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1.  Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus Complex Associated with Sinopulmonary Disease, Northeastern USA 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2011;17(9):1692-1700.
PMCID: PMC3322061  PMID: 21888796
bacteria; rapid-growing mycobacteria; multilocus sequencing; Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus complex; Mycobacterium franklinii; sinopulmonary disease; tuberculosis and other mycobacteria; United States; CME; research; Suggested citation for this article: Simmon KE; Brown-Elliott BA; Ridge PG; Durtschi JD; Mann LB; Slechta ES; et al. Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus complex associated with sinopulmonary disease; northeastern USA. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2011 Sep [date cited].
2.  Isolation and Identification of Kroppenstedtia eburnea Isolates from Multiple Patient Samples 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(10):3391-3394.
No clinical isolates have been reported for the recently described thermoactinomycete Kroppenstedtia eburnea. Between 2006 and 2011, we obtained 14 clinical isolates from patients in 9 U.S. states. Here we report growth characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry-based identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of this recently described organism.
PMCID: PMC3457443  PMID: 22855518
3.  The Suspected Infected Prosthetic Joint: Clinical Acumen and Added Value of Laboratory Investigations 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(7):e0131609.
Consensus definitions have emerged for the discrimination between infected and uninfected prosthetic joints but diagnostic uncertainty often occurs. We examined the accuracy of orthopaedic surgeons’ assessments to diagnose the infected prosthetic hip or knee and elucidated the added value of laboratory parameters. A prospective cohort study of patients undergoing revision arthroplasty of hip or knee was conducted over a one-year period. Orthopaedic surgeons’ determinations prior to arthroplasty were recorded. A reference diagnostic standard was determined retrospectively by independent review from 3 infectious diseases physicians. Patients were followed up to 12 months. For 198 patients enrolled, 228 surgical encounters (110 knee, 118 hip) were classified by independent reviewers as 176 uninfected and 52 infected. Orthopaedic surgeons’ preoperative diagnoses of infection had high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 89%, specificity 99%, PPV 98%, NPV 97%). Addition of intraoperative findings and histopathology improved their diagnostic accuracy. Addition of culture and PCR results improved sensitivity of diagnostic determinations but not specificity. We provide evidence that clinical acumen has high diagnostic accuracy using routine preoperative parameters. Histopathology from intraoperative specimens would improve surgeons’ diagnostic accuracy but culture and PCR from intraoperative specimens could create greater diagnostic uncertainty. This study is critical to further our understanding of the added value, if any, of laboratory testing to support clinical decision making for the suspected infected joint and allow us to identify diagnostic gaps for emerging technologies to fill that will improve our ability to diagnose the infected prosthetic joint.
PMCID: PMC4504711  PMID: 26181332
5.  Sequencing-Based Genotyping of Mixed Human Papillomavirus Infections by Use of RipSeq Software 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2013;51(4):1278-1280.
Sequencing-based pathogen identification directly from clinical specimens requires time-consuming interpretation, especially with mixed chromatograms when multiple microorganisms are detected. We assessed RipSeq Mixed software for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping by comparison to the linear array HPV genotyping assay. RipSeq Mixed provided rapid, sequencing-based HPV typing for single-type infections and coinfections with 2 types.
PMCID: PMC3666769  PMID: 23363820
6.  A Systematic Approach for Discovering Novel, Clinically Relevant Bacteria 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2012;18(3):422-430.
We identified 95 isolates from novel taxa that may have clinical relevance.
Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (16S) is a reference method for bacterial identification. Its expanded use has led to increased recognition of novel bacterial species. In most clinical laboratories, novel species are infrequently encountered, and their pathogenic potential is often difficult to assess. We reviewed partial 16S sequences from >26,000 clinical isolates, analyzed during February 2006–June 2010, and identified 673 that have <99% sequence identity with valid reference sequences and are thus possibly novel species. Of these 673 isolates, 111 may represent novel genera (<95% identity). Isolates from 95 novel taxa were recovered from multiple patients, indicating possible clinical relevance. Most repeatedly encountered novel taxa belonged to the genera Nocardia (14 novel taxa, 42 isolates) and Actinomyces (12 novel taxa, 52 isolates). This systematic approach for recognition of novel species with potential diagnostic or therapeutic relevance provides a basis for epidemiologic surveys and improvement of sequence databases and may lead to identification of new clinical entities.
PMCID: PMC3309591  PMID: 22377371
16S sequencing; unidentified; new species; repeated isolation; bacteria
7.  Isolation and Characterization of “Pseudomonas andersonii” from Four Cases of Pulmonary Granulomas and Emended Species Description▿ 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(4):1518-1523.
“Pseudomonas andersonii” is a Gram-negative bacillus initially isolated from a granulomatous lung lesion. Novel species status has not been validated for this single strain. We report four additional cases of pulmonary granuloma involving P. andersonii and further characterize the organism. These patients had pulmonary nodules that were surgically resected and which grew P. andersonii on routine culture. Mycobacterium avium complex was concomitantly isolated in two cases, and fungal structures were identified histopathologically in two other cases. The five P. andersonii strains described to date were similar in growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry protein profiles, and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Their 16S rRNA genes were 99.9 to 100% identical but less than 95.0% similar to those of all other known bacteria. The gyrA genes of these strains were 99.5 to 100% identical. These shared features illustrate P. andersonii as a unique and distinct bacterium and support the novel species status of the organism.
PMCID: PMC3122798  PMID: 21270229
8.  Mycobacterium neoaurum and Mycobacterium bacteremicum sp. nov. as Causes of Mycobacteremia ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(12):4377-4385.
Reference isolates of Mycobacterium neoaurum, Mycobacterium aurum, and the nonvalidated species “Mycobacterium lacticola” were the focus of two recent molecular taxonomic studies. On the basis of this grouping, we identified 46 clinical pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacterial isolates. By 16S rRNA gene sequencing, only two major taxa were identified: M. neoaurum and a previously uncharacterized “M. neoaurum-like” group. The M. neoaurum-like group exhibited only 99.7% identity to M. neoaurum by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 96.5% identity to M. neoaurum by rpoB sequencing and was named M. bacteremicum. No clinical isolates of M. aurum or M. lacticola were identified. Of isolates with known sources, 4/8 (50%) of M. bacteremicum isolates and 22/34 (65%) of M. neoaurum isolates were recovered from blood, and 35% of these were known to be from patients with catheter-related sepsis. MIC and clinical data on these 46 isolates of M. neoaurum and M. bacteremicum along with a review of 16 previously reported cases of infection with the M. neoaurum-M. lacticola group demonstrated that the isolates were highly susceptible to all drugs tested except clarithromycin, and most clinical cases were successfully treated. The clarithromycin resistance suggested the presence of an inducible erm gene reported in other species of rapidly growing mycobacteria. Sequencing studies are currently required to identify these two species. Strain ATCC 25791 (originally submitted as an example of Mycobacterium aurum) is proposed to be the type strain of M. bacteremicum.
PMCID: PMC3008452  PMID: 20881180
9.  Simultaneous Sequence Analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB Genes by Use of RipSeq Software To Identify Mycobacterium Species ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(9):3231-3235.
The 16S rRNA gene is commonly used to identify Mycobacterium spp., but alternative DNA targets can provide better resolution to the species level. We evaluated a novel system that enables simultaneous amplification, sequencing, and analysis of two different DNA targets in a single tube to identify clinical isolates of Mycobacterium spp. For 139 clinical isolates, we found that the 16S rRNA gene alone identified 67 (48%) isolates as single species, 68 (49%) isolates to the complex or group level, and 4 (3%) isolates to the genus level only. The rpoB gene alone identified 117 (84%) isolates as single species, 10 (7%) isolates to the complex or group level, and 12 (8%) isolates to the genus level only. Combining the separate analyses for sequencing of two gene targets, 119 (86%) isolates were identified as single species and 10 (7%) isolates were identified to the complex or group level. Seven (5%) isolates were identified as novel species within established groups, and 3 (2%) were identified to the genus level only. Dual-locus identification identified 110 (79%) isolates as single species and 22 (16%) isolates to the complex or group level. Six (4%) were identified as novel species within established groups, and 1 (1%) was identified to the genus level only. Identifications were more accurate when both the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were screened, and reliance on a single gene target was suboptimal. RipSeq dual-locus software provides an accurate alternative method for laboratories using two different gene targets for microorganism identification.
PMCID: PMC2937733  PMID: 20610683
10.  Phylogenetic Analysis of Viridans Group Streptococci Causing Endocarditis ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(9):3087-3090.
Identification of viridans group streptococci (VGS) to the species level is difficult because VGS exchange genetic material. We performed multilocus DNA target sequencing to assess phylogenetic concordance of VGS for a well-defined clinical syndrome. The hierarchy of sequence data was often discordant, underscoring the importance of establishing biological relevance for finer phylogenetic distinctions.
PMCID: PMC2546745  PMID: 18650347
11.  Genotypic Diversity of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Causing Endocarditis: a Global Perspective▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(5):1780-1784.
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important causes of infective endocarditis (IE), but their microbiological profiles are poorly described. We performed DNA target sequencing and susceptibility testing for 91 patients with definite CNS IE who were identified from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis—Microbiology, a large, multicenter, multinational consortium. A hierarchy of gene sequences demonstrated great genetic diversity within CNS from patients with definite endocarditis that represented diverse geographic regions. In particular, rpoB sequence data demonstrated unique genetic signatures with the potential to serve as an important tool for global surveillance.
PMCID: PMC2395089  PMID: 18367572
12.  Genotypic Diversity of Anaerobic Isolates from Bloodstream Infections▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(5):1596-1601.
Accurate species determination for anaerobes from blood culture bottles has become increasingly important with the reemergence of anaerobic bacteremia and prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant microorganisms. Our knowledge of the taxonomical diversity of anaerobes that cause bloodstream infections is extremely limited, because identification historically has relied on conventional methods. Over a 5-year period, we profiled anaerobic bacteremia at a large tertiary care hospital with 16S rRNA gene sequencing to gain a better understanding of the taxonomical diversity of the bacteria. Of 316 isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified 316 (100%) to the genus or taxonomical group level and 289 (91%) to the species level. Conventional methods identified 279 (88%) to the genus level and 208 (66%) to the species level; 75 (24%) were misidentified at the species level, and 33 (10%) results were inconclusive. High intragenus variability was observed for Bacteroides and Clostridium species, and high intraspecies variability was observed for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Sequence-based identification has potential benefits in comparison to conventional methods, because it more accurately characterizes anaerobes within taxonomically related clusters and thereby may enable better correlation with specific clinical syndromes and antibiotic resistance patterns.
PMCID: PMC2395081  PMID: 18322067
13.  Identification of an Emerging Pathogen, Mycobacterium massiliense, by rpoB Sequencing of Clinical Isolates Collected in the United States▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;45(6):1978-1980.
Mycobacterium massiliense is a rapidly growing mycobacterium that is indistinguishable from Mycobacterium chelonae/M. abscessus by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We sequenced rpoB, sodA, and hsp65 genes from isolates previously identified as being M. chelonae/M. abscessus and identified M. massiliense from isolates from two patients with invasive disease representing the first reported cases in the United States.
PMCID: PMC1933107  PMID: 17409204
14.  Discovering Potential Pathogens among Fungi Identified as Nonsporulating Molds▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;45(2):568-571.
Fungal infections are increasing, particularly among immunocompromised hosts, and a rapid diagnosis is essential to initiate antifungal therapy. Often fungi cannot be identified by conventional methods and are classified as nonsporulating molds (NSM).We sequenced internal transcribed spacer regions from 50 cultures of NSM and found 16 potential pathogens that can be associated with clinical disease. In selected clinical settings, identification of NSM could prove valuable and have an immediate impact on patient management.
PMCID: PMC1829023  PMID: 17135442
15.  Application of SmartGene IDNS Software to Partial 16S rRNA Gene Sequences for a Diverse Group of Bacteria in a Clinical Laboratory▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(12):4400-4406.
Laboratories often receive clinical isolates for bacterial identification that have ambiguous biochemical profiles by conventional testing. With the emergence of 16S rRNA gene sequencing as an identification tool, we evaluated the usefulness of SmartGene IDNS, a 16S rRNA sequence database and software program for microbial identification. Identification by conventional methods of a diverse group of bacterial clinical isolates was compared with gene sequences interrogated by the SmartGene and MicroSeq databases. Of 300 isolates, SmartGene identified 295 (98%) to the genus level and 262 (87%) to the species level, with 5 (2%) being inconclusive. MicroSeq identified 271 (90%) to the genus level and 223 (74%) to the species level, with 29 (10%) being inconclusive. SmartGene and MicroSeq agreed on the genus for 233 (78%) isolates and the species for 212 (71%) isolates. Conventional methods identified 291 (97%) isolates to the genus level and 208 (69%) to the species level, with 9 (3%) being inconclusive. SmartGene, MicroSeq, and conventional identifications agreed for 193 (64%) of the results. Twenty-seven microorganisms were not represented in MicroSeq, compared to only 2 not represented in SmartGene. Overall, SmartGene IDNS provides comprehensive and accurate identification of a diverse group of bacteria and has the added benefit of being a user-friendly program that can be modified to meet the unique needs of clinical laboratories.
PMCID: PMC1698390  PMID: 17050811

Results 1-15 (15)