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1.  In Vivo Effects of Cefazolin, Daptomycin, and Nafcillin in Experimental Endocarditis with a Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strain Showing an Inoculum Effect against Cefazolin 
Several reports have implicated the inoculum effect that some strains of type A beta-lactamase (Bla)-producing, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) show against cefazolin as the cause for clinical failures in certain serious deep-seated infections. Here, using a previously reported MSSA strain displaying this phenotype (TX0117), we obtained a Bla-cured derivative (TX0117c) with a combination of novobiocin and high temperature. Both isolates were then used in a rat endocarditis model and treated with cefazolin, nafcillin, and daptomycin, given to simulate human dosing. Animals were treated for 3 days and either sacrificed at 24 h after the last antibiotic dose (standard group) or left untreated for an additional 3 days (relapse group). With TX0117 in the standard treatment group, daptomycin and nafcillin were both significantly better than cefazolin in reducing CFU/g of vegetations, achieving mean log10 reductions compared to levels in untreated rats of 7.1, 5.3, and 1.8, respectively (cefazolin versus daptomycin, P < 0.0001; cefazolin versus nafcillin, P = 0.005; daptomycin versus nafcillin, P = 0.053). In addition, cefazolin was significantly more effective in reducing vegetation titers of TX0117c than of TX0117 (mean log10 reduction of 1.4 versus 5.5, respectively; P = 0.0001). Similar results were observed with animals in the relapse group. Thus, these data show that there can be an in vivo consequence of the in vitro inoculum effect that some MSSA strains display against cefazolin and indicate a specific role for Bla production using a Bla-cured derivative strain against which cefazolin regained both in vitro and in vivo activity.
PMCID: PMC3754321  PMID: 23796934
2.  Cefazolin high-inoculum effect in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from South American hospitals 
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy  2013;68(12):2773-2778.
Clinical failures with cefazolin have been described in high-inoculum infections caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) producing type A β-lactamase. We investigated the prevalence of the cefazolin inoculum effect (InE) in MSSA from South American hospitals, since cefazolin is used routinely against MSSA due to concerns about the in vivo efficacy of isoxazolyl penicillins.
MSSA isolates were recovered from bloodstream (n = 296) and osteomyelitis (n = 68) infections in two different multicentre surveillance studies performed in 2001–02 and 2006–08 in South American hospitals. We determined standard-inoculum (105cfu/mL) and high-inoculum (107 cfu/mL) cefazolin MICs. PFGE was performed on all isolates that exhibited a cefazolin InE. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequencing of part of blaZ were performed on representative isolates.
The overall prevalence of the cefazolin InE was 36% (131 isolates). A high proportion (50%) of MSSA isolates recovered from osteomyelitis infections exhibited the InE, whereas it was observed in 33% of MSSA recovered from bloodstream infections. Interestingly, Ecuador had the highest prevalence of the InE (45%). Strikingly, 63% of MSSA isolates recovered from osteomyelitis infections in Colombia exhibited the InE. MLST revealed that MSSA isolates exhibiting the InE belonged to diverse genetic backgrounds, including ST5, ST8, ST30 and ST45, which correlated with the prevalent methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones circulating in South America. Types A (66%) and C (31%) were the most prevalent β-lactamases.
Our results show a high prevalence of the cefazolin InE associated with type A β-lactamase in MSSA isolates from Colombia and Ecuador, suggesting that treatment of deep-seated infections with cefazolin in those countries may be compromised.
PMCID: PMC3820105  PMID: 23794599
inoculum effect; bloodstream infections; osteomyelitis
3.  Telavancin versus Vancomycin for Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia due to Gram-positive Pathogens 
The results from two methodologically identical double-blind studies indicate that telavancin is noninferior to vancomycin based on clinical response in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia due to Gram-positive pathogens.
Background. Telavancin is a lipoglycopeptide bactericidal against gram-positive pathogens.
Methods. Two methodologically identical, double-blind studies (0015 and 0019) were conducted involving patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) due to gram-positive pathogens, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Patients were randomized 1:1 to telavancin (10 mg/kg every 24 h) or vancomycin (1 g every 12 h) for 7–21 days. The primary end point was clinical response at follow-up/test-of-cure visit.
Results. A total of 1503 patients were randomized and received study medication (the all-treated population). In the pooled all-treated population, cure rates with telavancin versus vancomycin were 58.9% versus 59.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference, –5.6% to 4.3%). In the pooled clinically evaluable population (n = 654), cure rates were 82.4% with telavancin and 80.7% with vancomycin (95% CI for the difference, –4.3% to 7.7%). Treatment with telavancin achieved higher cure rates in patients with monomicrobial S. aureus infection and comparable cure rates in patients with MRSA infection; in patients with mixed gram-positive/gram-negative infections, cure rates were higher in the vancomycin group. Incidence and types of adverse events were comparable between the treatment groups. Mortality rates for telavancin-treated versus vancomycin-treated patients were 21.5% versus 16.6% (95% CI for the difference, –0.7% to 10.6%) for study 0015 and 18.5% versus 20.6% (95% CI for the difference, –7.8% to 3.5%) for study 0019. Increases in serum creatinine level were more common in the telavancin group (16% vs 10%).
Conclusions. The primary end point of the studies was met, indicating that telavancin is noninferior to vancomycin on the basis of clinical response in the treatment of HAP due to gram-positive pathogens.
PMCID: PMC3060890  PMID: 21148517
4.  Determination of an Inoculum Effect with Various Cephalosporins among Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus▿  
Using 98 clinical methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates of known β-lactamase (Bla) type, we found a pronounced inoculum effect for cephalexin (mostly Bla type A and C strains), a mild inoculum effect for cephalothin (especially types B and C), and no inoculum effects for ceftriaxone and cefuroxime. Ceftobiprole showed the lowest MICs at a high inoculum but with a slight increase for Bla-positive versus Bla-negative strains. Since a potential therapeutic effect associated with a cephalosporin inoculum effect has been described, further studies are warranted.
PMCID: PMC2863656  PMID: 20211890
5.  Inoculum Effect with Cefazolin among Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: Frequency and Possible Cause of Cefazolin Treatment Failure▿  
Methicillin (meticillin)-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains producing large amounts of type A β-lactamase (Bla) have been associated with cefazolin failures, but the frequency and impact of these strains have not been well studied. Here we examined 98 MSSA clinical isolates and found that 26% produced type A Bla, 15% type B, 46% type C, and none type D and that 13% lacked blaZ. The cefazolin MIC90 was 2 μg/ml for a standard inoculum and 32 μg/ml for a high inoculum, with 19% of isolates displaying a pronounced inoculum effect (MICs of ≥16 μg/ml with 107 CFU/ml) (9 type A and 10 type C Bla producers). At the high inoculum, type A producers displayed higher cefazolin MICs than type B or C producers, while type B and C producers displayed higher cefamandole MICs. Among isolates from hemodialysis patients with MSSA bacteremia, three from the six patients who experienced cefazolin failure showed a cefazolin inoculum effect, while none from the six patients successfully treated with cefazolin showed an inoculum effect, suggesting an association between these strains and cefazolin failure (P = 0.09 by Fisher's exact test). In summary, 19% of MSSA clinical isolates showed a pronounced inoculum effect with cefazolin, a phenomenon that could explain the cases of cefazolin failure previously reported for hemodialysis patients with MSSA bacteremia. These results suggest that for serious MSSA infections, the presence of a significant inoculum effect with cefazolin could be associated with clinical failure in patients treated with this cephalosporin, particularly when it is used at low doses.
PMCID: PMC2715590  PMID: 19487449
6.  Decreased Virulence of a gls24 Mutant of Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF in an Experimental Endocarditis Model 
Infection and Immunity  2005;73(11):7772-7774.
In the current study, the gls24 disruption mutant TX10100, previously shown to be more sensitive to bile salts and attenuated in a mouse peritonitis model, showed an approximately fivefold higher 50% infective dose than wild-type OG1RF in a rat endocarditis model. When administered as a mixture, TX10100, unlike a downstream glsB mutant, was significantly outnumbered by OG1RF in vegetations, organs, and blood, despite being inoculated in greater numbers. These results indicate that gls24 is important in the pathogenesis of enterococcal endocarditis.
PMCID: PMC1273851  PMID: 16239583
7.  Fsr-Independent Production of Protease(s) May Explain the Lack of Attenuation of an Enterococcus faecalis fsr Mutant Versus a gelE-sprE Mutant in Induction of Endocarditis  
Infection and Immunity  2005;73(8):4888-4894.
An Enterococcus faecalis gelE insertion disruption mutant (TX5128), which produces neither gelatinase (GelE) nor the cotranscribed (in the wild type) serine protease (SprE), was found to be attenuated in a rat endocarditis model with a significant decrease in the endocarditis induction rate versus wild-type E. faecalis OG1RF (GelE+, SprE+). TX5266, which has a nonpolar deletion in fsrB and, like TX5128, is phenotypically GelE− under usual conditions, was also studied; fsrB is a homologue of agrB of staphylococci and participates in regulation of gelE-sprE expression. Unexpectedly, TX5266 approximated wild-type OG1RF in the endocarditis model and was significantly less attenuated than TX5128. This is in contrast to other models which have found fsr mutants to be as or more attenuated than TX5128. Further study found that the fsrB mutant produced very low levels of gelatinase activity after prolonged incubation in vitro versus no gelatinase activity with TX5128 and did not show the extensive chaining characteristic of TX5128. Reverse transcription-PCR confirmed that gelE was expressed in TX5266 at a very low level versus wild-type OG1RF and was not expressed at all in TX5128. Possible explanations for the increased induction of endocarditis by TX5266 versus TX5128 include the production of low levels of protease(s) or some other effect(s) of the inactivation of the E. faecalis fsr regulator. The equivalent ability of OG1RF and its fsr mutant to initiate endocarditis may explain why we did not find naturally occurring fsr mutants, which account for ca. 35% of E. faecalis isolates, unrepresented in endocarditis versus fecal isolates (J. C. Roberts, K. V. Singh, P. C. Okhuysen, and B. E. Murray, J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:2317-2320, 2004).
PMCID: PMC1201275  PMID: 16041002
8.  Activity of Tigecycline (GAR-936), a Novel Glycylcycline, against Enterococci in the Mouse Peritonitis Model 
A novel glycylcycline agent, tigecycline (GAR-936), was evaluated in vivo in the mouse model of peritonitis against three Enterococcus faecalis and four Enterococcus faecium isolates with different susceptibilities to vancomycin and tetracyclines, all of which were inhibited by ≤0.125 μg of tigecycline/ml. Using a single subcutaneous dose, tigecycline displayed a protective effect (50% protective dose, ≤5.7 mg/kg of body weight) against all strains tested, including two with Tn925 (from the Tn916 family), which contains the Tet(M) tetracycline resistance determinant, as well as VanA and VanB strains. As expected, tetracycline and minocycline were ineffective against the isolates carrying Tn925.
PMCID: PMC151755  PMID: 12543654

Results 1-8 (8)