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1.  Automated image analysis for quantification of filamentous bacteria 
BMC Microbiology  2015;15:255.
Antibiotics of the β-lactam group are able to alter the shape of the bacterial cell wall, e.g. filamentation or a spheroplast formation. Early determination of antimicrobial susceptibility may be complicated by filamentation of bacteria as this can be falsely interpreted as growth in systems relying on colorimetry or turbidometry (such as Vitek-2, Phoenix, MicroScan WalkAway). The objective was to examine an automated image analysis algorithm for quantification of filamentous bacteria using the 3D digital microscopy imaging system, oCelloScope.
Three E. coli strains displaying different resistant profiles and differences in filamentation kinetics were used to study a novel image analysis algorithm to quantify length of bacteria and bacterial filamentation. A total of 12 β-lactam antibiotics or β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor combinations were analyzed for their ability to induce filamentation. Filamentation peaked at approximately 120 min with an average cell length of 30 μm.
The automated image analysis algorithm showed a clear ability to rapidly detect and quantify β-lactam-induced filamentation in E. coli. This rapid determination of β-lactam-mediated morphological alterations may facilitate future development of fast and accurate AST systems, which in turn will enable early targeted antimicrobial therapy. Therefore, rapid detection of β-lactam-mediated morphological changes may have important clinical implications.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12866-015-0583-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4632676  PMID: 26531808
Morphology; Antibiotic-induced filamentation; Digital microscopy; Time-lapse imaging; Cell elongation; Escherichia coli
2.  Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2013;51(7):2047-2053.
Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in high demand in health care fields as antimicrobial-resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here, we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope) which, based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effects within 6 min and within 30 min in complex samples from pigs suffering from catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The oCelloScope system provides a fast high-throughput screening method for detecting bacterial susceptibility that might entail an earlier diagnosis and introduction of appropriate targeted therapy and thus combat the threat from multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The oCelloScope system can be employed for a broad range of applications within bacteriology and might present new vistas as a point-of-care instrument in clinical and veterinary settings.
PMCID: PMC3697729  PMID: 23596243
3.  Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: the value of screening with echocardiography 
Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population.
Methods and results
From 1 January 2009 to 31 August 2010, a total of 244 patients with SAB at six Danish hospitals underwent screening echocardiography. The inclusion rate was 73% of all eligible patients (n= 336), and 53 of the 244 included patients (22%; 95% CI: 17–27%) were diagnosed with definite IE. In patients with native heart valves the prevalence was 19% (95% CI: 14–25%) compared with 38% (95% CI: 20–55%) in patients with prosthetic heart valves and/or cardiac rhythm management devices (P= 0.02). No difference was found between Main Regional Hospitals and Tertiary Cardiac Hospitals, 20 vs. 23%, respectively (NS). The prevalence of IE in high-risk patients with one or more predisposing condition or clinical evidence of IE were significantly higher compared with low-risk patients with no additional risk factors (38 vs. 5%; P < 0.001). IE was associated with a higher 6 months mortality, 14(26%) vs. 28(15%) in SAB patients without IE, respectively (P < 0.05).
SAB patients carry a high risk for development of IE, which is associated with a worse prognosis compared with uncomplicated SAB. The presenting symptoms and clinical findings associated with IE are often non-specific and echocardiography should always be considered as part of the initial evaluation of SAB patients.
PMCID: PMC3117467  PMID: 21685200
Infective endocarditis; Echocardiography; Staphylococcus aureus; Screening
4.  National Surveillance of Fungemia in Denmark (2004 to 2009)▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;49(1):325-334.
A 6-year nationwide study of fungemia in Denmark was performed using data from an active fungemia surveillance program and from laboratory information systems in nonparticipating regions. A total of 2,820 episodes of fungemia were recorded. The incidence increased from 2004 to 2007 (7.7 to 9.6/100,000) and decreased slightly from 2008 to 2009 (8.7 to 8.6/100,000). The highest incidences were seen at the extremes of age (i.e., 11.3 and 37.1/100,000 for those <1 and 70 to 79 years old, respectively). The rate was higher for males than for females (10.1 versus 7.6/100,000, P = 0.003), with the largest difference observed for patients >50 years of age. The species distribution varied significantly by both age and gender. Candida species accounted for 98% of the pathogens, and C. albicans was predominant, although the proportion decreased (64.4% to 53.2%, P < 0.0001). C. glabrata ranked second, and the proportion increased (16.5% to 25.9%, P = 0.003). C. glabrata was more common in adults and females than in children and males, whereas C. tropicalis was more common in males (P = 0.020). C. krusei was a rare isolate (4.1%) except at one university hospital. Acquired resistance to amphotericin and echinocandins was rare. However, resistance to fluconazole (MIC of >4 μg/ml) occurred in C. albicans (7/1,183 [0.6%]), C. dubliniensis (2/65 [3.1%]), C. parapsilosis (5/83 [6.0%]), and C. tropicalis (7/104 [6.7%]). Overall, 70.8% of fungemia isolates were fully fluconazole susceptible, but the proportion decreased (79.7% to 68.9%, P = 0.02). The study confirmed an incidence rate of fungemia in Denmark three times higher than those in other Nordic countries and identified marked differences related to age and gender. Decreased susceptibility to fluconazole was frequent and increasing.
PMCID: PMC3020479  PMID: 20980569

Results 1-4 (4)