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1.  Prevalence of urinary colonization by extended spectrum-beta-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae among catheterised inpatients in Italian long term care facilities 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:124.
Background
Long Term Care Facilities (LTCFs) play a key role in guaranteeing care to patients in developed countries. Many patients, mostly elderly, access LTCFs at some time in their lives, and their healthcare pathways often require them to move back and forth between hospital and outpatient settings. These patterns bring about new challenges regarding infection control, especially healthcare associated infections.
Methods
A point prevalence study was conducted in 23 Italian LTCFs, to identify colonization in patients with urinary catheter (>24 hours). Species identification, susceptibility tests and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production screenings were performed using Vitek 2 System. Enterobacteria identified by Vitek 2 System as ESBL-producers or suspected AmpC hyperproducers on the basis of cephamycin resistance, were sent to a research laboratory where they underwent a double-disk synergy test. Finally, ESBL-producers were screened for bla resistance genes by PCR assay.
Results
211 patients with catheter were screened, 185 out of 211 patients showed positive samples for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, 114 of these 185 patients were colonized by extended spectrum cephalosporins resistant microorganisms. We identified a total of 257 Gram negative pathogens, of which 51.8% (133/257) were extended spectrum cephalosporins resistant. 7 out of 133 cephamycin not susceptible strains proved to be AmpC-type beta-lactamases and 125/133 ESBL-producers; 1 was not further characterized. 43 out of 257 (16.7%) E. coli, 37/257 (14.4%) P. mirabilis, 20/257 (7.8%), P. stuartii, 14/257 (5.4%) M. morganii, 7/257 (2.7%), K. pneumoniae, 4/257 (1.6%) C. koseri proved to be overall ESBL-producers by double-disk synergy test. Third and fourth generation cephalosporin resistant P. mirabilis, P. stuartii and M. morganii strains mainly harboured a blaTEM gene (95.9%), while 89.1% of E. coli were positive for the blaCTX-M determinant by PCR and sequencing. Patients with decubitus had a higher risk of colonization by at least one resistant isolate (p < 0.01). Samples of patients undergoing antibiotic therapy and patients with decubitus showed a higher risk (p < 0.05) of colonization by beta-lactam resistant microorganisms.
Conclusions
These data confirm the presence of high percentages of ESBL-positive Enterobacteria in Italian LTCFs and the predominance of CTX-M type ESBL in E. coli. The alarming presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Italian LTCFs can seriously compromise the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy.acilities (LTCFs), Antimicrobial resistance.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-124
PMCID: PMC3602654  PMID: 23497323
3.  Bactericidal activity of oxacillin and glycopeptides against Staphylococcus aureus in patients with endocarditis: Looking for a relationship between tolerance and outcome 
Background
There is no clear relationship between in vitro bactericidal activity tests and clinical outcome. We studied bactericidal activity of oxacillin, vancomycin and teicoplanin against Staphylococcus aureus isolates in patients with endocarditis and then we sought to determine if there was a relationship between in vitro bactericidal activity and clinical outcome.
Methods
Minimal bacteriostatic and minimal bactericidal concentrations were determined for Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients with endocarditis following standardized methods. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively to collect data on antimicrobial susceptibility at admission, antimicrobial therapy, need for surgery, embolic events and outcome.
Results and Discussion
Sixty-two Staphylococcus aureus strains were studied in 62 patients with endocarditis. Overall, 91.9% definite, 21% methicillin resistant and 72.6% cured. Surgery was performed in 32.3% and embolic events were documented in 64.5%. Tolerance to oxacillin and teicoplanin was more common than vancomycin tolerance among methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus teicoplanin was shown to have a higher rate of tolerance than vancomycin. No statistically significant differences on clinical outcome between oxacillin tolerant and oxacillin non tolerant Staphylococcus aureus infections were observed. Tolerance to oxacillin did not adversely affect clinical outcomes of patients with methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis treated with a combination of antimicrobials including oxacillin. The cure rate was significantly lower among patients with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.
Conclusions
In vitro bactericidal test results were not valid predictors of clinical outcome. Physicians need to use additional parameters when treating patients with staphylococcal endocarditis.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-10-26
PMCID: PMC3126696  PMID: 21658248
4.  Genotypic Diversity of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Causing Endocarditis: a Global Perspective▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(5):1780-1784.
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important causes of infective endocarditis (IE), but their microbiological profiles are poorly described. We performed DNA target sequencing and susceptibility testing for 91 patients with definite CNS IE who were identified from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis—Microbiology, a large, multicenter, multinational consortium. A hierarchy of gene sequences demonstrated great genetic diversity within CNS from patients with definite endocarditis that represented diverse geographic regions. In particular, rpoB sequence data demonstrated unique genetic signatures with the potential to serve as an important tool for global surveillance.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02405-07
PMCID: PMC2395089  PMID: 18367572

Results 1-4 (4)