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1.  Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in a Pseudomonas putida Strain Isolated from a Hospital 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e81604.
Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267) kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the antibiotics used in laboratories and hospitals, including aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, cationic peptides, chromoprotein enediyne antibiotics, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones and quinolones, glycopeptide antibiotics, macrolides, polyketides and sulfonamides. Similar to other P. putida clinical isolates the strain was sensitive to amikacin. To shed light on the broad pattern of antibiotic resistance, which is rarely found in clinical isolates of this species, the genome of this strain was sequenced and analysed. The study revealed that the determinants of multiple resistance are both chromosomally-borne as well as located on the pPC9 plasmid. Further analysis indicated that pPC9 has recruited antibiotic and biocide resistance genes from environmental microorganisms as well as from opportunistic and true human pathogens. The pPC9 plasmid is not self-transmissible, but can be mobilized by other bacterial plasmids making it capable of spreading antibiotic resistant determinants to new hosts.
PMCID: PMC3894933  PMID: 24465371
2.  Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Susceptibility Phenotype in Bloodstream Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from an International Cohort of Patients with Infective Endocarditis: Prevalence, Genotype, and Clinical Significance 
The Journal of infectious diseases  2009;200(9):1355-1366.
The significance of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) is unknown. Using a multinational collection of isolates from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infective endocarditis (IE), we characterized IE patients with and without hVISA, and genotyped the infecting strains.
MRSA bloodstream isolates from 65 patients with definite IE from 8 countries underwent PCR for 31 virulence genes, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. hVISA was defined using population analysis profiling (PAP).
Nineteen (29.2%) of 65 MRSA IE isolates exhibited hVISA by PAP. Isolates from Oceania and Europe were more likely to exhibit hVISA than isolates from the United States (77.8% vs. 35.0% vs. 13.9%; P < .001). The prevalence of hVISA was higher among isolates with a vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 mg/L (P = .026). hVISA-infected patients were more likely to have persistent bacteremia (68.4% vs. 37.0%; P = .029) and heart failure (47.4% vs. 19.6%; P = .033). Mortality of hVISA- and non-hVISA-infected patients did not differ (42.1% vs. 34.8%, P = .586). hVISA and non-hVISA isolates were genotypically similar.
In these analyses, hVISA occurred in over one-quarter of MRSA IE isolates, was associated with certain IE complications, and varied in frequency by geographic region.
PMCID: PMC3600359  PMID: 19811099
hVISA; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; endocarditis; genotype
3.  Phylogenetic Analysis of Viridans Group Streptococci Causing Endocarditis ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(9):3087-3090.
Identification of viridans group streptococci (VGS) to the species level is difficult because VGS exchange genetic material. We performed multilocus DNA target sequencing to assess phylogenetic concordance of VGS for a well-defined clinical syndrome. The hierarchy of sequence data was often discordant, underscoring the importance of establishing biological relevance for finer phylogenetic distinctions.
PMCID: PMC2546745  PMID: 18650347
4.  Genotypic Diversity of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Causing Endocarditis: a Global Perspective▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(5):1780-1784.
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important causes of infective endocarditis (IE), but their microbiological profiles are poorly described. We performed DNA target sequencing and susceptibility testing for 91 patients with definite CNS IE who were identified from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis—Microbiology, a large, multicenter, multinational consortium. A hierarchy of gene sequences demonstrated great genetic diversity within CNS from patients with definite endocarditis that represented diverse geographic regions. In particular, rpoB sequence data demonstrated unique genetic signatures with the potential to serve as an important tool for global surveillance.
PMCID: PMC2395089  PMID: 18367572
5.  Mutations in PA3574 (nalD) Lead to Increased MexAB-OprM Expression and Multidrug Resistance in Laboratory and Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Mutations in genes mexR and nalC have previously been shown to drive overexpression of the MexAB-OprM multidrug efflux system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A transposon insertion multidrug-resistant mutant of P. aeruginosa overproducing MexAB-OprM was disrupted in yet a third gene, PA3574, encoding a probable repressor of the TetR/AcrR family that we have dubbed NalD. Clinical strains overexpressing MexAB-OprM but lacking mutations in mexR or nalC were also shown to carry mutations in nalD. Moreover, the cloned nalD gene reduced the multidrug resistance and MexAB-OprM expression of the transposon mutant and clinical isolates, highlighting the significance of the nalD mutations vis-à-vis MexAB-OprM overexpression in these isolates.
PMCID: PMC1087681  PMID: 15855496
6.  Propagation of TEM- and PSE-Type β-Lactamases among Amoxicillin-Resistant Salmonella spp. Isolated in France 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1999;43(10):2430-2436.
A survey conducted between 1987 and 1994 at the University Hospital of Besançon, France, demonstrated a dramatic increase (from 0 to 42.5%) in the prevalence of amoxicillin resistance among Salmonella spp. Of the 96 resistant isolates collected during this period (including 77 Typhimurium), 54 were found to produce TEM-1 β-lactamase, 40 produced PSE-1 (equivalent to CARB-2), one produced PSE-1 plus TEM-2, and one produced OXA-1 in isoelectric focusing and DNA hybridization experiments. Plasmids coding for these β-lactamases were further characterized by (i) profile analysis, (ii) restriction fragmentation pattern analysis, (iii) hybridization with an spvCD-orfE virulence probe, and (iv) replicon typing. In addition, isolates of S. typhimurium were genotypically compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-macrorestricted chromosomal DNA. Altogether, these methods showed that 40 of the 41 PSE-1 producers were actually the progeny of a single epidemic S. typhimurium strain lysotype DT104. Isolates of that strain were found to harbor RepFIC virulence plasmids with somewhat different restriction profiles, but which all carried the blaPSE-1 gene. Of these virulence/resistance plasmids, 15 were transmissible to Escherichia coli. TEM-1-producing S. typhimurium displayed much greater genotypic and plasmidic diversities, suggesting the acquisition of the blaTEM-1 gene from multiple bacterial sources by individual strains. In agreement with this, 32 of the 35 S. typhimurium plasmids encoding TEM-1 were found to be conjugative. These data show that development of amoxicillin resistance among Salmonella, especially in serovar Typhimurium, results from both gene transfers and strain dissemination.
PMCID: PMC89496  PMID: 10508020
7.  Uptake of Pyocin S3 Occurs through the Outer Membrane Ferripyoverdine Type II Receptor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Journal of Bacteriology  1999;181(12):3849-3851.
Pyocin S3 was found to kill exclusively Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates producing type II pyoverdine (exemplified by strain ATCC 27853). Killing was specifically inhibited by addition of type II ferripyoverdine. All Tn5 mutants resistant to pyocin S3 were defective for pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake and failed to produce an 85-kDa iron-repressed outer membrane protein. We conclude that this protein is probably the type II ferripyoverdine receptor that is used by pyocin S3 to gain entry into the cell.
PMCID: PMC93868  PMID: 10368165
8.  In Vivo Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Overexpressing the Active Efflux System MexA-MexB-OprM 
During a 6-month period, 21 pairs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates susceptible (pretherapy) and resistant (posttherapy) to antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotics were isolated from hospitalized patients. In vivo emergence of β-lactam resistance was associated with the overexpression of AmpC β-lactamase in 10 patients. In the other 11 patients, the posttherapy isolates produced only low, basal levels of β-lactamase and had increased levels of resistance to a variety of non-β-lactam antibiotics (e.g., quinolones, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim) compared with the levels of β-lactamase production and resistance of their pretherapy counterparts. These data suggested the involvement of the MexA-MexB-OprM active efflux system in the multidrug resistance phenotype of the posttherapy strains. Immunoblotting of the outer membrane proteins of these 11 bacterial pairs with a specific polyclonal antibody raised against OprM demonstrated the overexpression of OprM in all the posttherapy isolates. To determine whether mutations in mexR, the regulator gene of the mexA-mexB-oprM efflux operon, could account for the overproduction of the efflux system, sequencing experiments were carried out with the 11 bacterial pairs. Eight posttherapy isolates were found to contain insertions or deletions that led to frameshifts in the coding sequences of mexR. Two resistant strains had point mutations in mexR that yielded single amino acid changes in the protein MexR, while another strain did not show any mutation in mexR or in the promoter region upstream of mexR. Introduction of a plasmid-encoded wild-type mexR gene into five posttherapy isolates partially restored the susceptibility of the bacteria to selected antibiotics. These results indicate that in the course of antimicrobial therapy multidrug-resistant active efflux mutants overexpressing the MexA-MexB-OprM system may emerge as a result of mutations in the mexR gene.
PMCID: PMC89065  PMID: 9925520

Results 1-8 (8)