Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of antimicrobial-resistant infections of humans. Hybrids of S. aureus, which originate from large-scale chromosomal recombinations between parents of distinct genetic backgrounds, are of interest from clinical and evolutionary perspectives. We present draft genome sequences of two S. aureus hybrids of sequence type 34 (ST34) and ST42.
At least four outbreaks of invasive disease caused by serotype 12F, clonal complex 218 Streptococcus pneumoniae have occurred in the United States over the past two decades. We studied the population structure of this clonal complex using a sample of 203 outbreak and surveillance isolates that were collected over 22 years from 34 US states and eight other countries. Conventional multilocus sequence typing identified five types and distinguished a single outbreak from the others. To improve typing resolution, multilocus boxB sequence typing (MLBT) was developed from 10 variable boxB minisatellite loci. MLBT identified 86 types and distinguished between each of the four outbreaks. Diversity across boxB loci tended to be positively correlated with repeat array size and, overall, best fit the infinite alleles mutation model. Multilocus linkage disequilibrium was strong, but pairwise disequilibrium decreased with the physical distance between loci and was strongest in one large region of the chromosome, indicating recent recombinations. Two major clusters were identified in the sample, and they were differentiated geographically, as western and more easterly US clusters, and temporally, as clusters that predominated before and after the licensure of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The diversity and linkage disequilibrium within these two clusters also differed, suggesting different population dynamics. MLBT revealed hidden aspects of the population structure of these hyperinvasive pneumococci, and it may provide a useful adjunct tool for outbreak investigations, surveillance, and population genetics studies of other pneumococcal clonal complexes.
Streptococcus pneumoniae; outbreaks; population structure; minisatellites
Identification of virulent strains emphasizes the need for molecular surveillance.
Staphylococcus aureus; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA; MRSA ST239-III; bacteria; sequence type; virulent clones; Brazilian clone; Portuguese clone; Ohio; United States
Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) is a mobile genetic element that carries resistance genes for beta-lactam antibiotics. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, such as S. epidermidis, are thought to be a reservoir of diverse SCCmec elements that can spread to the most virulent staphylococcal species, S. aureus, but very little is known about the extent of cross-species spread of these elements in natural populations or their dynamics in different species. We addressed these questions by using a sample of 86 S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolates with SCCmec type IV that were collected from a single hospital over a period of six months. To subtype SCCmec IV, we used multiplex PCR to detect structural variations and we used sequences from a fragment of the ccrB gene and from the dru repeats to detect additional variations. Multiplex PCR had significantly lower typeability than ccrB:dru sequencing, due to more nontypeable isolates among S. epidermidis. No statistically significant differences in diversity were detected by subtyping method or species. Interestingly, while only 4 of 24 subtypes (17%) were shared between species, these so-called shared subtypes represented 58 of 86 isolates (67%). The shared subtypes differed significantly between species in their frequencies. The shared subtypes were also significantly more concordant with genetic backgrounds in S. aureus than in S. epidermidis. Moreover, the shared subtypes had significantly higher minimum inhibitory concentrations to oxacillin in S. aureus than in S. epidermidis. This study has identified particular SCCmec IV subtypes with an important role in spreading beta-lactam resistance between species, and has further revealed some species differences in their abundance, linkage to genetic background, and antibiotic resistance level.
Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcus epidermidis; SCCmec; strain typing; horizontal genetic transfer
Several research fields frequently deal with the analysis of diverse classification results of the same entities. This should imply an objective detection of overlaps and divergences between the formed clusters. The congruence between classifications can be quantified by clustering agreement measures, including pairwise agreement measures. Several measures have been proposed and the importance of obtaining confidence intervals for the point estimate in the comparison of these measures has been highlighted. A broad range of methods can be used for the estimation of confidence intervals. However, evidence is lacking about what are the appropriate methods for the calculation of confidence intervals for most clustering agreement measures. Here we evaluate the resampling techniques of bootstrap and jackknife for the calculation of the confidence intervals for clustering agreement measures. Contrary to what has been shown for some statistics, simulations showed that the jackknife performs better than the bootstrap at accurately estimating confidence intervals for pairwise agreement measures, especially when the agreement between partitions is low. The coverage of the jackknife confidence interval is robust to changes in cluster number and cluster size distribution.
A novel composite transposon (Tn6072) resembling staphylococcal cassette chromosome mercury (SCCHg) was identified in a collection of sequence type (ST) 239 methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from Romanian hospitals. Tn6072 is homologous to the 5′ region of SCCHg found in staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type III prototype strain 85/2082 but lacks the characteristic mer operon. SCCHg has previously been reported to integrate downstream of orfX, at the same chromosomal location as SCCmec. Tn6072, by contrast, is demarcated by two IS431 elements, flanked by 8-bp direct repeats, and inserted upstream of the origin of replication, within an open reading frame homologous to SAR2700 of S. aureus strain MRSA252. Analysis of a geographically and temporally diverse collection of 111 strains from the ST239 clonal group uncovered 11 additional strains harboring Tn6072, demonstrating a lineage-specific insertion pattern. Complete sequence analysis of the SCCmec regions of two representative Romanian strains (BK16704, BK16691) revealed two additional novel structures derived from a type III SCCmec background. BK16704 possesses an SCCmec 3A.1.4 structure, with an IS256 insertion downstream of the right chromosomal junction. In contrast, the SCCmec element of BK16691 is truncated downstream of the mec gene complex, with a 24-kb deletion encompassing the right chromosomal junction and an inverted downstream IS256 element. This structure, tentatively named “ψSCCmec16691,” confers methicillin resistance but lacks most of the J1/J2 region, including the ccr gene complex. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the continuing evolution of SCC elements, as well as the ST239 clonal group.
Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy sheep ranges from subclinical mastitis to lethal gangrenous mastitis. Neither the S. aureus virulence factors nor the host-factors or the epidemiological events contributing to the different outcomes are known. In a field study in a dairy sheep farm over 21 months, 16 natural isolates of S. aureus were collected from six subclinical mastitis cases, one lethal gangrenous mastitis case, nasal carriage from eight ewes and one isolate from ambient air in the milking room. A genomic comparison of two strains, one responsible for subclinical mastitis and one for lethal gangrenous mastitis, was performed using multi-strain DNA microarrays. Multiple typing techniques (pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis, multiple-locus variable-number, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, spa typing and sas typing) were used to characterise the remaining isolates and to follow the persistence of the gangrenous isolate in ewes’ nares. Our results showed that the two strains were genetically closely related and they shared 3 615 identical predicted open reading frames. However, the gangrenous mastitis isolate carried variant versions of several genes (sdrD, clfA-B, sasA, sasB, sasD, sasI and splE) and was missing fibrinogen binding protein B (fnbB) and a prophage. The typing results showed that this gangrenous strain emerged after the initial subclinical mastitis screening, but then persisted in the flock in the nares of four ewes. Although we cannot dismiss the role of host susceptibility in the clinical events in this flock, our data support the hypothesis that S. aureus populations had evolved in the sheep flock and that S. aureus genetic variations could have contributed to enhanced virulence.
subclinical mastitis; gangrenous mastitis; dairy sheep; Staphylococcus aureus; microarray
Since the year 2000, linezolid has been used in the United States to treat infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant Gram-positive cocci. At present, linezolid-resistant (Linr) Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains are rare and the diversity of their genetic backgrounds is unknown. We performed sequence-based strain typing and resistance gene characterization of 46 Linr isolates that were collected from local and national sources between the years 2004 and 2007. Resistance was found to occur in at least three clonal complexes (CCs; lineages) of S. aureus and in at least four subclusters of a predominant, phylogenetically unstable CC of S. epidermidis. New candidate resistance mutations in 23S rRNA and the L4 riboprotein were identified among the S. epidermidis isolates. These findings suggest that linezolid resistance has emerged independently in multiple clones of S. aureus and with a variety of ribosomal mutations in multiple clones of S. epidermidis.
A survey of chromosomal variation in the ST239 clonal group of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) revealed a novel genetic element, ICE6013. The element is 13,354 bp in length, excluding a 6,551-bp Tn552 insertion. ICE6013 is flanked by 3-bp direct repeats and is demarcated by 8-bp imperfect inverted repeats. The element was present in 6 of 15 genome-sequenced S. aureus strains, and it was detected using genetic markers in 19 of 44 diverse MRSA and methicillin-susceptible strains and in all 111 ST239 strains tested. Low integration site specificity was discerned. Multiple chromosomal copies and the presence of extrachromosomal circular forms of ICE6013 were detected in various strains. The circular forms included 3-bp coupling sequences, located between the 8-bp ends of the element, that corresponded to the 3-bp direct repeats flanking the chromosomal forms. ICE6013 is predicted to encode 15 open reading frames, including an IS30-like DDE transposase in place of a Tyr/Ser recombinase and homologs of gram-positive bacterial conjugation components. Further sequence analyses indicated that ICE6013 is more closely related to ICEBs1 from Bacillus subtilis than to the only other potential integrative conjugative element known from S. aureus, Tn5801. Evidence of recombination between ICE6013 elements is also presented. In summary, ICE6013 is the first member of a new family of active, integrative genetic elements that are widely dispersed within S. aureus strains.
At a time when the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was changing, we sought to characterize several genotypic markers and glycopeptide susceptibility features of clinical isolates from patients with bacteraemia.
One hundred and sixty-eight MRSA bloodstream isolates obtained from three multicentre clinical trials were microbiologically and genotypically characterized.
All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin (MIC ≤ 2 mg/L); 38% belonged to accessory gene regulator (agr) group I, 52% belonged to group II and 10% belonged to group III. Typing of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) showed that 67% were type II and 33% were type IV. The agr group II polymorphism was associated with SCCmec II (P < 0.001). Fifty-three percent of SCCmec II and 27% of SCCmec IV isolates had vancomycin MICs ≥1 mg/L (P = 0.001). One hundred percent of agr II strains were predicted to be members of clonal complex 5. SCCmec II was the genetic marker most predictive of vancomycin MICs of ≥1 mg/L. SCCmec IV isolates were more likely to have vancomycin MICs ≤0.5 mg/L.
Given that SCCmec IV is a marker for a community-based organism for which less prior vancomycin exposure is predicted, we conclude that prior antibiotic exposure in agr group II organisms may account for their increased vancomycin MICs.
MRSA; SCCmec types; clonal types; Staphylococcus spp.
In a recent landmark trial of bacteremia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, vancomycin MICs were ≥1 μg/ml for only 16% of the isolates, and accessory gene regulator (agr) function as measured by delta-hemolysin activity was absent or reduced in only 28.1% of the isolates. This clinical study did not capture a population of MRSA isolates predictive of vancomycin treatment failure.
Device-associated infections involving biofilm remain a persistent clinical problem. We recently reported that four methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains formed biofilm independently of the icaADBC-encoded exopolysaccharide. Here, we report that MRSA biofilm development was promoted under mildly acidic growth conditions triggered by the addition of glucose to the growth medium. Loss of sortase, which anchors LPXTG-containing proteins to peptidoglycan, reduced the MRSA biofilm phenotype. Furthermore introduction of mutations in fnbA and fnbB, which encode the LPXTG-anchored multifunctional fibrinogen and fibronectin-binding proteins, FnBPA and FnBPB, reduced biofilm formation by several MRSA strains. However, these mutations had no effect on biofilm formation by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strains. FnBP-promoted biofilm occurred at the level of intercellular accumulation and not primary attachment. Mutation of fnbA or fnbB alone did not substantially affect biofilm, and expression of either gene alone from a complementing plasmid in fnbA fnbB mutants restored biofilm formation. FnBP-promoted biofilm was dependent on the integrity of SarA but not through effects on fnbA or fnbB transcription. Using plasmid constructs lacking regions of FnBPA to complement an fnbAB mutant revealed that the A domain alone and not the domain required for fibronectin binding could promote biofilm. Additionally, an A-domain N304A substitution that abolished fibrinogen binding did not affect biofilm. These data identify a novel S. aureus biofilm phenotype promoted by FnBPA and FnBPB which is apparently independent of the known ligand-binding activities of these multifunctional surface proteins.
We analyzed a representative sample of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from 11 European countries (referred to as the HARMONY collection) using three molecular typing methods used within the HARMONY group to examine their usefulness for large, multicenter MRSA surveillance networks that use these different laboratory methodologies. MRSA isolates were collected based on their prevalence in each center and their genetic diversity, assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE groupings (≤3 bands difference between patterns) were compared to those made by sequencing of the variable repeats in the protein A gene spa and clonal designations based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), combined with PCR analysis of the staphylococcal chromosome cassette containing the mec genes involved in methicillin resistance (SCCmec). A high level of discrimination was achieved using each of the three methodologies, with discriminatory indices between 89.5% and 91.9% with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. There was also a high level of concordance of groupings made using each method. MLST/SCCmec typing distinguished 10 groups containing at least two isolates, and these correspond to the majority of nosocomial MRSA clones described in the literature. PFGE and spa typing resolved 34 and 31 subtypes, respectively, within these 10 MRSA clones, with each subtype differing only slightly from the most common pattern using each method. The HARMONY group has found that the methods used in this study differ in their availability and affordability to European centers involved in MRSA surveillance. Here, we demonstrate that the integration of such technologies is achievable, although common protocols (such as we have developed for PFGE) may also be important, as is the use of centralized Internet sites to facilitate data analysis. PFGE and spa-typing data from analysis of MRSA isolates from the many centers that have access to the relevant equipment can be compared to reference patterns/sequences, and clonal designations can be made. In the majority of cases, these will correspond to those made by the (more expensive) method of choice—MLST/SCCmec typing—and these alternative methods can therefore be used as frontline typing systems for multicenter surveillance of MRSA.
Production of icaADBC-encoded polysaccharide intercellular adhesin, or poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PIA/PNAG), represents an important biofilm mechanism in staphylococci. We previously described a glucose-induced, ica-independent biofilm mechanism in four methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. Here, biofilm regulation by NaCl and glucose was characterized in 114 MRSA and 98 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from diagnosed device-related infections. NaCl-induced biofilm development was significantly more prevalent among MSSA than MRSA isolates, and this association was independent of the isolate's genetic background as assessed by spa sequence typing. Among MSSA isolates, PIA/PNAG production correlated with biofilm development in NaCl, whereas in MRSA isolates grown in NaCl or glucose, PIA/PNAG production was not detected even though icaADBC was transcribed and regulated. Glucose-induced biofilm in MRSA was ica independent and apparently mediated by a protein adhesin(s). Experiments performed with strains that were amenable to genetic manipulation revealed that deletion of icaADBC had no effect on biofilm in a further six MRSA isolates but abolished biofilm in four MSSA isolates. Mutation of sarA abolished biofilm in seven MRSA and eight MSSA isolates. In contrast, mutation of agr in 13 MRSA and 8 MSSA isolates substantially increased biofilm (more than twofold) in only 5 of 21 (23%) isolates and had no significant impact on biofilm in the remaining 16 isolates. We conclude that biofilm development in MRSA is ica independent and involves a protein adhesin(s) regulated by SarA and Agr, whereas SarA-regulated PIA/PNAG plays a more important role in MSSA biofilm development.
Macrolide-resistant group A streptococci (MRGAS) have been recovered from many countries worldwide. However, the strain typing information that is available has been insufficient for estimating the total number of macrolide-resistant clones, their geographic distributions, and their evolutionary relationships. In this study, sequence-based strain typing was used to characterize 212 MRGAS isolates from 34 countries. Evaluation of clonal complexes, emm type, and resistance gene content [erm(A), erm(B), mef(A), and undefined] indicate that macrolide resistance was acquired by GAS organisms via ≥49 independent genetic events. In contrast to other collections of mostly susceptible GAS, genetic diversification of MRGAS clones has occurred primarily by mutation rather than by recombination. Twenty-two MRGAS clonal complexes were recovered from more than one continent; intercontinental strains represent nearly 80% of the MRGAS isolates under study. The findings suggest that horizontal transfer of macrolide resistance genes to numerous genetic backgrounds and global dissemination of resistant clones and their descendants are both major components of the present-day macrolide resistance problem found within this species.
A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme based on seven housekeeping genes was used to investigate the epidemiology and population structure of Enterococcus faecalis. MLST of 110 isolates from different sources and geographic locations revealed 55 different sequence types that grouped into four major clonal complexes (CC2, CC9, CC10, and CC21) by use of eBURST. Two of these clonal complexes, CC2 and CC9, are particularly fit in the hospital environment, as CC2 includes the previously described BVE clonal complex identified by an alternative MLST scheme and CC9 includes exclusively isolates from hospitalized patients. Identical alleles were found in genetically diverse isolates with no linkage disequilibrium, while the different MLST loci gave incongruent phylogenetic trees. This demonstrates that recombination is an important mechanism driving genetic variation in E. faecalis and suggests an epidemic population structure for E. faecalis. Our novel MLST scheme provides an excellent tool for investigating local and short-term epidemiology as well as global epidemiology, population structure, and genetic evolution of E. faecalis.
The accessory gene regulator (agr) locus influences the expression of many virulence genes in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Four allelic groups of agr, which generally inhibit the regulatory activity of each other, have been identified within the species. Interference in virulence gene expression caused by different agr groups has been suggested to be a mechanism for isolating bacterial populations and a fundamental basis for subdividing the species. To test the hypothesis that the species is phylogenetically structured according to agr groups, we mapped agr groups onto a clone phylogeny inferred from partial sequences of 14 genes from 27 genetically diverse strains. Shimodaira-Hasegawa and parametric bootstrap tests rejected the hypotheses that the species is subdivided into three or five monophyletic agr groups but failed to reject the hypothesis that the species is subdivided into two groups that each consist of multiple clonal complexes and multiple agr groups. Additional evidence for agr recombination is found from clustered polymorphisms in complete agr sequences. However, agr recombination has not occurred frequently or randomly through time, because the topology and branch lengths of the clone phylogeny are reflected within each agr group. To account for these observations, we propose a new evolutionary model that involves a genetically polymorphic ancestral population of S. aureus that horizontally transferred agr groups between two subspecies groups near the time that these subspecies groups diverged.
Streptococcus pyogenes is a highly prevalent bacterial pathogen, most often giving rise to superficial infections at the throat or skin of its human host. Three genotype-defined subpopulations of strains exhibiting strong tropisms for either the throat or skin (specialists) or having no obvious tissue site preference (generalists) are recognized. Since the microenvironments at the throat and skin are distinct, the signal transduction pathways leading to the control of gene expression may also differ for throat versus skin strains of S. pyogenes. Two loci (mga and rofA/nra) encoding global regulators of virulence gene expression are positioned 300 kb apart on the genome; each contains alleles forming two major sequence clusters of ∼25 to 30% divergence that are under balancing selection. Strong linkage disequilibrium is observed between sequence clusters of the transcription regulatory loci and the subpopulations of throat and skin specialists, against a background of high recombination rates among housekeeping genes. A taxonomically distinct commensal species (Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilus) shares highly homologous rof alleles. The findings provide strong support for a mechanism underlying niche specialization that involves orthologous replacement of regulatory genes following interspecies horizontal transfer, although the directionality of gene exchange remains unknown.
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have caused hospital outbreaks worldwide, and the vancomycin-resistance gene (vanA) has crossed genus boundaries to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Spread of VRE, therefore, represents an immediate threat for patient care and creates a reservoir of mobile resistance genes for other, more virulent pathogens. Evolutionary genetics, population structure, and geographic distribution of 411 VRE and vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium isolates, recovered from human and nonhuman sources and community and hospital reservoirs in 5 continents, identified a genetic lineage of E. faecium (complex-17) that has spread globally. This lineage is characterized by 1) ampicillin resistance, 2) a pathogenicity island, and 3) an association with hospital outbreaks. Complex-17 is an example of cumulative evolutionary processes that improved the relative fitness of bacteria in hospital environments. Preventing further spread of this epidemic E. faecium subpopulation is critical, and efforts should focus on the early disclosure of ampicillin-resistant complex-17 strains.
Keywords: molecular epidemiology; Enterococcus faecium; Multilocus Sequence Typing; Population structure; Genetic evolution; VRE; vancomycin-resistance
The staphylococcal methicillin resistance determinant, mecA, resides on a mobile genetic element, staphylococcus chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec). The distribution of SCCmec in nature is limited to relatively few clonal complexes of related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We have previously reported that some genetic backgrounds are restrictive of mecA and penicillin-binding protein 2a expression, which could account for the restricted clonal distribution of SCCmec in nature. In this study, we investigate the potential role of the host chromosome in the transformability and expression of mecA in 103 naturally occurring methicillin-susceptible S. aureus clinical isolates. The isolates, which had been genotyped previously by multilocus sequence typing, were classified into one of two mutually exclusive categories based on whether the isolates belonged to “major” MRSA lineages or to “other” lineages that are never or occasionally MRSA. We introduced mecA expressed on the low-copy-number plasmid pYK20 into each MSSA strain and assayed the phenotype of resistance to nafcillin by population analysis to assess the relationship between the stability of mecA expression and genetic background. Strains from the major MRSA lineages were more transformable with pYK20 and better able to maintain the plasmid and express resistance in comparison to strains from other lineages. These data support the hypothesis that the presence of mecA within relatively few clonal complexes is partly due to genetic factors that are permissive of mecA and its gene product.
The evolution of the capsular biosynthetic (cps) locus of serogroup 6 Streptococcus pneumoniae was investigated by analyzing sequence variation within three serotype-specific cps genes from 102 serotype 6A and 6B isolates. Sequence variation within these cps genes was related to the genetic relatedness of the isolates, determined by multilocus sequence typing, and to the inferred patterns of recent evolutionary descent, explored using the eBURST algorithm. The serotype-specific cps genes had a low percent G+C, and there was a low level of sequence diversity in this region among serotype 6A and 6B isolates. There was also little sequence divergence between these serotypes, suggesting a single introduction of an ancestral cps sequence, followed by slight divergence to create serotypes 6A and 6B. A minority of serotype 6B isolates had cps sequences (class 2 sequences) that were ∼5% divergent from those of other serotype 6B isolates (class 1 sequences) and which may have arisen by a second, more recent introduction from a related but distinct source. Expression of a serotype 6A or 6B capsule correlated perfectly with a single nonsynonymous polymorphism within wciP, the rhamnosyl transferase gene. In addition to ample evidence of the horizontal transfer of the serotype 6A and 6B cps locus into unrelated lineages, there was evidence for relatively frequent changes from serotype 6A to 6B, and vice versa, among very closely related isolates and examples of recent recombinational events between class 1 and 2 cps serogroup 6 sequences.
Conjugative transfer and replacement of hundreds of kilobases of a bacterial chromosome can occur in vitro, but replacements in nature are either an order of magnitude smaller or involve the movement of mobile genetic elements. We discovered that two lineages of Staphylococcus aureus, including a pandemic methicillin-resistant lineage, were founded by single chromosomal replacements of at least ∼244 and ∼557 kb representing ∼10 and ∼20% of the chromosome, respectively, without the obvious involvement of mobile genetic elements. The replacements are unprecedented in natural populations of bacteria because of their large size and unique structure and may have a dramatic impact on bacterial evolution.
Five major lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have evolved since the introduction of methicillin for the treatment of infections caused by penicillin-resistant S. aureus in 1959. The clones of these lineages are responsible for the vast majority of hospital-acquired MRSA disease globally. We have constructed high-resolution evolutionary models for each lineage using a parsimony approach with 15 partial gene sequences from 147 geographically diverse isolates. On the basis of these models, we infer that MRSA has emerged at least 20 times upon acquisition of the methicillin resistance determinant, which is carried on a mobile genetic element called the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). The acquisition of SCCmec by sensitive clones was four times more common than the replacement of one SCCmec with another. Notably, SCCmec type IV was found in twice as many clones as any other SCCmec type, and it is this SCCmec type which is commonly found in clones from patients with community-acquired MRSA disease. Our findings suggest that most clones of MRSA arise by the acquisition of SCCmec type IV by methicillin-sensitive isolates.
Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen and represents a growing public health burden owing to the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant clones, particularly within the hospital environment. Despite this, basic questions about the evolution and population biology of the species, particularly with regard to the extent and impact of homologous recombination, remain unanswered. We address these issues through an analysis of sequence data obtained from the characterization by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of 334 isolates of S. aureus, recovered from a well-defined population, over a limited time span. We find no significant differences in the distribution of multilocus genotypes between strains isolated from carriers and those from patients with invasive disease; there is, therefore, no evidence from MLST data, which index variation within the stable “core” genome, for the existence of hypervirulent clones of this pathogen. Examination of the sequence changes at MLST loci during clonal diversification shows that point mutations give rise to new alleles at least 15-fold more frequently than does recombination. This contrasts with the naturally transformable species Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which alleles change between 5- and 10-fold more frequently by recombination than by mutation. However, phylogenetic analysis suggests that homologous recombination does contribute toward the evolution of this species over the long term. Finally, we note a striking excess of nonsynonymous substitutions in comparisons between isolates belonging to the same clonal complex compared to isolates belonging to different clonal complexes, suggesting that the removal of deleterious mutations by purifying selection may be relatively slow.
To study the evolution and virulence of pneumococcal populations, we used multilocus sequence typing to identify the major clones among 212 carriage and invasive isolates expressing capsular serogroup 6 from 39 countries. The global population consisted of 8 major complexes and 6 minor complexes of related clones and 32 clones of diverse origin. Surprisingly, serotype 6A clones evolved by mutation nearly as often as by recombination, whereas serotype 6B clones evolved almost exclusively by recombination (P = 0.0029). This is the first report of population genetic differences among serotypes of this species. The largest clonal complex was associated with invasive disease (P = 0.019) and included a common ancestor for five previously identified drug-resistant clones. The putative ancestors of the major clonal complexes were represented by a greater proportion of carriage isolates than were their descendents (P = 0.001), and the ancestors tended to be less virulent than their descendents in a mouse model of infection. These data suggested that virulent serogroup 6 clones have evolved multiple times from less-virulent ancestral clones.