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author:("Rieg, siegert")
1.  Microarray-Based Genotyping and Clinical Outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection: An Exploratory Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e71259.
The clinical course of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia varies extensively. We sought to determine the relationship between genetic characteristics of the infecting pathogen and clinical outcomes in an exploratory study. In two study centers, 317 blood culture isolates were analyzed by DNA microarray and spa genotyping. By uni- and multivariate regression analyses associations of genotype data with 30-day all-cause mortality, severe sepsis/septic shock, disseminated disease, endocarditis, and osteoarticular infection were investigated. Univariate analysis showed significant association between S. aureus genes/gene-clusters or clonal complexes and clinical endpoints. For example CC15 was associated with 30-day mortality and CC22 with osteoarticular infection. In multivariate analysis methicillin resistance (mecA, OR 4.8 [1.43–16.06]) and the beta-lactamase-gene (bla, OR 3.12 [1.17–8.30]) remained independently associated with 30-day mortality. The presence of genes for enterotoxins (sed/sej/ser) was associated with endocarditis (OR 5.11 [1.14–18.62]). Host factors such as McCabe classification (OR 4.52 [2.09–9.79] for mortality), age (OR 1.06 [1.03–1.10] per year), and community-acquisition (OR 3.40 [1.31–8.81]) had a major influence on disease severity, dissemination and mortality. Individual genotypes and clonal complexes of S. aureus can only partially explain clinical features and outcomes of S. aureus bacteremia. Genotype-phenotype association studies need to include adjustments for host factors like age, comorbidity and community-acquisition.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071259
PMCID: PMC3743874  PMID: 23967176
2.  Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia associated with influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia after lung transplantation 
Background
Immunocompromised patients, particularly after lung transplantation, are at high risk to develop atypical forms of pulmonary infections including influenza A/H1N1. Acute Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonia (AFOP) is a special histological pattern in acute respiratory failure with high mortality.
Case presentation
We describe a 66-year-old woman with double lung transplantation in August 2009 due to end stage pulmonary fibrosis. After prolonged weaning and subsequent promising course, she developed atypical pneumonia with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in both lungs in January 2010. Infection with influenza A/H1N1 virus was verified. The patient rapidly suffered from respiratory insufficiency and died eight days after this diagnosis. The post-mortem revealed especially in the lower parts of the lungs the classical histological pattern of pure AFOP. Molecular analyses of lung tissue were positive for influenza A/H1N1.
Conclusion
To our knowledge we present the first case of AFOP triggered by viral infection, here proven to be influenza virus A/H1N1. Thus, also in the setting of viral infection the highly deadly differential diagnosis of AFOP must be considered.
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-13-30
PMCID: PMC3662564  PMID: 23683442
AFOP; Influenza A/H1N1; Acute lung failure; Lung transplantation; Viral infection
3.  Use of a Simple Criteria Set for Guiding Echocardiography in Nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia 
A set of simple clinical prediction criteria for patients with nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia was developed to identify patients at low risk of infective endocarditis in whom transesophageal echocardiography might be dispensable and was validated with two independent cohorts.
(see the editorial commentary and Soriano and Mensa, on pages 10–12.)
Background. Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe complication in patients with nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). We sought to develop and validate criteria to identify patients at low risk for the development of IE in whom transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) might be dispensable.
Methods. Consecutive patients with nosocomial SAB from independent cohorts in Europe (Invasive S. aureus Infection Cohort [INSTINCT]) and North America (S. aureus Bacteremia Group [SABG]) were evaluated for the presence of clinical criteria predicting an increased risk for the development of IE (ie, prolonged bacteremia of >4 days' duration, presence of a permanent intracardiac device, hemodialysis dependency, spinal infection, and nonvertebral osteomyelitis). Patients were observed closely for clinical signs and symptoms of IE during hospitalization and a 3-month follow-up period.
Results. IE was present in 13 (4.3%) of 304 patients in the INSTINCT cohort and in 40 (9.3%) of 432 patients in the SABG cohort. Within 14 days after the first positive blood culture result, echocardiography was performed in 39.8% and 57.4% of patients in the INSTINCT and SABG cohorts, respectively. In patients with IE, the most common clinical prediction criteria present were prolonged bacteremia (69.2% vs 90% for INSTINCT vs SABG, respectively) and presence of a permanent intracardiac device (53.8% vs 32.5%). In total, 13 of 13 patients in the INSTINCT cohort and 39 of 40 patients in the SABG cohort with documented IE fulfilled at least 1 criterion (sensitivity, 100% vs. 97.5%; negative predictive value, 100% vs 99.2%).
Conclusions. A simple criteria set for patients with nosocomial SAB can identify patients at low risk of IE. Patients who meet these criteria may not routinely require TEE.
doi:10.1093/cid/cir320
PMCID: PMC3149212  PMID: 21653295
4.  Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) acquired in Southwestern Germany 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2011;11:167.
Background
Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) was first described in 1997 in a patient in France. The causative agent, Rickettsia slovaca, is transmitted by Dermacentor ticks.
Case presentation
In southwestern Germany we encountered a patient with a tick bite at the dorsal scalp that resulted in an eschar and nuchal lymphadenopathy. Additionally, fever, malaise as well as elevated inflammatory markers and transaminases occurred. The characteristic clinical picture along with positive antibody testing for rickettsiae of the tick-borne spotted fever group strongly suggest the diagnosis TIBOLA.
Conclusion
Human rickettsioses are emerging infections. Clinicians should be aware of TIBOLA as a newly described rickettsial disease. As in our case, TIBOLA may be encountered in regions/countries where R. slovaca and Dermacentor ticks are prevalent but autochthonous acquisition was not described before.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-167
PMCID: PMC3128054  PMID: 21663601
5.  Paenibacillus larvae Bacteremia in Injection Drug Users 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2010;16(3):487-489.
Paenibacillus larvae causes American foulbrood in honey bees. We describe P. larvae bacteremia in 5 injection drug users who had self-injected honey-prepared methadone proven to contain P. larvae spores. That such preparations may be contaminated with spores of this organism is not well known among pharmacists, physicians, and addicts.
doi:10.3201/eid1603.091457
PMCID: PMC3322038  PMID: 20202425
Paenibacillus larvae; bacteremia; bacteria; intravenous drug abuse; honey; methadone substitution; American foulbrood; dispatch
6.  Differential activity of innate defense antimicrobial peptides against Nocardia species 
BMC Microbiology  2010;10:61.
Background
Members of the genus Nocardia are ubiquitous environmental saprophytes capable to cause human pulmonary, disseminated and cutaneous nocardiosis or bovine mastitis. Innate immunity appears to play an important role in early defense against Nocardia species. To elucidate the contribution of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in innate defense against Nocardia, the activity of human α-defensins human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) 1-3, human β-defensin (hBD)-3 and cathelicidin LL-37 as well as bovine β-defensins lingual and tracheal antimicrobial peptides (LAP, TAP) and bovine neutrophil-derived indolicidin against four important Nocardia species was investigated.
Results
Whereas N. farcinica ATCC 3318 and N. nova ATCC 33726 were found to be susceptible to all investigated human and bovine AMPs, N. asteroides ATCC 19247 was killed exclusively by neutrophil-derived human α-defensins HNP 1-3 and bovine indolicidin. N. brasiliensis ATCC 19296 was found to exhibit complete resistance to investigated human AMPs and to be susceptible only to bovine indolicidin.
Conclusion
Selected AMPs are capable to contribute to the first line of defense against Nocardia, yet, susceptibility appears to vary across different Nocardia species. Obtained results of neutrophil-derived AMPs to possess the broadest antinocardial spectrum are remarkable, since nocardiosis is characterized by a neutrophil-rich infiltrate in vivo.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-61
PMCID: PMC2834671  PMID: 20178618

Results 1-6 (6)