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1.  Prospective Evaluation of the Effect of an Aminoglycoside Dosing Regimen on Rates of Observed Nephrotoxicity and Ototoxicity 
The nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity associated with once-daily versus twice-daily administration of aminoglycosides was assessed in patients with suspected or proven gram-negative bacterial infections in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Patients who received therapy for ≥72 h were evaluated for toxicity. Patients also received concomitant antibiotics as deemed necessary for treatment of their infection. Plasma aminoglycoside concentrations, prospective aminoglycoside dosage adjustment, and serial audiologic and renal status evaluations were performed. The probability of occurrence of a nephrotoxic event and its relationship to doses and daily aminoglycoside exposure served as the main outcome measurement. One hundred twenty-three patients were enrolled in the study, with 83 patients receiving therapy for at least 72 h. For 74 patients plasma aminoglycoside concentrations were available for analysis, and the patients formed the group evaluable for toxicity. The primary infectious diagnosis for the patients who were enrolled in the study were bacteremia or sepsis, respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, or urosepsis or pyelonephritis. Of the 74 patients evaluable for toxicity, 39 received doses twice daily and 35 received doses once daily and a placebo 12 h later. Nephrotoxicity occurred in 6 of 39 (15.4%) patients who received aminoglycosides twice daily and 0 of 35 patients who received aminoglycosides once daily. The schedule of aminoglycoside administration, concomitant use of vancomycin, and daily area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for the aminoglycosides were found to be significant predictors of nephrotoxicity by multivariate logistic regression analysis (P ≤ 0.001). The time to a nephrotoxic event was significantly influenced by vancomycin use and the schedule of administration, as assessed by Cox proportional hazards modeling (P ≤ 0.002). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis and the Cox proportional hazards modeling demonstrate that both the probability of occurrence and the time to occurrence of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity are influenced by the schedule on which the aminoglycoside is administered as well as by the concomitant use of vancomycin. Furthermore, this risk of occurrence is modulated by the daily AUC for aminoglycoside exposure. These data suggest that once-daily administration of aminoglycosides has a predictably lower probability of causing nephrotoxicity than twice-daily administration.
PMCID: PMC89322  PMID: 10390201
2.  Evaluation of Vancomycin Population Susceptibility Analysis Profile as a Predictor of Outcomes for Patients with Infective Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Infective endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA IE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Vancomycin continues to be the primary treatment for this disease. The emergence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA), defined as a modified population analysis profile (PAP) of ≥0.9, may affect patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of vancomycin subpopulation susceptibility and the clinical outcomes of MRSA IE. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients treated with vancomycin for MRSA IE from 2002 to 2013 at the Detroit Medical Center. A modified PAP was used to measure the vancomycin PAP MIC and the PAP-to-area under the curve (AUC) ratio. Treatment failure was defined as bacteremia for ≥7 days or death attributed to MRSA. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to select a failure breakpoint between the PAP-AUC ratios and the PAP MIC. A total of 202 patients were included in the study. Twenty-seven percent of the patients had left-sided IE, 19% of the strains were hVISA, and 70% of the strains were staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) type IV. Overall treatment failure was observed in 64%; 59% had persistent bacteremia, and the 30-day attributable mortality rate was 21%. The CART breakpoint between failure and success in terms of the PAP-AUC ratio was 0.9035. On logistic regression analysis, intensive care unit (ICU) admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 5.2) and a PAP MIC of ≥4 mg/liter (aOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 8.4) were associated with failure (P = 0.001 and 0.015, respectively). A PAP MIC of ≥4 mg/liter and ICU admission were significant for treatment failure for patients with MRSA IE. The PAP-AUC ratio of ≥0.9035 predicted failure consistent with the hVISA definition. The role of population MIC analysis in predicting outcome with MRSA infections warrants further investigation.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02820-13
PMCID: PMC4136033  PMID: 24890596
3.  Evaluation of Ceftaroline, Vancomycin, Daptomycin, or Ceftaroline plus Daptomycin against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model of Simulated Endocardial Vegetations 
Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and daptomycin has few adequate therapeutic options. Ceftaroline (CPT) is bactericidal against daptomycin (DAP)-nonsusceptible (DNS) and vancomycin-intermediate MRSA, but supporting data are limited for IE. This study evaluated the activities of ceftaroline, vancomycin, daptomycin, and the combination of ceftaroline plus daptomycin against DNS MRSA in a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model of simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs). Simulations of ceftaroline-fosamil (600 mg) every 8 h (q8h) (maximum concentration of drug in serum [Cmax], 21.3 mg/liter; half-life [t1/2], 2.66 h), daptomycin (10 mg/kg of body weight/day) (Cmax, 129.7 mg/liter; t1/2, 8 h), vancomycin (1 g) q8h (minimum concentration of drug in serum [Cmin], 20 mg/liter; t1/2, 5 h), and ceftaroline plus daptomycin were evaluated against 3 clinical DNS, vancomycin-intermediate MRSA in a two-compartment, in vitro, PK/PD SEV model over 96 h with a starting inoculum of ∼8 log10 CFU/g. Bactericidal activity was defined as a ≥3-log10 CFU/g reduction from the starting inoculum. Therapeutic enhancement of combinations was defined as ≥2-log10 CFU/g reduction over the most active agent alone. MIC values for daptomycin, vancomycin, and ceftaroline were 4 mg/liter, 4 to 8 mg/liter, and 0.5 to 1 mg/liter, respectively, for all strains. At simulated exposures, vancomycin was bacteriostatic, but daptomycin and ceftaroline were bactericidal. By 96 h, ceftaroline monotherapy offered significantly improved killing compared to other agents against one strain. The combination of DAP plus CPT demonstrated therapeutic enhancement, resulting in significantly improved killing versus either agent alone against 2/3 (67%) strains. CPT demonstrated bactericidal activity against DNS, vancomycin-intermediate MRSA at high bacterial densities. Ceftaroline plus daptomycin may offer more rapid and sustained activity against some MRSA in the setting of high-inoculum infections like IE and should also be considered.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00088-14
PMCID: PMC4068431  PMID: 24663016
4.  Large Retrospective Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Safety of Ceftaroline Fosamil Therapy 
Ceftaroline has been approved for acute bacterial skin infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Limited clinical experience exists for use outside these indications. The objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of patients treated with ceftaroline for various infections. Retrospective analyses of patients receiving ceftaroline ≥72 h from 2011 to 2013 were included. Clinical and microbiological outcomes were analyzed. Clinical success was defined as resolution of all signs and symptoms of infection with no further need for escalation while on ceftaroline treatment during hospitalization. A total of 527 patients received ceftaroline, and 67% were treated for off-label indications. Twenty-eight percent (148/527) of patients had bacteremia. Most patients (80%) were initiated on ceftaroline after receipt of another antimicrobial, with 48% citing disease progression as a reason for switching. The median duration of ceftaroline treatment was 6 days, with an interquartile range of 4 to 9 days. A total of 327 (62%) patients were culture positive, and the most prevalent pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus, with a frequency of 83% (271/327). Of these patients, 88.9% (241/271) were infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Clinically, 88% (426/484) achieved clinical success and hospital mortality was seen in 8% (40/527). While on ceftaroline, adverse events were experienced in 8% (41/527) of the patients and 9% (28/307) were readmitted within 30 days after discharge for the same infection. Patients treated with ceftaroline for both FDA-approved and off-label infections had favorable outcomes. Further research is necessary to further describe the role of ceftaroline in a variety of infections and its impact on patient outcomes.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02371-13
PMCID: PMC3993242  PMID: 24550331
5.  A Novel Approach Utilizing Biofilm Time-Kill Curves To Assess the Bactericidal Activity of Ceftaroline Combinations against Biofilm-Producing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Medical device infections frequently require combination therapy. Beta-lactams combined with glycopeptides/lipopeptides are bactericidal against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Novel macrowell kill-curve methods tested synergy between ceftaroline or cefazolin plus daptomycin, vancomycin, or rifampin against biofilm-producing MRSA. Ceftaroline combinations demonstrated the most pronounced bacterial reductions. Ceftaroline demonstrated greatest kill with daptomycin (4.02 ± 0.59 log10 CFU/cm2), compared to combination with vancomycin (3.36 ± 0.35 log10 CFU/cm2) or rifampin (2.68 ± 0.61 log10 CFU/cm2). These data suggest that beta-lactam combinations are useful against MRSA biofilms.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02764-13
PMCID: PMC3993275  PMID: 24614378
6.  Impact of Different Antimicrobial Therapies on Clinical and Fiscal Outcomes of Patients with Bacteremia Due to Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci 
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a growing health problem, and uncertainties exist regarding the optimal therapy for bloodstream infection due to VRE. We conducted systematic comparative evaluations of the impact of different antimicrobial therapies on the outcomes of patients with bloodstream infections due to VRE. A retrospective study from January 2008 to October 2010 was conducted at Detroit Medical Center. Unique patients with blood cultures due to VRE were included and reviewed. Three major therapeutic classes were analyzed: daptomycin, linezolid, and β-lactams. Three multivariate models were conducted for each outcome, matching for a propensity score predicting the likelihood of receipt of one of the therapeutic classes. A total of 225 cases of bacteremia due to VRE were included, including 86 (38.2%) cases of VR Enterococcus faecalis and 139 (61.8%) of VR Enterococcus faecium. Bacteremia due to VR E. faecalis was more frequent among subjects treated with β-lactams than among those treated with daptomycin or linezolid. The median dose of daptomycin was 6 mg/kg of body weight (range, 6 to 12 mg/kg). After controlling for propensity score and bacteremia due to VR E. faecalis, differences in mortality were nonsignificant among the treatment groups. Therapy with daptomycin was associated with higher median variable direct cost per day than that for linezolid. This large study revealed the three therapeutic classes (daptomycin, linezolid, and β-lactams) are similarly efficacious in the treatment of bacteremia due to susceptible strains of VRE.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02943-14
PMCID: PMC4068570  PMID: 24798267
7.  A Review of Novel Combinations of Colistin and Lipopeptide or Glycopeptide Antibiotics for the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii 
As antibiotic resistance continues to increase among Gram-negative organisms such as Acinetobacter baumannii there is a growing need for novel therapies to overcome these resistance mechanisms. Antibiotics active against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB) are few, and agents in development are primarily active against other multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. The combinations of colistin and antimicrobials such as glycopeptides and lipopeptides are unique potential treatment modalities against MDRAB. For both lipopeptides and glycopeptides in vitro data have demonstrated significant synergy, resulting in rapid bactericidal activity in time-kill curves. Several invertebrate in vivo models have also demonstrated increased survival compared to colistin alone. Currently, very little clinical data have focused on using these combinations for infections caused exclusively by multidrug-resistant Gram-negatives. The combination of vancomycin and colistin has been studied with conflicting results regarding both improved outcomes and risk of nephrotoxicity. Although in vitro and in vivo models have proved promising, further investigation is required to provide clinical data necessary to support the use of these combinations. The objective of this review is to summarize literature currently available for the novel combination of lipopeptides or glycopeptides with colistin for the treatment of A. baumannii, in particular MDRAB.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40121-014-0051-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s40121-014-0051-9
PMCID: PMC4269621  PMID: 25475412
Acinetobacter baumannii; Combination therapy; Daptomycin; Vancomycin
8.  A multicentre evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of high-dose daptomycin for the treatment of infective endocarditis 
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy  2013;68(12):2921-2926.
Objectives
Despite significant medical advances, infective endocarditis (IE) remains an infection associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective was to assess the safety and efficacy of high-dose daptomycin, defined as ≥8 mg/kg/day, in patients with confirmed or suspected staphylococcal and/or enterococcal IE.
Methods
This was a multicentre, retrospective observational study (2005–11). Adult patients, not undergoing haemodialysis, with blood cultures positive for staphylococci or enterococci and a definitive or possible diagnosis of IE, who received daptomycin ≥8 mg/kg/day (based on total body weight) for ≥72 h were included.
Results
Seventy patients met the inclusion criteria and comprised 33 (47.1%) with right-sided IE (RIE), 35 (50%) with left-sided IE (LIE) and 2 with both RIE and LIE. Several patients had concomitant sites of infection, with bone/joint infection being most prevalent (12.9%). Sixty-five patients received daptomycin as salvage therapy. Pathogens were isolated from 64 patients, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common organism (84.4%), followed by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (7.8%). The median (IQR) daptomycin dose was 9.8 mg/kg/day (8.2–10.0 mg/kg/day), and was similar in RIE and LIE patients (9.8 and 9.3 mg/kg/day, respectively). A total of 24 (34.3%) received combination therapy. For those patients with pathogens isolated (n = 64), the organism was eradicated in 57 (89.1%) patients. Among 64 clinically evaluable patients, 55 (85.9%) achieved clinical success. No patients required discontinuation of high-dose daptomycin due to creatine phosphokinase elevations.
Conclusions
Patients with both RIE and LIE had successful outcomes with high-dose daptomycin therapy. Additional clinical trials evaluating high daptomycin dosages in patients with IE are warranted.
doi:10.1093/jac/dkt294
PMCID: PMC3820108  PMID: 23928022
MRSA; infections; patient outcomes
9.  Alternative Mutational Pathways to Intermediate Resistance to Vancomycin in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Background. We used 2 in vitro experimental systems to compare phenotypic and genotypic changes that accompany selection of mutants of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain JH1 with low-level vancomycin resistance similar to the type found in vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA).
Methods. The previously described MRSA strain JH1 and its vancomycin-intermediate mutant derivative JH2, both of which were recovered from a patient undergoing vancomycin chemotherapy, were used in this study. Mutants of JH1 were selected in vitro by means of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model of simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs) and by exposure to vancomycin in laboratory growth medium. Phenotypic abnormalities of JH1 mutants generated by each in vitro experimental system were compared to those of JH2, and whole genomes of 2 in vitro JH1 mutants were sequenced to identify mutations that may be associated with an increased vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration.
Results. JH1R1 was selected from the PK/PD model, and JH1R2 was selected in laboratory growth medium. Both mutants displayed reduced vancomycin and daptomycin susceptibility and phenotypic alterations (eg, thicker cell walls and abnormal autolysis) that are typical of in vivo VISA mutants. Genome sequencing of JH1R1 identified point mutations in 4 genes, all of which were different from the mutations described in JH2, including 1 mutation in yycG, a component of the WalKR sensory regulatory system. Sequencing of the JH1R2 genome identified mutations in 7 genes, including 2 in rpoB.
Conclusion. Our findings indicate that JH1 is able to develop VISA-type resistance through several alternative genetic pathways.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jit127
PMCID: PMC3666135  PMID: 23539745
PK/PD model; JH1; VISA; genetic alterations; phenotypic alteration; genome sequencing; cell wall thickness; pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics; vancomycin resistance
10.  Ceftaroline plus Avibactam Demonstrates Bactericidal Activity against Pathogenic Anaerobic Bacteria in a One-Compartment In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model 
Anaerobic pathogens are often associated with polymicrobial infections, such as diabetic foot infections. Patients with these infections are often treated with broad-spectrum, multidrug therapies targeting resistant Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as well as Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobes. The broad-spectrum, non-beta-lactam, beta-lactamase inhibitor avibactam has been combined with ceftaroline and may provide a single-product alternative for complicated polymicrobial infections. We compared the activity of ceftaroline-avibactam (CPA) to that of ertapenem (ERT) against common anaerobic pathogens in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model. Simulations of doses of ceftaroline-fosamil at 600 mg every 8 h (q8h) (maximum free drug concentration [fCmax], 17.04 mg/liter, and half-life [t1/2], 2.66 h) plus avibactam at 600 mg q8h (fCmax, 11.72 mg/liter, and t1/2, 1.8 h) and of ertapenem at 1 g q24h (fCmax, 13 mg/liter, and t1/2, 4 h) were evaluated against two strains of Bacteroides fragilis, one strain of Prevotella bivia, and one strain of Finegoldia magna in an anaerobic one-compartment in vitro PK/PD model over 72 h with a starting inoculum of ∼8 log10 CFU/ml. Bactericidal activity was defined as a reduction of ≥3 log10 CFU/ml from the starting inoculum. Both CPA and ERT were bactericidal against all four strains. CPA demonstrated improved activity against Bacteroides strains compared to that of ERT but had similar activity against Finegoldia magna and P. bivia, although modest regrowth was observed with CPA against P. bivia. No resistance emerged from any of the models. The pharmacokinetics achieved were 92 to 105% of the targets. CPA has potent in vitro activity against common anaerobic pathogens at clinically relevant drug exposures and may be a suitable single product for the management of complicated polymicrobial infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01358-13
PMCID: PMC3910785  PMID: 24217692
11.  Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection 
The prevalence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) infections varies in the literature, a problem complicated by the lack of routine screening procedures; however, limited data suggest that hVISA has been associated with persistent bloodstream infections (BSI) and vancomycin failure, yet these studies have been confounded by design issues. We conducted this study to compare the characteristics of patients with BSI caused by hVISA with those with vancomycin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA) treated with vancomycin. This retrospective, multicenter matched (1:1) cohort study compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hVISA and VSSA. Patients with hVISA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) BSI from 2004 to 2012 were matched to VSSA-MRSA BSI patients. The primary outcome was failure of vancomycin treatment, defined as a composite of persistent bacteremia (≥7 days), persistent signs and symptoms, change of MRSA antibiotic, recurrent BSI, or MRSA-related mortality. We identified 122 matched cases. The overall vancomycin failure rate was 57% (82% hVISA versus 33% VSSA; P < 0.001). The individual components of failure in hVISA versus VSSA were persistent bacteremia, 59% versus 21% (P < 0.001); change in MRSA therapy, 54% versus 25% (P = 0.001); MRSA-related mortality, 21% versus 10% (P = 0.081); and recurrence of BSI, 26% versus 2% (P < 0.001). Using logistic regression analysis and adjusting for covariates, hVISA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3 to 28.7) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (aOR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.8 to 11.6) were still independently associated with vancomycin failure. Relative to VSSA BSI, patients with hVISA were more likely to experience failure of vancomycin treatment, including persistent bacteremia and recurrence. Our results indicate that hVISA was responsible for considerable morbidity.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00380-13
PMCID: PMC3754327  PMID: 23796929
12.  Multicenter Study of High-Dose Daptomycin for Treatment of Enterococcal Infections 
Enterococci are among the leading pathogens isolated in hospital-acquired infections. Current antimicrobial options for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are limited. Prior data suggest that daptomycin at >6 mg/kg of body weight/day may be used to treat enterococcal infections. We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness and safety of high-dose daptomycin (HD-daptomycin) therapy (>6 mg/kg) in a multicenter cohort of adult patients with enterococcal infections to describe the characteristics and outcomes. Two hundred forty-five patients were evaluated. Enterococcus faecium was identified in 175 (71%), followed by Enterococcus faecalis in 49 (20%) and Enterococcus spp. in 21 (9%); overall, 204 (83%) isolates were VRE. Enterococcal infections included bacteremia (173, 71%) and intra-abdominal (35, 14%) and bone and joint (25, 10%) infections. The median dosage and duration of HD-daptomycin were 8.2 mg/kg/day (interquartile range [IQR], 7.7 to 9.7) and 10 days (IQR, 6 to 15), respectively. The overall clinical success rate was 89% (193/218), and microbiological eradication was observed in 93% (177/191) of patients. The median time to clearance of blood cultures on HD-daptomycin was 3 days (IQR, 2 to 5). The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 27%, and 5 (2%) patients developed daptomycin-nonsusceptible enterococcal strains while on HD-daptomycin. Seven patients (3%) had creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation, yet no HD-daptomycin regimen was discontinued due to an elevated CPK and all patients were asymptomatic. Overall, there was a high frequency of clinical success and microbiological eradication in patients treated with HD-daptomycin for enterococcal infections, even in patients with complicated and difficult-to-treat infections. No adverse event-related discontinuation of HD-daptomycin was noted. HD-daptomycin may be an option for the treatment of enterococcal infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00526-13
PMCID: PMC3754344  PMID: 23774437
13.  Evaluation of Vancomycin Susceptibility Testing for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Comparison of Etest and Three Automated Testing Methods 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2013;51(7):2077-2081.
We evaluated the ability of four commercial MIC testing systems (MicroScan, Vitek 2, Phoenix, and Etest) to detect vancomycin MIC values of ≤1 to ≥2 in 200 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains compared to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution (BMD) reference methods. Compared to the BMD method, absolute agreement (0 ± dilution) was highest for the Phoenix system (66.2%) and the MicroScan turbidity method (61.8%), followed by the Vitek 2 system (54.3%). The Etest produced MIC values 1 to 2 dilutions higher than those produced by the BMD method (36.7% agreement). Of interest, the MicroScan system (prompt method) was more likely to overcall an MIC value of 1 mg/liter (74.1%), whereas the Phoenix (76%) and Vitek 2 (20%) systems had a tendency to undercall an MIC of 2 mg/liter. The ability to correctly identify vancomycin MIC values of 1 and 2 has clinical implications and requires further evaluation.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00448-13
PMCID: PMC3697692  PMID: 23596249
14.  Evaluation of Ceftaroline Activity against Heteroresistant Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Intermediate Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Strains in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model: Exploring the “Seesaw Effect” 
A “seesaw effect” in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been demonstrated, whereby susceptibility to β-lactam antimicrobials increases as glyco- and lipopeptide susceptibility decreases. We investigated this effect by evaluating the activity of the anti-MRSA cephalosporin ceftaroline against isogenic pairs of MRSA strains with various susceptibilities to vancomycin in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model. The activities of ceftaroline at 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) (targeted free maximum concentration of drug in serum [fCmax], 15.2 μg/ml; half-life [t1/2], 2.3 h) and vancomycin at 1 g q12h (targeted fCmax, 18 μg/ml; t1/2, 6 h) were evaluated against 3 pairs of isogenic clinical strains of MRSA that developed increased MICs to vancomycin in patients while on therapy using a two-compartment hollow-fiber PK/PD model with a starting inoculum of ∼107 CFU/ml over a 96-h period. Bacterial killing and development of resistance were evaluated. Expression of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) 2 and 4 was evaluated by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The achieved pharmacokinetic parameters were 98 to 119% of the targeted values. Ceftaroline and vancomycin were bactericidal against 5/6 and 1/6 strains, respectively, at 96 h. Ceftaroline was more active against the mutant strains than the parent strains, with this difference being statistically significant for 2/3 strain pairs at 96 h. The level of PBP2 expression was 4.4× higher in the vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain in 1/3 pairs. The levels of PBP2 and PBP4 expression were otherwise similar between the parent and mutant strains. These data support the seesaw hypothesis that ceftaroline, like traditional β-lactams, is more active against strains that are less susceptible to vancomycin even when the ceftaroline MICs are identical. Further research to explore these unique findings is warranted.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02308-12
PMCID: PMC3716128  PMID: 23545533
15.  Ceftaroline Fosamil for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Pulmonary Exacerbation in a Pediatric Cystic Fibrosis Patient 
Ceftaroline, an advanced generation cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), may present a new therapeutic alternative for treating lung infections among patients with cystic fibrosis. We report a case of ceftaroline therapy in a pediatric patient with cystic fibrosis, whose dose was increased from 9.7 mg/kg/dose every 12 hours to 10.8 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours by using pharmacokinetic analyses.
doi:10.5863/1551-6776-19.2.135
PMCID: PMC4093667  PMID: 25024675
ceftaroline; cystic fibrosis; pediatrics; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics
16.  Ceftaroline Increases Membrane Binding and Enhances the Activity of Daptomycin against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in a Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model 
New antimicrobial agents and novel combination therapies are needed to treat serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with reduced susceptibility to daptomycin and vancomycin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combination of ceftaroline plus daptomycin or vancomycin in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model. Simulations of ceftaroline-fosamil at 600 mg per kg of body weight every 8 h (q8h) (maximum free-drug concentration in serum [fCmax], 15.2 mg/liter; half-life [t1/2], 2.3 h), daptomycin at 10 mg/kg/day (fCmax, 11.3 mg/liter; t1/2, 8 h), vancomycin at 2 g q12h (fCmax, 30 mg/liter; t1/2, 6 h), ceftaroline plus daptomycin, and ceftaroline plus vancomycin were evaluated against a clinical, isogenic MRSA strain pair: D592 (daptomycin susceptible and heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate) and D712 (daptomycin nonsusceptible and vancomycin intermediate) in a one-compartment in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model over 96 h. Therapeutic enhancement of combinations was defined as ≥2 log10 CFU/ml reduction over the most active single agent. The effect of ceftaroline on the membrane charge, cell wall thickness, susceptibility to killing by the human cathelicidin LL37, and daptomycin binding were evaluated. Therapeutic enhancement was observed with daptomycin plus ceftaroline in both strains and vancomycin plus ceftaroline against D592. Ceftaroline exposure enhanced daptomycin-induced depolarization (81.7% versus 72.3%; P = 0.03) and killing by cathelicidin LL37 (P < 0.01) and reduced cell wall thickness (P < 0.001). Fluorescence-labeled daptomycin was bound over 7-fold more in ceftaroline-exposed cells. Whole-genome sequencing and mutation analysis of these strains indicated that change in daptomycin susceptibility is related to an fmtC (mprF) mutation. The combination of daptomycin plus ceftaroline appears to be potent, with rapid and sustained bactericidal activity against both daptomycin-susceptible and -nonsusceptible strains of MRSA.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01586-12
PMCID: PMC3535972  PMID: 23070161
17.  Evaluation of the Novel Combination of High-Dose Daptomycin plus Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Using an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model of Simulated Endocardial Vegetations 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(11):5709-5714.
Daptomycin-nonsusceptible (DNS) Staphylococcus aureus is found in difficult-to-treat infections, and the optimal therapy is unknown. We investigated the activity of high-dose (HD) daptomycin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole de-escalated to HD daptomycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against 4 clinical DNS methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of simulated endocardial vegetations (109 CFU/g). Simulated regimens included HD daptomycin at 10 mg/kg/day for 14 days, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole at 160/800 mg every 12 h for 14 days, HD daptomycin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 14 days, and the combination for 7 days de-escalated to HD daptomycin for 7 days and de-escalated to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 7 days. Differences in CFU/g (at 168 and 336 h) were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a Tukey's post hoc test. Daptomycin MICs were 4 μg/ml (SA H9749-1, vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus; R6212, heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus) and 2 μg/ml (R5599 and R5563). Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole MICs were ≤0.06/1.19 μg/ml. HD daptomycin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole displayed rapid bactericidal activity against SA H9749-1 (at 7 h) and R6212 (at 6 h) and bactericidal activity against R5599 (at 72 h) and R5563 (at 36 h). A ≥8 log10 CFU/g decrease was observed with HD daptomycin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against all strains (at 48 to 144 h), which was maintained with de-escalation to HD daptomycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole at 336 h. The combination for 14 days and the combination for 7 days de-escalated to HD daptomycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was significantly better than daptomycin monotherapy (P < 0.05) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole monotherapy (P < 0.05) at 168 and 336 h. Combination therapy followed by de-escalation offers a novel bactericidal therapeutic alternative for high-inoculum, serious DNS MRSA infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01185-12
PMCID: PMC3486589  PMID: 22908167
18.  Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Vertebral Osteomyelitis Cases Complicated by Bacteremia Treated with High-Dose Daptomycin and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(11):5990-5993.
We report two cases of daptomycin (DAP)-nonsusceptible (DNS) vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) vertebral osteomyelitis cases complicated by bacteremia treated with high-dose daptomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Both patients responded rapidly and favorably to this combination. The clinical isolates from the two patients were tested post hoc in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model to confirm the bactericidal activity and enhancement of daptomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The combination of high-dose daptomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole should be explored further for the treatment of DNS VISA strains.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01046-12
PMCID: PMC3486608  PMID: 22869580
19.  Observation of “Seesaw Effect” with Vancomycin, Teicoplanin, Daptomycin and Ceftaroline in 150 Unique MRSA Strains 
Introduction
Vancomycin (VAN) failures associated with the treatment of complicated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have been well described. The reported “seesaw effect” demonstrates improved β-lactam activity when VAN and/or daptomycin (DAP) susceptibility decreases. However, there are minimal data comparing ceftaroline (CPT) susceptibility with these agents or teicoplanin (TEI). Therefore, to further explore the seesaw effect, we evaluated the relationship between CPT and VAN, TEI, and DAP susceptibilities.
Methods
One hundred and fifty clinical MRSA isolates from the Anti-Infective Research Laboratory (Detroit, MI, USA) from 2008 to 2012 were analyzed. VAN, TEI, DAP and CPT minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined via Etest methodology. MIC50 and MIC90 were calculated for each antibiotic. Additionally, four isogenic strain pairs were randomly selected for evaluation by time–kill methodology for the potential of enhanced killing by CPT as MICs increased to VAN, TEI, and DAP.
Results
CPT MICs were inversely correlated with VAN, DAP, and TEI MICs with correlation coefficients of −0.535, −0.483, and −0.386, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Comparison of the MIC relationship for glycopeptides and lipopeptides resulted in a positive correlation for all agent combinations. In time–kill evaluations, CPT demonstrated greater reductions in log10 colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL against mutant strains (3.73 ± 0.67) versus parents (2.79 ± 0.75) despite no change in CPT MIC (P = 0.112).
Conclusion
This study demonstrated a marked “seesaw effect” whereby CPT displayed increased susceptibility as the VAN, DAP, and TEI MICs increased. Additionally, we observed a positive linear correlation between VAN, DAP, and TEI MICs for all agent combinations. Enhanced activity was noted with CPT in mutant strains versus the parent strains despite no change in MIC. Based upon the enhanced CPT activity observed against strains with decreased susceptibility to VAN, DAP and TEI, CPT may provide an option for infections with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides or lipopeptides. Further evaluation is warranted to investigate the clinical implications of the seesaw effect.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40121-014-0023-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s40121-014-0023-0
PMCID: PMC4108115  PMID: 25134810
Ceftaroline; Daptomycin; hVISA; Infection; MRSA; Seesaw effect; Staphylococcus aureus; Teicoplanin; Vancomycin; VISA
20.  Evaluation of Standard- and High-Dose Daptomycin versus Linezolid against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Isolates in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations 
Daptomycin MICs for enterococci are typically 1- to 2-fold higher than those for Staphylococcus aureus, and there is an imminent need to establish the optimal dose for appropriate treatment of enterococcal infections. We investigated the bactericidal activity of daptomycin at various dose exposures compared to that of linezolid against vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model utilizing simulated endocardial vegetations over 96 h. Daptomycin at doses of 6, 8, 10, and 12 mg/kg of body weight/day and linezolid at a dose of 600 mg every 12 h were evaluated against two clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains (EFm11499 and 09-184D1051), one of which was linezolid resistant (09-184D1051), and one clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strain (EFs11496). Daptomycin MICs were 4, 2, and 0.5 μg/ml for EFm11499, 09-184D1051, and EFs11496, respectively. Bactericidal activity, defined as a ≥3 log10 CFU/g reduction from the initial colony count, was demonstrated against all three isolates with all doses of daptomycin; however, bactericidal activity was not sustained with the daptomycin 6- and 8-mg/kg/day regimens. Linezolid was bacteriostatic against EFm11499 and displayed no appreciable activity against 09-184D1051 or EFs11496. Concentration-dependent killing was displayed with more sustained reduction in colony count (3.58 to 6.46 and 5.89 to 6.56 log10 CFU/g) at 96 h for the simulated regimen of daptomycin at doses of 10 and 12 mg/kg/day, respectively (P ≤ 0.012). No E. faecium mutants with reduced susceptibility were recovered at any dosage regimen; however, the E. faecalis strain developed reduced daptomycin susceptibility with daptomycin at 6, 8, and 10 but not at 12 mg/kg/day. Daptomycin displayed a dose-dependent response against three VRE isolates, with high-dose daptomycin producing sustained bactericidal activity. Further research is warranted.
doi:10.1128/AAC.06439-11
PMCID: PMC3370794  PMID: 22470111
21.  Evaluation of Daptomycin Non-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus for Stability, Population Profiles, mprF Mutations, and Daptomycin Activity 
Infectious Diseases and Therapy  2013;2(2):187-200.
Introduction
Despite studies examining daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) Staphylococcus aureus, examination of the stability and population profiles is limited. The objective was to evaluate the stability, population profiles, and daptomycin activity against DNS isolates.
Methods
The stability of 12 consecutive clinical DNS strains was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) and population analysis profiles before and after 5 days of serial passage. Two pairs of DNS S. aureus having the same daptomycin MIC but different daptomycin population profiles were evaluated via an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model of simulated endocardial vegetations for 96 h against daptomycin 6 and 10 mg/kg/day. The sequence of mprF was determined for these isolates before and after 96 h of daptomycin exposure in the in vitro PK/PD model.
Results
Daptomycin MIC values were 2–4 mg/L (via Microscan) for the 12 clinical isolates; 9 were confirmed DNS and 3 were within 1 tube dilution of Microscan (daptomycin MIC 1 mg/L). All were stable to serial passage. There was variation in the isolates susceptibility to daptomycin on population analysis (daptomycin population AUC 14.01–26.85). The killing patterns of daptomycin 6 and 10 mg/kg/day differed between isolates with a left-shift and right-shift population profile to daptomycin. Two strains developed additional mprF mutations during daptomycin exposure in the in vitro PK/PD model resulting in P314L, L826F, S337L and a novel Q326Stop mutation.
Conclusions
The collection of DNS isolates was stable and displayed variation in susceptibility to daptomycin on population profile. Further research examining this clinical relevance is warranted.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40121-013-0021-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s40121-013-0021-7
PMCID: PMC4108102  PMID: 25134481
Daptomycin; Daptomycin non-susceptible; Infectious diseases; mprF; Staphylococcus aureus
22.  Evaluation of Ceftaroline Activity versus Ceftriaxone against Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with Various Susceptibilities to Cephalosporins in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model 
Drug resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, a frequent pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia, is increasing. Ceftaroline (active metabolite of ceftaroline fosamil) is a broad-spectrum intravenous cephalosporin with activity in vitro against drug-resistant Gram-positive organisms. We investigated ceftaroline at 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) (maximum concentration of the free, unbound drug in serum [fCmax] is 15.2 μg/ml, and half-life [T1/2] is 2.5 h) versus ceftriaxone at 1 g q24h (fCmax = 23 μg/ml, T1/2 = 8 h) against six clinical S. pneumoniae isolates in a one-compartment in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic 96-h model (starting inoculum of 107 CFU/ml). Differences in CFU/ml (at 24 to 96 h) were evaluated by analysis of variance with a Tukey's post hoc test. Bactericidal activity was defined as a ≥3 log10 CFU/ml decrease from the initial inoculum. Ceftaroline MICs were 0.06, 0.015, ≤0.008, 0.25, 0.25, and 0.5 μg/ml, and ceftriaxone MICs were 0.5, 0.25, 0.25, 4, 4, and 8 μg/ml for SP 1477, SP 669, SP 132, SP 211, SP 90, and SP 1466, respectively. Against the ceftaroline- and ceftriaxone-susceptible strain SP 1477, ceftaroline displayed sustained bactericidal activity (3 to 96 h, −5.49 log10 CFU/ml) and was significantly (P ≤ 0.012) better than ceftriaxone (72 to 96 h, −2.03 log10 CFU/ml). Against the ceftriaxone-resistant strains, ceftaroline displayed sustained bactericidal activity at 96 h and was significantly better than ceftriaxone (SP211 [−5.91 log10 CFU/ml, P ≤ 0.002], SP 90 [−5.26 log10 CFU/ml, P ≤ 0.008], and SP1466 [−5.14 log10 CFU/ml, P ≤ 0.042]). Ceftaroline was the more effective drug and displayed sustained bactericidal activity. Ceftaroline fosamil may provide a therapeutic option to treat ceftriaxone-resistant S. pneumoniae infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.06185-11
PMCID: PMC3346590  PMID: 22354289
23.  Evaluation of Telavancin Activity versus Daptomycin and Vancomycin against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model 
Daptomycin-nonsusceptible (DNS) Staphylococcus aureus strains have been reported over the last several years. Telavancin is a lipoglycopeptide with a dual mechanism of action, as it inhibits peptidoglycan polymerization/cross-linking and disrupts the membrane potential. Three clinical DNS S. aureus strains, CB1814, R6212, and SA-684, were evaluated in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model with simulated endocardial vegetations (starting inoculum, 108.5 CFU/g) for 120 h. Simulated regimens included telavancin at 10 mg/kg every 24 h (q24h; peak, 87.5 mg/liter; t1/2, 7.5 h), daptomycin at 6 mg/kg q24h (peak, 95.7 mg/liter; t1/2, 8 h), and vancomycin at 1 g q12h (peak, 30 mg/liter; t1/2, 6 h). Differences in CFU/g between regimens at 24 through 120 h were evaluated by analysis of variance with a Tukey's post hoc test. Bactericidal activity was defined as a ≥3-log10 CFU/g decrease in colony count from the initial inoculum. MIC values were 1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/liter (telavancin), 4, 2, and 2 mg/liter (daptomycin), and 2, 2, and 2 mg/liter (vancomycin) for CB1814, R6212, and SA-684, respectively. Telavancin displayed bactericidal activities against R6212 (32 to 120 h; −4.31 log10 CFU/g), SA-684 (56 to 120 h; −3.06 log10 CFU/g), and CB1814 (48 to 120 h; −4.9 log10 CFU/g). Daptomycin displayed initial bactericidal activity followed by regrowth with all three strains. Vancomycin did not exhibit sustained bactericidal activity against any strain. At 120 h, telavancin was significantly better at reducing colony counts than vancomycin against all three tested strains and better than daptomycin against CB1814 (P < 0.05). Telavancin displayed bactericidal activity in vitro against DNS S. aureus isolates.
doi:10.1128/AAC.05849-11
PMCID: PMC3264278  PMID: 22123693
25.  Letter from the Editor 
doi:10.1007/s40121-013-0011-9
PMCID: PMC4108110  PMID: 25134472

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