epithelial cells (3 lines) up to 30 days without significantly altering the growth pattern of the cells, suggesting the lack of toxicity to the normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. However, VSV-GFP was detected in the majority (around 90%) of cells that are either “immortalized” by SV40 antigen expression or cancer lines. Some variation in killing time courses was observed, but all the transformed cell lines were killed within 3 days.
We found that regardless of the inoculation route (intra bursal, IP, or IV), VSV specifically infected and replicated in the in situ ovarian tumors in the Wv mice without significant activity in any other organs and tissues, and showed no detectable toxicity. The epithelial tumor lesions were greatly reduced in VSV-targeted ovarian tumors in the Wv mice.
VSV oncolytic activity depends on a cell autonomous property distinguishing primary and transformed cells. The efficient oncolytic activity of VSV for the “immortalized” non-tumorigenic ovarian surface epithelial cells suggests that the selective specificity extends from pre-neoplastic to overt cancer cells. The results demonstrated the explicit targeting of ovarian epithelial tumors by VSV in immune com petent, ovarian tumor-bearing mouse models, and further support the utility of VSV as an effective and safe anti-cancer agent.
We report here the identification, following expression cloning, of a molecule, STING (STimulator of INterferon Genes) that regulates innate immune signaling processes. STING, comprising 5 putative transmembrane (TM) regions, predominantly resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is able to activate both NF-κB and IRF3 transcription pathways to induce type I IFN and exert a potent anti-viral state following expression. In contrast, loss of STING rendered murine embryonic fibroblasts (STING −/−MEFs) extremely susceptible to negative-stranded virus infection, including vesicular stomatitis virus, VSV. Further, STING ablation abrogated the ability of intracellular B-form DNA, as well as members of the herpes virus family, to induce IFNβ, but did not significantly affect the Toll-like receptor (TLR pathway). Yeast-two hybrid and co-immunprecipitation studies indicated that STING interacts with RIG-I and with Ssr2/TRAPβ, a member of the translocon-associated protein (TRAP) complex required for protein translocation across the ER membrane following translation[1, 2]. RNAi ablation of TRAPβ and translocon adaptor Sec61β was subsequently found to inhibit STING’s ability to stimulate IFNβ. Thus, aside from identifying a novel regulator of innate immune signaling, this data implicates for the first time a potential role for the translocon in innate signaling pathways activated by select viruses as well as intracellular DNA.
Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) regulates early type I IFNs and other genes involved in innate immunity. We have previously shown that cells undergoing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response called the “Unfolded Protein Response” (UPR) produce synergistically augmented IFN-β when stimulated with pattern recognition receptor agonists such as LPS Concomitant ER stress and LPS stimulation resulted in greater recruitment of the IRF3 transcription factor to ifnb1 gene regulatory elements. In this study, we utilized murine cells to demonstrate that both oxygen-glucose deprivation and pharmacologic UPR inducers trigger phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3, even in the absence of exogenous LPS. Different ER stressors utilized distinct mechanisms to activate IRF3: IRF3 phosphorylation due to calcium-mobilizing ER stress (thapsigargin treatment, oxygen-glucose deprivation) critically depended upon Stimulator of interferon gene (STING), an ER-resident nucleic acid-responsive molecule. However, calcium mobilization alone by ionomycin was insufficient for IRF3 phosphorylation. In contrast, other forms of ER stress (e.g., tunicamycin treatment) promote IRF3 phosphorylation independently of STING and Tank binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Rather, IRF3 activation by tunicamycin and 2-deoxyglucose was inhibited by AEBSF, a serine protease inhibitor that blocks ATF6 processing. Interfering with ER stress-induced IRF3 activation abrogated IFN-β synergy. Together, these data suggest ER stress primes cells to respond to innate immune stimuli by activating the IRF3 transcription factor. Our results also suggest certain types of ER stress accomplish IRF3 phosphorylation by co-opting existing innate immune pathogen response pathways. These data have implications for diseases involving ER stress and type I IFN.
RIG-I-Like Receptors (RLRs) sense cytosolic viral RNA to transiently activate type I IFN production. Here, we report that a type I IFN inducible DExD/H helicase, DDX24, exerts a negative-regulatory effect on RLR function. Expression of DDX24 specifically suppressed RLR activity, while DDX24 loss, which caused embryonic lethality, augmented cytosolic RNA-mediated innate signaling and facilitated RNA virus replication. DDX24 preferentially bound to RNA rather than DNA species and influenced signaling by associating with adaptor proteins FADD and RIP1. These events preferentially impeded IRF7 activity, an essential transcription factor for type I IFN production. Our data provide a new function for DDX24 and help explain innate immune gene regulation, mechanisms that may additionally provide insight into the causes of inflammatory disease.
Innate immunity is the first and most rapid host defense against virus infection. Viral RNAs, which are generated during RNA virus replication in host cells, can be recognized through RIG-I-Like Receptors (RLRs) to transiently produce type I interferon, which further induce abundant interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) to clear viral infection. However, uncontrolled innate immune responses cause inflammatory diseases that are detrimental to the host. Therefore, a balanced innate immune response is critical to maintain homeostasis of the host. Thus, RLR signaling is tightly regulated by both positive and negative regulators. DDX24, a helicase reported in this study, is an ISG that exerts an inhibitory effect on RLR dependent signaling. DDX24 hijacked adaptor proteins FADD and RIP1 in host cells to suppress viral RNA dependent interferon production and facilitated RNA virus replication in certain cells. Moreover, DDX24 deficient mouse embryos exerted early embryonic lethality, suggesting an important role for this helicase, perhaps in addition to regulating RLR signaling. In all, our results elucidate the role of DDX24 in RLR dependent signaling, and may shed light on innate immune gene regulation.
Oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has potent antitumor activity, but infects a broad range of cell types. Here, we used the measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) envelope glycoproteins to redirect VSV entry and infection specifically to tumor-associated receptors. Replication-defective VSV, deleted of its glycoprotein gene (VSVΔG), was pseudotyped with MV-F and MV-H displaying single-chain antibodies (scFv) specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), folate receptor (FR), or prostate membrane-specific antigen (PSMA). Viral titers were ∼105 PFU/ml, but could be concentrated to 107 PFU/ml. Immunoblotting confirmed incorporation of the MV-H-scFv and MV-F into functional VSV virions. Although VSV-G was able to infect all tumor cell lines tested, the retargeted VSV infected only cells that expressed the targeted receptor. In vivo specificities of the EGFR-, FR-, and PSMA-retargeted VSV were assessed by intratumoral injection into human tumor xenografts. Analysis of green fluorescent protein reporter gene expression indicated that VSV infection was restricted to receptor-positive tumors. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that VSV can be efficiently retargeted to different cellular receptors using the measles display technology, yielding retargeted VSV vectors that are highly specific for tumors that express the relevant receptor.
Ayala-Breton and colleagues use the measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) envelope glycoproteins to redirect vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) entry and infection specifically to tumor-associated receptors such as epidermal growth factor receptor, folate receptor, and prostate membrane-specific antigen. In vivo expression of the all retargeted VSV was restricted to receptor-positive human tumor xenografts.
Current therapy for multiple myeloma is complex and prolonged. Antimyeloma drugs are combined in induction, consolidation and/or maintenance protocols to destroy bulky disease, then suppress or eradicate residual disease. Oncolytic viruses have the potential to mediate both tumor debulking and residual disease elimination, but this curative paradigm remains unproven. Here we engineered an oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus to minimize its neurotoxicity, enhance induction of antimyeloma immunity, and facilitate noninvasive monitoring of its intratumoral spread. Using high resolution imaging, autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that the intravenously administered virus extravasates from tumor blood vessels in immunocompetent myeloma-bearing mice, nucleating multiple intratumoral infectious centers which expand rapidly and necrose at their centers, ultimately coalescing to cause extensive tumor destruction. This oncolytic tumor debulking phase lasts only for 72 hours after virus administration, and is completed before antiviral antibodies become detectable in the bloodstream. Anti-myeloma T cells, cross-primed as the virus-infected cells provoke an antiviral immune response, then eliminate residual uninfected myeloma cells. The study establishes a curative oncolytic paradigm for multiple myeloma where direct tumor debulking and immune eradication of minimal disease are mediated by a single intravenous dose of a single therapeutic agent. Clinical translation is underway.
Oncolytic Virotherapy; multiple myeloma; Vesicular Stomatitis Virus; Intravenous; Immunotherapy
The type I interferon (IFN) response initiated by detection of nucleic acids is important for antiviral defense, but is also associated with specific autoimmune diseases. Mutations in the human 3′ repair exonuclease 1 (Trex1) gene cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), an IFN-associated autoimmune disease. However, the source of the type I IFN response and the precise mechanisms of disease in AGS remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Trex1 is an essential negative regulator of the STING-dependent antiviral response. We used an in vivo reporter of IFN activity in Trex1-deficient mice to localize the initiation of disease to non-hematopoietic cells. These IFNs drove T cell-mediated inflammation and an autoantibody response that targeted abundant, tissue-restricted autoantigens. However, B cells contributed to mortality independently of T cell-mediated tissue damage. These findings reveal a stepwise progression of autoimmune disease in Trex1-deficient mice, with implications for the treatment of AGS and related disorders.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable malignancy of plasma secreting B-cells disseminated in the bone marrow. Successful utilization of oncolytic virotherapy for myeloma treatment requires a systemically administered virus that selectively destroys disseminated myeloma cells in an immune-competent host. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing Interferon-β (IFNβ) is a promising new oncolytic agent that exploits tumor-associated defects in innate immune signaling pathways to specifically destroy cancer cells. We demonstrate here that a single, intravenous dose of VSV-IFNβ specifically destroys subcutaneous and disseminated 5TGM1 myeloma in an immune competent myeloma model. VSV-IFN treatment significantly prolonged survival in mice bearing orthotopic myeloma. Viral murine IFNβ expression further delayed myeloma progression and significantly enhanced survival compared to VSV expressing human IFNβ. Evaluation of VSV-IFNβ oncolytic activity in human myeloma cell lines and primary patient samples confirmed myeloma specific oncolytic activity but revealed variable susceptibility to VSV-IFNβ oncolysis. The results indicate that VSV-IFNβ is a potent, safe oncolytic agent that can be systemically administered to effectively target and destroy disseminated myeloma in immune competent mice. IFNβ expression improves cancer specificity and enhances VSV therapeutic efficacy against disseminated myeloma. These data show VSV-IFNβ to be a promising vector for further development as a potential therapy for treatment of Multiple myeloma.
Oncolytic; virotherapy; myeloma; Vesicular stomatitis virus; systemic
Dengue virus (DENV) is a pathogen with a high impact on human health. It replicates in a wide range of cells involved in the immune response. To efficiently infect humans, DENV must evade or inhibit fundamental elements of the innate immune system, namely the type I interferon response. DENV circumvents the host immune response by expressing proteins that antagonize the cellular innate immunity. We have recently documented the inhibition of type I IFN production by the proteolytic activity of DENV NS2B3 protease complex in human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). In the present report we identify the human adaptor molecule STING as a target of the NS2B3 protease complex. We characterize the mechanism of inhibition of type I IFN production in primary human MDDCs by this viral factor. Using different human and mouse primary cells lacking STING, we show enhanced DENV replication. Conversely, mutated versions of STING that cannot be cleaved by the DENV NS2B3 protease induced higher levels of type I IFN after infection with DENV. Additionally, we show that DENV NS2B3 is not able to degrade the mouse version of STING, a phenomenon that severely restricts the replication of DENV in mouse cells, suggesting that STING plays a key role in the inhibition of DENV infection and spread in mice.
Dengue virus (DENV) is a pathogen with a high impact in human health that replicates in a wide range of cells of the immune system. To efficiently infect humans, DENV must evade or inhibit fundamental elements of the innate immune system, namely the type I interferon response (IFN). Thus, DENV can inhibit type I IFN signaling (described by several groups), and type I IFN production (described by our group). We documented the inhibition of type I IFN production in human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) with an otherwise strong cytokine and chemokine profile in those cells and that the NS2B3 protease complex of DENV functions as an antagonist of type I IFN production, and its proteolytic activity is necessary for this event. Here we identify the human adaptor molecule STING as a target of the NS2B3 protease complex and characterize the mechanism of inhibition of the type I IFN production in primary human MDDCs mediated by this viral factor. We also describe that DENV NS2B3 cannot degrade the mouse version of STING, a phenomenon that strictly restricts the replication of DENV in mouse cells, suggesting that STING plays a key role in the inhibition of DENV infection and spread in mice.
Although Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) has been implicated in regulating cytokine and type I interferon (IFN) production during malaria in humans and mice, the high AT content of the Plasmodium falciparum genome prompted us to examine the possibility that malarial DNA triggered TLR9-independent DNA sensing pathways. Over 6000 ATTTTTAC (“AT-rich”) motifs are present in the genome of P. falciparum, which we show here potently induce type I IFNs. Parasite DNA, parasitized erythrocytes and oligonucleotides containing the AT-r motif induce type I IFNs via a pathway that did not involve previously described sensors including TLR9, DAI, RNA polymerase-III or IFI16/p204. Rather, AT-rich DNA sensing involved an unknown receptor that coupled to STING, TBK1 and IRF3-IRF7 signaling pathway. Mice lacking both IRF3 and IRF7, the kinase TBK1 or the type I IFN receptor were resistant to otherwise lethal cerebral malaria. Collectively, these observations implicate AT-rich DNA sensing via STING, TBK1 and IRF3-IRF7 in P. falciparum malaria.
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a negative-strand RNA rhabdovirus, preferentially replicates in and eradicates transformed versus nontransformed cells and is thus being considered for use as a potential anticancer treatment. The genetic malleability of VSV also affords an opportunity to develop more potent agents that exhibit increased therapeutic activity. The tumor suppressor p53 has been shown to exert potent antitumor properties, which may in part involve stimulating host innate immune responses to malignancies. To evaluate whether VSV expressing p53 exhibited enhanced oncolytic action, the murine p53 (mp53) gene was incorporated into recombinant VSVs with or without a functional viral M gene-encoded protein that could either block (VSV-mp53) or enable [VSV-M(mut)-mp53] host mRNA export following infection of susceptible cells. Our results indicated that VSV-mp53 and VSV-M(mut)-mp53 expressed high levels of functional p53 and retained the ability to lyse transformed versus normal cells. In addition, we observed that VSV-ΔM-mp53 was extremely attenuated in vivo due to p53 activating innate immune genes, such as type I interferon (IFN). Significantly, immunocompetent animals with metastatic mammary adenocarcinoma exhibited increased survival following treatment with a single inoculation of VSV-ΔM-mp53, the mechanisms of which involved enhanced CD49b+ NK and tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Our data indicate that VSV incorporating p53 could provide a safe, effective strategy for the design of VSV oncolytic therapeutics and VSV-based vaccines.
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) is a heteropentameric guanine nucleotide exchange factor that converts protein synthesis initiation factor 2 (eIF2) from a GDP-bound form to the active eIF2-GTP complex. Cellular stress can repress translation initiation by activating kinases capable of phosphorylating the alpha subunit of eIF2 (eIF2α), which sequesters eIF2B to prevent exchange activity. Previously, we demonstrated that tumor cells are sensitive to viral replication, possibly due to the occurrence of defects in eIF2B that overcome the inhibitory effects of eIF2α phosphorylation. To extend this analysis, we have investigated the importance of eIF2Bα function and report that this subunit can functionally substitute for its counterpart, GCN3, in yeast. In addition, a variant of mammalian eIF2Bα harboring a point mutation (T41A) was able overcome translational inhibition invoked by amino acid depravation, which activates Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCN2 to phosphorylate the yeast eIF2α homolog SUI2. Significantly, we also demonstrate that the loss of eIF2Bα, or the expression of the T41A variant in mammalian cells, is sufficient to neutralize the consequences of eIF2α phosphorylation and render normal cells susceptible to virus infection. Our data emphasize the importance of eIF2Bα in mediating the eIF2 kinase translation-inhibitory activity and may provide insight into the complex nature of viral oncolysis.
miR-155, processed from the B-cell integration cluster (BIC), is one of the few well-studied microRNAs (miRNAs) and is involved in both innate immunity and tumorigenesis. BIC/miR-155 is induced by distinct signaling pathways, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We have identified two conserved potential interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF)-binding/interferon-stimulated response element motifs in the Bic gene promoter. Two oncogenic IRFs, IRF4 and -7, in addition to some other members of the family, bind to and significantly transactivate the Bic promoter. Correspondingly, the endogenous levels of IRF4 and -7 are correlated with that of the BIC transcript in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed cells. However, RNA interference studies have shown that depletion of IRF4, rather than of IRF7, dramatically decreases the endogenous level of BIC by up to 70% in EBV- or human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV1)-transformed cell lines and results in apoptosis and reduction of proliferation rates that are restored by transient expression of miR-155. Moreover, the endogenous levels of the miR-155 target, SHIP1, are consistently elevated in EBV- and HTLV1-transformed cell lines stably expressing shIRF4. In contrast, transient expression of IRF4 decreases the SHIP1 level in EBV-negative B cells. Furthermore, the level of IRF4 mRNA is significantly correlated with that of BIC in adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATLL) tumors. These results show that IRF4 plays an important role in the regulation of BIC in the context of EBV and HTLV1 infection. Our findings have identified Bic as the first miRNA-encoding gene for IRFs and provide evidence for a novel molecular mechanism underlying the IRF/BIC pathway in viral oncogenesis.
The innate immune system responds within minutes of infection to produce type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Interferons induce the synthesis of cell proteins with antiviral activity, and also shape the adaptive immune response by priming T cells. Despite the discovery of interferons over 50 years ago, only recently have we begun to understand how cells sense the presence of a virus infection. Two families of pattern recognition receptors have been shown to distinguish unique molecules present in pathogens, such as bacterial and fungal cell wall components, viral RNA and DNA, and lipoproteins. The first family includes the membrane-bound toll-like receptors (TLRs). Studies of the signaling pathways that lead from pattern recognition to cytokine induction have revealed extensive and overlapping cascades that involve protein-protein interactions and phosphorylation, and culminate in activation of transcription proteins that control the transcription of genes encoding interferons and other cytokines. A second family of pattern recognition receptors has recently been identified, which comprises the cytoplasmic sensors of viral nucleic acids, including MDA-5, RIG-I, and LGP2. In this review we summarize the discovery of these cytoplasmic sensors, how they recognize nucleic acids, the signaling pathways leading to cytokine synthesis, and viral countermeasures that have evolved to antagonize the functions of these proteins. We also consider the function of these cytoplasmic sensors in apoptosis, development and differentiation, and diabetes.
Antiviral innate immunity; MDA-5; RIG-I; domain grafting; cell signaling; apoptosis; viral pathogenesis
Innate immune signaling is crucial for detection of and the initial response to microbial pathogens. Evidence is provided indicating that LGP2, a DEXH box domain protein related to the RNA recognition receptors RIG-I and MDA5, participates in the cellular response to cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Analysis of embryonic fibroblasts and macrophages from mice harboring targeted disruption in the LGP2 gene reveals that LGP2 can act as a positive regulator of type I IFN and anti-microbial gene expression in response to transfected dsDNA. Results indicate that infection of LGP2-deficient mice with an intracellular bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, leads to reduced levels of type I IFN and IL12, and allows increased bacterial growth in infected animals, resulting in greater colonization of both spleen and liver. Responses to infection with vaccinia virus, a dsDNA virus, are also suppressed in cells lacking LGP2, reinforcing the ability of LGP2 to act as a positive regulator of antiviral signaling. In vitro mechanistic studies indicate that purified LGP2 protein does not bind DNA but instead mediates these responses indirectly. Data suggest that LGP2 may be acting downstream of the intracellular RNA polymerase III pathway to activate anti-microbial signaling. Together, these findings demonstrate a regulatory role for LGP2 in the response to cytosolic DNA, an intracellular bacterial pathogen, and a DNA virus, and provide a plausible mechanistic hypothesis as the basis for this activity.