A gene regulatory network was generated in the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in order to understand how this organism can activate its expression under different copper concentrations. The topological evaluation of the network showed common patterns described in other organisms. Integrating microarray experiments allowed the identification of sub-networks activated under low (0.05 mM CuSO4) and high (0.5 mM CuSO4) copper concentrations. The analysis indicates the presence of specific functionally activated modules induced by copper, highlighting the regulons LysR, ArgR as global regulators and CopY, Fur and LexA as local regulators. Taking advantage of the fact that E. faecalis presented a homeostatic module isolated, we produced an in vivo intervention removing this system from the cell without affecting the connectivity of the global transcriptional network. This strategy led us to find that this bacterium can reconfigure its gene expression to maintain cellular homeostasis, activating new modules principally related to glucose metabolism and transcriptional processes. Finally, these results position E. faecalis as the organism having the most complete and controllable systemic model of copper homeostasis available to date.
Daptomycin (DAP) is a lipopeptide antibiotic frequently used as a “last-resort” antibiotic against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). However, an important limitation for DAP therapy against VRE is the emergence of resistance during therapy. Mutations in regulatory systems involved in cell envelope homeostasis are postulated to be important mediators of DAP resistance in E. faecium. Thus, in order to gain insights into the genetic bases of DAP resistance in E. faecium, we investigated the presence of changes in 43 predicted proteins previously associated with DAP resistance in enterococci and staphylococci using the genomes of 19 E. faecium with different DAP MICs (range, 3 to 48 μg/ml). Bodipy-DAP (BDP-DAP) binding to the cell membrane assays and time-kill curves (DAP alone and with ampicillin) were performed. Genetic changes involving two major pathways were identified: (i) LiaFSR, a regulatory system associated with the cell envelope stress response, and (ii) YycFGHIJ, a system involved in the regulation of cell wall homeostasis. Thr120→Ala and Trp73→Cys substitutions in LiaS and LiaR, respectively, were the most common changes identified. DAP bactericidal activity was abolished in the presence of liaFSR or yycFGHIJ mutations regardless of the DAP MIC and was restored in the presence of ampicillin, but only in representatives of the LiaFSR pathway. Reduced binding of BDP-DAP to the cell surface was the predominant finding correlating with resistance in isolates with DAP MICs above the susceptibility breakpoint. Our findings suggest that genotypic information may be crucial to predict response to DAP plus β-lactam combinations and continue to question the DAP breakpoint of 4 μg/ml.
Eighty-one endocarditis-derived Enterococcus faecalis isolates that were collected from individual patients in the United States between 1974 and 2004 were sequence typed and analyzed for the presence of various genes, including some previously associated with virulence. Overall, using our previously described trilocus sequence typing (TLST), 44 different sequence types (STs) were found within this collection; 26 isolates were singletons (a unique TLST sequence type [STT]), some STTs contained multiple isolates (up to 6 isolates), and 16% of the isolates (13 isolates) could be grouped by additional sequence typing into clonal cluster 21 (CC21). Of note, only four isolates (7%) of the 56 whose multilocus sequence types were determined were found to belong to one of the previously described hospital-associated clonal clusters CC2 and CC9, and only 15% and 37% of all isolates had high-level resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin, respectively, including 10% that were resistant to both. We also found that 64% of the isolates lacked the genes for production of capsule polysaccharide, which has been proposed to enhance the pathogenic potential of the hospital-associated clonal clusters. In summary, while our collection is not a random sample of cases of E. faecalis endocarditis, these results indicate that nonencapsulated strains belonging to non-hospital-associated lineages were predominant among endocarditis E. faecalis isolates recovered during this time period.
Expression of adhesin to collagen of Enterococcis faecalis (ace), a known virulence factor, is increased by environmental signals such as the presence of serum, high temperature, and bile salts. Currently, the enterococcal regulator of survival (Ers) of E. faecalis strain JH2-2 is the only reported repressor of ace. Here, we show that for strain OG1RF, Ers is not involved in the regulation of ace. Our data showed similar levels of ace expression by OG1RF and its Δers derivative in the presence of bile salts, serum, and high temperature. Using ace promoter-lacZ fusions and site-directed mutagenesis, we confirmed these results and further showed that, while the previously designated Ers box is important for increased expression from the ace promoter of OG1RF, the region responsible for the increase is bigger than the Ers box. In summary, these results indicate that, in strain OG1RF, Ers is not a repressor of ace expression. Although JH2-2 and OG1RF differ by 6 nucleotides in the region upstream of ace as well as in production of Fsr and gelatinase, the reason(s) for the difference in ace expression between JH2-2 and OG1RF and for increased ace expression in bile, serum and at 46°C remain(s) to be determined.
Enterococcus faecalis; ace; regulation; bile salts; virulence
Clinical failures with cefazolin have been described in high-inoculum infections caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) producing type A β-lactamase. We investigated the prevalence of the cefazolin inoculum effect (InE) in MSSA from South American hospitals, since cefazolin is used routinely against MSSA due to concerns about the in vivo efficacy of isoxazolyl penicillins.
MSSA isolates were recovered from bloodstream (n = 296) and osteomyelitis (n = 68) infections in two different multicentre surveillance studies performed in 2001–02 and 2006–08 in South American hospitals. We determined standard-inoculum (105cfu/mL) and high-inoculum (107 cfu/mL) cefazolin MICs. PFGE was performed on all isolates that exhibited a cefazolin InE. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequencing of part of blaZ were performed on representative isolates.
The overall prevalence of the cefazolin InE was 36% (131 isolates). A high proportion (50%) of MSSA isolates recovered from osteomyelitis infections exhibited the InE, whereas it was observed in 33% of MSSA recovered from bloodstream infections. Interestingly, Ecuador had the highest prevalence of the InE (45%). Strikingly, 63% of MSSA isolates recovered from osteomyelitis infections in Colombia exhibited the InE. MLST revealed that MSSA isolates exhibiting the InE belonged to diverse genetic backgrounds, including ST5, ST8, ST30 and ST45, which correlated with the prevalent methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones circulating in South America. Types A (66%) and C (31%) were the most prevalent β-lactamases.
Our results show a high prevalence of the cefazolin InE associated with type A β-lactamase in MSSA isolates from Colombia and Ecuador, suggesting that treatment of deep-seated infections with cefazolin in those countries may be compromised.
inoculum effect; bloodstream infections; osteomyelitis
We report the case of a patient from Brazil with a bloodstream infection caused by a strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that was susceptible to vancomycin (designated BR-VSSA) but that acquired the vanA gene cluster during antibiotic therapy and became resistant to vancomycin (designated BR-VRSA). Both strains belong to the sequence type (ST) 8 community-associated genetic lineage that carries the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IVa and the S. aureus protein A gene (spa) type t292 and are phylogenetically related to MRSA lineage USA300. A conjugative plasmid of 55,706 bp (pBRZ01) carrying the vanA cluster was identified and readily transferred to other staphylococci. The pBRZ01 plasmid harbors DNA sequences that are typical of the plasmid-associated replication genes rep24 or rep21 described in community-associated MRSA strains from Australia (pWBG745). The presence and dissemination of community-associated MRSA containing vanA could become a serious public health concern.
Passive protection, the administration of antibodies to prevent infection, has garnered significant interest in recent years as a potential prophylactic countermeasure to decrease the prevalence of hospital-acquired infections. Pili, polymerized protein structures covalently anchored to the peptidoglycan wall of many Gram-positive pathogens, are ideal targets for antibody intervention, given their importance in establishing infection and their accessibility to antibody interactions. In this work, we demonstrated that a monoclonal antibody to the major component of Enterococcus faecalis pili, EbpC, labels polymerized pilus structures, diminishes biofilm formation, and significantly prevents the establishment of a rat endocarditis infection. The effectiveness of this anti-EbpC monoclonal provides strong evidence in support of its potential as a preventative. In addition, after radiolabeling, this monoclonal identified the site of enterococcal infection, providing a rare example of molecularly specific imaging of an established bacterial infection and demonstrating the versatility of this agent for use in future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
Background. Mini-host models are simple experimental systems to study host-pathogen interactions. We adapted a Drosophila melanogaster infection model to evaluate the in vivo effect of different mechanisms of linezolid (LNZ) resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.
Methods. Fly survival was evaluated after infection with LNZ-resistant S. aureus strains NRS119 (which has mutations in 23S ribosomal RNA [rRNA]), CM-05 and 004-737X (which carry cfr), LNZ-susceptible derivatives of CM-05 and 004-737X (which lack cfr), and ATCC 29213 (an LNZ-susceptible control). Flies were then fed food mixed with LNZ (concentration, 15–500 µg/mL). Results were compared to those in mouse peritonitis, using LNZ via oral gavage at 80 and 120 mg/kg every 12 hours.
Results. LNZ at 500 µg/mL in fly food protected against all strains, while concentrations of 15–250 µg/mL failed to protect against NRS119 (survival, 1.6%–20%). An in vivo effect of cfr was only detected at concentrations of 30 and 15 µg/mL. In the mouse peritonitis model, LNZ (at doses that mimic human pharmacokinetics) protected mice from challenge with the cfr+ 004-737X strain but was ineffective against the NRS119 strain, which carried 23S rRNA mutations.
Conclusions. The fly model offers promising advantages to dissect the in vivo effect of LNZ resistance in S. aureus, and findings from this model appear to be concordant with those from the mouse peritonitis model.
Staphylococcus aureus; linezolid; resistance; Drosophila melanogaster; cfr
Previously, TX5179, a disruption mutant of the enterococcal polysaccharide antigen (epa) gene cluster of Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1RF was shown to be attenuated in translocation, biofilm mouse peritonitis and was more susceptible to polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytic killing. Here, wild-type E. faecalis OG1RF and TX5179 strains were tested in a mixed-infection (inoculum, ~1:1) mouse urinary tract infection model. Wild-type OG1RF outnumbered TX5179 in the kidneys (P < .001) and bladder (P < .001). In conclusion, the epa locus of E. faecalis OG1RF contributes to murine urinary tract infection and is the firs such enterococcal polysaccharide locus shown to be important in this site.
Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the “ESKAPE” pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's “10 × '20 Initiative.”
antibacterial agents; antimicrobials; gram-negative bacilli; drug development; clinical trials; antibiotic pipeline
The Enterococcus faecalis cell wall-anchored protein Ace is an important virulence factor involved in cell adhesion and infection. Expression of Ace on the cell surface is affected by many factors, including stage of growth, culture temperature, and environmental components, such as serum, urine, and collagen. However, the mechanisms that regulate or modulate Ace display are not well understood. With interest in identifying genes associated with Ace expression, we utilized a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based screening method to identify mutants from a transposon insertion mutant library which exhibited distinct Ace surface expression profiles. We identified a ccpA insertion mutant which showed significantly decreased levels of Ace surface expression at early growth phase versus those of wild-type OG1RF. Confirmation of the observation was achieved through flow cytometry and complementation analysis. Compared to the wild type, the E. faecalis ccpA mutant had an impaired ability to adhere to collagen when grown to early exponential phase, consistent with the lack of Ace expression in the early growth phase. As a key component of carbon catabolite regulation, CcpA has been previously reported to play a critical role in regulating expression of proteins involved in E. faecalis carbohydrate uptake and utilization. Our discovery is the first to associate CcpA with the production of a major E. faecalis virulence factor, providing new insights into the regulation of E. faecalis pathogenesis.
Several reports have implicated the inoculum effect that some strains of type A beta-lactamase (Bla)-producing, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) show against cefazolin as the cause for clinical failures in certain serious deep-seated infections. Here, using a previously reported MSSA strain displaying this phenotype (TX0117), we obtained a Bla-cured derivative (TX0117c) with a combination of novobiocin and high temperature. Both isolates were then used in a rat endocarditis model and treated with cefazolin, nafcillin, and daptomycin, given to simulate human dosing. Animals were treated for 3 days and either sacrificed at 24 h after the last antibiotic dose (standard group) or left untreated for an additional 3 days (relapse group). With TX0117 in the standard treatment group, daptomycin and nafcillin were both significantly better than cefazolin in reducing CFU/g of vegetations, achieving mean log10 reductions compared to levels in untreated rats of 7.1, 5.3, and 1.8, respectively (cefazolin versus daptomycin, P < 0.0001; cefazolin versus nafcillin, P = 0.005; daptomycin versus nafcillin, P = 0.053). In addition, cefazolin was significantly more effective in reducing vegetation titers of TX0117c than of TX0117 (mean log10 reduction of 1.4 versus 5.5, respectively; P = 0.0001). Similar results were observed with animals in the relapse group. Thus, these data show that there can be an in vivo consequence of the in vitro inoculum effect that some MSSA strains display against cefazolin and indicate a specific role for Bla production using a Bla-cured derivative strain against which cefazolin regained both in vitro and in vivo activity.
General stress proteins, Gls24 and GlsB, were previously shown to be involved in bile salts resistance of Enterococcus faecalis and in virulence. Here, we identified 2 gene clusters in Enterococcus faecium each encoding a homolog of Gls24 (Gls33 and Gls20; designated on the basis of their predicted sizes) and of GlsB (GlsB and GlsB1). The sequences of the gls33 and gls20 gene clusters from available genomes indicate distinct lineages, with those of hospital-associated CC17 isolates differing from non-CC17 by ∼7% and ∼3.5%, respectively. Deletion of an individual locus did not have a significant effect on virulence in a mouse peritonitis model, whereas a double-deletion mutant was highly attenuated (P < .004) versus wild-type. However, mutants lacking either gls33-glsB, gls20-glsB1, or both all exhibited increased sensitivity to bile salts. These results suggest that gls-encoded loci may be important for adaptation to the intestinal environment, in addition to being important for virulence functions.
We recently identified 15 genes encoding putative surface proteins with features of MSCRAMMs and/or pili in the Enterococcus faecium TX16 (DO) genome, including four predicted pilus-encoding gene clusters; we also demonstrated that one of these, ebpABCfm, is transcribed as an operon, that its putative major pilus subunit, EbpCfm (also called PilB), is polymerized into high molecular weight complexes, and that it is enriched among clinical E. faecium isolates. Here, we created a deletion of the ebpABCfm operon in an endocarditis-derived E. faecium strain (TX82) and showed, by a combination of whole-cell ELISA, flow cytometry, immunoblot and immunogold electron microscopy, that this deletion abolished EbpCfm expression and eliminated EbpCfm-containing pili from the cell surface. However, transcription of the downstream sortase, bpsfm, was not affected. Importantly, the ebpABCfm deletion resulted in significantly reduced biofilm formation (p < 0.0001) and initial adherence (p < 0.0001) versus the wild-type; both were restored by complementing ebpABCfm in trans, which also restored cell surface expression of EbpCfm and pilus production. Furthermore, the deletion mutant was significantly attenuated in two independent mixed infection mouse urinary tract experiments, i.e., outnumbered by the wild-type in kidneys (p = 0.0003 and <0.0001, respectively) and urinary bladders (p = 0.0003 and = 0.002). In conclusion, we have shown that the ebpABCfm locus encodes pili on the E. faecium TX82 cell surface and provide the first evidence that pili of this emerging pathogen are important for its ability to form biofilm and to cause infection in an ascending UTI model.
Enterococcus faecium; ebp; pilus; biofilm; virulence; pathogenesis; UTI
The genetic bases for antibiotic tolerance are obscure. Daptomycin (DAP) is a lipopeptide antibiotic with bactericidal activity against enterococci. Using time-kill assays, we provide evidence for the first time that a deletion of isoleucine in position 177 of LiaF, a member of the three-component regulatory system LiaFSR involved in the cell envelope response to antimicrobials, is directly responsible for a DAP-tolerant phenotype and is likely to negatively affect response to DAP therapy.
Plasmids containing hylEfm (pHylEfm) were previously shown to increase gastrointestinal colonization and lethality of Enterococcus faecium in experimental peritonitis. The hylEfm gene, predicting a glycosyl hydrolase, has been considered as a virulence determinant of hospital-associated E. faecium, although its direct contribution to virulence has not been investigated. Here, we constructed mutants of the hylEfm-region and we evaluated their effect on virulence using a murine peritonitis model.
Five mutants of the hylEfm-region of pHylEfmTX16 from the sequenced endocarditis strain (TX16 [DO]) were obtained using an adaptation of the PheS* system and were evaluated in a commensal strain TX1330RF to which pHylEfmTX16 was transferred by mating; these include i) deletion of hylEfm only; ii) deletion of the gene downstream of hylEfm (down) of unknown function; iii) deletion of hylEfm plus down; iv) deletion of hylEfm-down and two adjacent genes; and v) a 7,534 bp deletion including these four genes plus partial deletion of two others, with replacement by cat. The 7,534 bp deletion did not affect virulence of TX16 in peritonitis but, when pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534 was transferred to the TX1330RF background, the transconjugant was affected in in vitro growth versus TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16) and was attenuated in virulence; however, neither hylEfm nor hylEfm-down restored wild type function. We did not observe any in vivo effect on virulence of the other deletions of the hylEfm-region
The four genes of the hylEfm region (including hylEfm) do not mediate the increased virulence conferred by pHylEfmTX16 in murine peritonitis. The use of the markerless counterselection system PheS* should facilitate the genetic manipulation of E. faecium in the future.
We recently identified 15 genes encoding putative surface proteins with features of MSCRAMMs and/or pili in the Enterococcus faecium TX16 (DO) genome, including four predicted pilus-encoding gene clusters; we also demonstrated that one of these, ebpABCfm, is transcribed as an operon, that its putative major pilus subunit, EbpCfm (also called PilB), is polymerized into high molecular weight complexes, and that it is enriched among clinical E. faecium isolates. Here, we created a deletion of the ebpABCfm operon in an endocarditis-derived E. faecium strain (TX82) and showed, by a combination of whole-cell ELISA, flow cytometry, immunoblot and immunogold electron microscopy, that this deletion abolished EbpCfm expression and eliminated EbpCfm-containing pili from the cell surface. However, transcription of the downstream sortase, bpsfm, was not affected. Importantly, the ebpABCfm deletion resulted in significantly reduced biofilm formation (p < 0.0001) and initial adherence (p < 0.0001) versus the wild-type; both were restored by complementing ebpABCfm in trans, which also restored cell surface expression of EbpCfm and pilus production. Furthermore, the deletion mutant was significantly attenuated in two independent mixed infection mouse urinary tract experiments, i.e., outnumbered by the wild-type in kidneys (p = 0.0003 and < 0.0001, respectively) and urinary bladders (p = 0.0003 and = 0.002). In conclusion, we have shown that the ebpABCfm locus encodes pili on the E. faecium TX82 cell surface and provide the first evidence that pili of this emerging pathogen are important for its ability to form biofilm and to cause infection in an ascending UTI model.
Enterococcus faecium; ebp; pilus; biofilm; virulence; pathogenesis; UTI
Enterococcus faecium has emerged as an important cause of nosocomial infections over the last two decades. We recently demonstrated collagen type I as a common adherence target for some E. faecium isolates and a significant correlation was found to exist between acm-mediated collagen type I adherence and clinical origin. Here, we evaluated 60 diverse E. faecium isolates for their adherence to up to 15 immobilized host extracellular matrix and serum components. Adherence phenotypes were most commonly observed to fibronectin (20% of the 60 isolates), fibrinogen (17%) and laminin (13%), while only one or two of the isolates adhered to collagen type V, transferrin or lactoferrin and none to the other host components tested. Adherence to fibronectin and laminin was almost exclusively restricted to clinical isolates, especially the endocarditis-enriched nosocomial genogroup clonal complex 17 (CC17). Thus, the ability to adhere to fibronectin and laminin, in addition to collagen type I, may have contributed to the emergence and adaptation of E. faecium, in particular CC17, as a nosocomial pathogen.
Enterococcus faecium; adherence; fibronectin; fibrinogen; laminin
We report that three (EF0089, EF2505 and EF1896, renamed here Fss1, Fss2 and Fss3, respectively, for E. faecalis surface protein) of the recently predicted MSCRAMMs in Enterococcus faecalis strain V583 bind fibrinogen. Despite an absence of extensive primary sequence homology, the three proteins appear to be structurally related. Within the N-terminal regions of the three enterococcal proteins, we identified pairs of putative IgG-like modules with a high degree of predicted structural similarity to the fibrinogen-binding N2 and N3 domains of the staphylococcal MSCRAMMs ClfA and SdrG. A second N2N3-like segment was predicted in Fss1. Far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that all four predicted N2N3-like regions are mainly composed of β-sheets with only a minor proportion of α-helices, which is characteristic of immunoglobulin folded domains. Three of the four identified enterococcal N2N3-like regions showed potent dose-dependent binding to fibrinogen. However, the specificity of the fibrinogen-binding MSCRAMMs differs as indicated by far-Western blots which showed that recombinant segments of the MSCRAMMs bound different fibrinogen polypeptide chains. Enterococci, grown in serum-supplemented broth, adhere to fibrinogen-coated surfaces and inactivation in strain OG1RF of the gene encoding Fss2 resulted in reduced adherence, while complementation of the mutant restored full fibrinogen adherence. Thus, E. faecalis contains a family of MSCRAMMs that structurally and functionally resembles the fibrinogen-binding MSCRAMMs of staphylococci.
Enterococcus faecalis; MSCRAMM; adhesin; immunoglobulin fold; fibrinogen
We report that three (EF0089, EF2505 and EF1896, renamed here Fss1, Fss2 and Fss3, respectively, for Enterococcus faecalis surface protein) of the recently predicted MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) in E. faecalis strain V583 bind fibrinogen (Fg). Despite an absence of extensive primary sequence homology, the three proteins appear to be related structurally. Within the N-terminal regions of the three enterococcal proteins, we identified pairs of putative IgG-like modules with a high degree of predicted structural similarity to the Fg-binding N2 and N3 domains of the staphylococcal MSCRAMMs ClfA and SdrG. A second N2N3-like segment was predicted in Fss1. Far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that all four predicted N2N3-like regions are composed mainly of β-sheets with only a minor proportion of α-helices, which is characteristic of Ig-like folded domains. Three of the four identified enterococcal N2N3-like regions showed potent dose-dependent binding to Fg. However, the specificity of the Fg-binding MSCRAMMs differs, as indicated by far-Western blots, which showed that recombinant segments of the MSCRAMMs bound different Fg polypeptide chains. Enterococci grown in serum-supplemented broth adhere to Fg-coated surfaces, and inactivation in strain OG1RF of the gene encoding Fss2 resulted in reduced adherence, whilst complementation of the mutant restored full Fg adherence. Thus, E. faecalis contains a family of MSCRAMMs that structurally and functionally resemble the Fg-binding MSCRAMMs of staphylococci.
We previously identified ebpR, encoding a potential member of the AtxA/Mga transcriptional regulator family, and showed that it is important for transcriptional activation of the Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis and biofilm associated pilus operon, ebpABC. Although ebpR is not absolutely essential for ebpABC expression (100-fold reduction), its deletion led to phenotypes similar to those of an ebpABC mutant such as absence of pili at the cell surface and, consequently, reduced biofilm formation. A non-piliated ebpABC mutant has been shown to be attenuated in a rat model of endocarditis and in a murine urinary tract infection model, indicating an important participation of the ebpR-ebpABC locus in virulence. However, there is no report relating to the environmental conditions that affect expression of the ebpR-ebpABC locus.
In this study, we examined the effect of CO2/HCO3-, pH, and the Fsr system on the ebpR-ebpABC locus expression. The presence of 5% CO2/0.1 M HCO3- increased ebpR-ebpABC expression, while the Fsr system was confirmed to be a weak repressor of this locus. The mechanism by which the Fsr system repressed the ebpR-ebpABC locus expression appears independent of the effects of CO2- bicarbonate. Furthermore, by using an ebpA::lacZ fusion as a reporter, we showed that addition of 0.1 M sodium bicarbonate to TSBG (buffered at pH 7.5), but not the presence of 5% CO2, induced ebpA expression in TSBG broth. In addition, using microarray analysis, we found 73 genes affected by the presence of sodium bicarbonate (abs(fold) > 2, P < 0.05), the majority of which belong to the PTS system and ABC transporter families. Finally, pilus production correlated with ebpA mRNA levels under the conditions tested.
This study reports that the ebp locus expression is enhanced by the presence of bicarbonate with a consequential increase in the number of cells producing pili. Although the molecular basis of the bicarbonate effect remains unclear, the pathway is independent of the Fsr system. In conclusion, E. faecalis joins the growing family of pathogens that regulates virulence gene expression in response to bicarbonate and/or CO2.
The Enterococcus faecium genogroup, referred to as clonal complex 17 (CC17), seems to possess multiple determinants that increase its ability to survive and cause disease in nosocomial environments.
Using 53 clinical and geographically diverse US E. faecium isolates dating from 1971 to 1994 we determined the multi-locus sequence type, the presence of 16 putative virulence genes (hylEfm, espEfm and fms genes), resistance to ampicillin (AMPR), vancomycin (VANR) and high-levels of gentamicin and streptomycin.
Overall, 16 different sequence types (STs), mostly CC17 isolates, were identified in 9 different regions of the US. The earliest CC17 isolates were part of an outbreak in 1982 in Richmond, VA. Characteristics of CC17 isolates included increases in AMPR, the presence of hylEfm and espEfm, emergence of VANR and the presence of at least 13/14 fms genes. Eight out of forty-one of the early AMPR isolates, however, were not within CC17.
While not all early US AMPR isolates were clonally related, E. faecium CC17 isolates have been circulating in the US since at least 1982 and appear to have progressively acquired additional virulence and antibiotic resistance determinants, perhaps explaining the recent success of this species in the hospital environment.
E. faecium; Clonal Complex 17; multi-locus sequence typing; ampicillin resistance; vancomycin resistance; hylEfm; espEfm; fms
Attention has recently been drawn to Enterococcus faecium because of an increasing number of nosocomial infections caused by this species and its resistance to multiple antibacterial agents. However, relatively little is known about pathogenic determinants of this organism. We have previously identified a cell wall anchored collagen adhesin, Acm, produced by some isolates of E. faecium, and a secreted antigen, SagA, exhibiting broad spectrum binding to extracellular matrix proteins. Here, we analyzed the draft genome of strain TX0016 for potential MSCRAMMs (microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules). Genome-based bioinformatics identified 22 predicted cell wall anchored E. faeciumsurface proteins (Fms) of which 15 (including Acm) have typical characteristics of MSCRAMMs including predicted folding into a modular architecture with multiple immunoglobulin-like domains. Functional characterization of one (Fms10, redesignated Scm for second collagen adhesin of E. faeciu m) revealed that recombinant Scm65 (A- and B-domains) and Scm36 (A-domain) bound efficiently to collagen type V in a concentration dependent manner, bound considerably less to collagen type I and fibrinogen, and differed from Acm in their binding specificities to collagen types IV and V. Results from far-UV circular dichroism of recombinant Scm36 and of Acm37 indicated that these proteins are rich in β-sheets, supporting our folding predictions. Whole-cell ELISA and FACS analyses unambiguously demonstrated surface expression of Scm in most E. faecium isolates. Strikingly, 11 of the 15 predicted MSCRAMMs clustered in four loci, each with a class C sortase gene; 9 of these showed similarity to Enterococcus faecalis Ebp pilus subunits and also contained motifs essential for pilus assembly. Antibodies against one of the predicted major pilus proteins, Fms9 (redesignated as EbpCfm), detected a “ladder” pattern of high-molecular weight protein bands in a Western blot analysis of cell surface extracts from E. faecium, suggesting that EbpCfm is polymerized into a pilus structure. Further analysis of the transcripts of the corresponding gene cluster indicated that fms1 (ebpAfm), fms5 (ebpBfm) and ebpCfm are co-transcribed, consistent with pilus-encoding gene clusters of other gram-positive bacteria. All 15 genes occurred frequently in 30 clinically-derived diverse E. faecium isolates tested. The common occurrence of MSCRAMM and pilus-encoding genes and the presence of a second collagen-binding protein may have important implications for our understanding of this emerging pathogen.