PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-3 (3)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  A positive-margin resection model recreates the postsurgical tumor microenvironment and is a reliable model for adjuvant therapy evaluation 
Cancer Biology & Therapy  2012;13(9):745-755.
Up to 30% of cancer patients undergoing curative surgery develop local recurrences due to positive margins. Patients typically receive adjuvant chemotherapy, immunotherapy and/or radiation to prevent such relapses. Interestingly, evidence supporting these therapies is traditionally derived in animal models of primary tumors, thus failing to consider surgically induced tumor microenvironment changes that may influence adjuvant therapy efficacy. To address this consideration, we characterized a murine model of local cancer recurrence. This model was reproducible and generated a postoperative inflammatory tumor microenvironment that resembles those observed following human cancer surgery. To further validate this model, antagonists of two pro-inflammatory mediators, TGFβ and COX-2, were tested and found to be effective in decreasing the growth of recurrent tumors. We appreciated that preoperative TGFβ inhibition led to wound dehiscence, while postoperative initiation of COX-2 inhibition resulted in a loss of efficacy. In summary, although not an exact replica of all human cancer surgeries, our proposed local recurrence approach provides a biologically relevant and reliable model useful for preclinical evaluation of novel adjuvant therapies. The use of this model yields results that may be overlooked using traditional preclinical cancer models that fail to incorporate a surgical component.
doi:10.4161/cbt.20557
PMCID: PMC3606205  PMID: 22617772
Surgical model; adjuvant therapy; cancer recurrence; immunotherapy; oncology; tumor microenvironment
2.  Characterization of surgical models of postoperative tumor recurrence for preclinical adjuvant therapy assessment 
Purpose
Nearly 30% of cancer patients undergoing curative surgery succumb to distant recurrent disease. Despite large implications and known differences between primary and recurrent tumors, preclinical adjuvant therapy evaluation frequently occurs only in primary tumors and not recurrent tumors. We hypothesized that well characterized and reproducible models of postoperative systemic recurrences should be used for preclinical evaluation of adjuvant approaches.
Experimental Design
We examined traditional animal models of cancer surgery that generate systemic cancer recurrences. We also investigated models of systemic cancer recurrences that incorporate spontaneously metastatic cell lines and surgical resection. For each model, we critiqued feasibility, reproducibility and similarity to human recurrence biology. Using our novel model, we then tested the adjuvant use of a novel systemic inhibitor of TGF-β, 1D11.
Results
Traditional surgical models are confounded by immunologic factors including concomitant immunity and perioperative immunosuppression. A superior preclinical model of postoperative systemic recurrences incorporates spontaneously metastatic cell lines and primary tumor excision. This approach is biologically relevant and readily feasible. Using this model, we discovered that “perioperative” TGF-β blockade has strong anti-tumor effects in the setting of advanced disease that would not be appreciated in primary tumor cell lines or other surgical models.
Conclusions
There are multiple immunologic effects that rendered previous models of postoperative cancer recurrences inadequate. Use of spontaneously metastatic cell lines followed by surgical resection eliminates these confounders, and best resembles the clinical scenario. This preclinical model provides more reliable preclinical information when evaluating new adjuvant therapies.
PMCID: PMC3353530  PMID: 22611473
Surgery; recurrence; models; surgical oncology; concomitant immunity; perioperative immunosuppression; TGF-β
3.  Vascular Endothelial-Targeted Therapy Combined with Cytotoxic Chemotherapy Induces Inflammatory Intratumoral Infiltrates and Inhibits Tumor Relapses after Surgery1 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2012;14(4):352-359.
Surgery is the most effective therapy for cancer in the United States, but disease still recurs in more than 40% of patients within 5 years after resection. Chemotherapy is given postoperatively to prevent relapses; however, this approach has had marginal success. After surgery, recurrent tumors depend on rapid neovascular proliferation to deliver nutrients and oxygen. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is exposed on the vascular endothelial cells in the tumor microenvironment but is notably absent on blood vessels in normal tissues. Thus, PS is an attractive target for cancer therapy after surgery. Syngeneic mice bearing TC1 lung cancer tumors were treated with mch1N11 (a novel mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets PS), cisplatin (cis), or combination after surgery. Tumor relapses and disease progression were decreased 90% by combination therapy compared with a 50% response rate for cis alone (P = .02). Mice receiving postoperative mch1N11 had no wound-related complications or added systemic toxicity in comparison to control animals. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the effects of mch1N11 were associated with a dense infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly granulocytes. This strategy was independent of the adaptive immune system. Together, these data suggest that vascular-targeted strategies directed against exposed PS may be a powerful adjunct to postoperative chemotherapy in preventing relapses after cancer surgery.
PMCID: PMC3349261  PMID: 22577350

Results 1-3 (3)