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1.  Early In Vitro and In Vivo Development of High-Level Daptomycin Resistance Is Common in Mitis Group Streptococci after Exposure to Daptomycin 
The development of high-level daptomycin resistance (HLDR; MIC of ≥256 mg/liter) after exposure to daptomycin has recently been reported in viridans group streptococcus (VGS) isolates. Our study objectives were as follows: to know whether in vitro development of HLDR after exposure to daptomycin was common among clinical isolates of VGS and Streptococcus bovis; to determine whether HLDR also developed during the administration of daptomycin to treat experimental endocarditis caused by the daptomycin-susceptible, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus mitis strain S. mitis 351; and to establish whether combination with gentamicin prevented the development of HLDR in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies were performed with 114 VGS strains (mitis group, 92; anginosus group, 10; mutans group, 8; and salivarius group, 4) and 54 Streptococcus bovis strains isolated from 168 consecutive patients with infective endocarditis diagnosed between 1995 and 2010. HLDR was only observed after 24 h of exposure to daptomycin in 27% of the mitis group, including 27% of S. mitis isolates, 47% of S. oralis isolates, and 13% of S. sanguis isolates. In our experimental model, HLDR was detected in 7/11 (63%) and 8/12 (67%) isolates recovered from vegetations after 48 h of daptomycin administered at 6 mg/kg of body weight/24 h and 10 mg/kg/24 h, respectively. In vitro, time-kill experiments showed that daptomycin plus gentamicin was bactericidal against S. mitis 351 at tested concentrations of 0.5 and 1 times the MIC and prevented the development of HLDR. In vivo, the addition of gentamicin at 1 mg/kg/8 h to both daptomycin arms prevented HLDR in 21 out of 23 (91%) rabbits. Daptomycin plus gentamicin was at least as effective as vancomycin plus gentamicin. In conclusion, HLDR develops rapidly and frequently in vitro and in vivo among mitis group streptococci. Combining daptomycin with gentamicin enhanced its activity and prevented the development of HLDR in most cases.
PMCID: PMC3632914  PMID: 23478959
2.  Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Susceptibility Phenotype in Bloodstream Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from an International Cohort of Patients with Infective Endocarditis: Prevalence, Genotype, and Clinical Significance 
The Journal of infectious diseases  2009;200(9):1355-1366.
The significance of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) is unknown. Using a multinational collection of isolates from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infective endocarditis (IE), we characterized IE patients with and without hVISA, and genotyped the infecting strains.
MRSA bloodstream isolates from 65 patients with definite IE from 8 countries underwent PCR for 31 virulence genes, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. hVISA was defined using population analysis profiling (PAP).
Nineteen (29.2%) of 65 MRSA IE isolates exhibited hVISA by PAP. Isolates from Oceania and Europe were more likely to exhibit hVISA than isolates from the United States (77.8% vs. 35.0% vs. 13.9%; P < .001). The prevalence of hVISA was higher among isolates with a vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 mg/L (P = .026). hVISA-infected patients were more likely to have persistent bacteremia (68.4% vs. 37.0%; P = .029) and heart failure (47.4% vs. 19.6%; P = .033). Mortality of hVISA- and non-hVISA-infected patients did not differ (42.1% vs. 34.8%, P = .586). hVISA and non-hVISA isolates were genotypically similar.
In these analyses, hVISA occurred in over one-quarter of MRSA IE isolates, was associated with certain IE complications, and varied in frequency by geographic region.
PMCID: PMC3600359  PMID: 19811099
hVISA; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; endocarditis; genotype
3.  Influence of Multidrug Resistance and Appropriate Empirical Therapy on the 30-Day Mortality Rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteremia 
Infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa are increasing. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influences of appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy and multidrug resistance on mortality in patients with bacteremia due to P. aeruginosa (PAB). Episodes of PAB were prospectively registered from 2000 to 2008. MDR was considered when the strain was resistant to ≥3 antipseudomonal antibiotics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 709 episodes of PAB were studied. MDR PAB (n = 127 [17.9%]) was more frequently nosocomial and associated with longer hospitalization, bladder catheter use, steroid and antibiotic therapy, receipt of inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy, and a higher mortality. Factors independently associated with mortality were age (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.002 to 1.033), shock (OR, 6.6; 95% CI, 4 to 10.8), cirrhosis (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4 to 7.6), intermediate-risk sources (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.3) or high-risk sources (OR, 7.3; 95% CI, 4.1 to 12.9), and inappropriate empirical therapy (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.5). To analyze the interaction between empirical therapy and MDR, a variable combining both was introduced in the multivariate analysis. Inappropriate therapy was significantly associated with higher mortality regardless of the susceptibility pattern, and there was a trend toward higher mortality in patients receiving appropriate therapy for MDR than in those appropriately treated for non-MDR strains (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.9 to 5.4). In 47.9% of MDR PAB episodes, appropriate therapy consisted of monotherapy with amikacin. In conclusion, MDR PAB is associated with a higher mortality than non-MDR PAB. This may be related to a higher rate of inappropriate empirical therapy and probably also to amikacin as frequently the only appropriate empirical therapy given to patients with MDR PAB.
PMCID: PMC3421866  PMID: 22751533
4.  High-Dose Daptomycin plus Fosfomycin Is Safe and Effective in Treating Methicillin-Susceptible and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Endocarditis 
We describe 3 patients with left-sided staphylococcal endocarditis (1 with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus [MSSA] prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis and 2 with methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] native-valve endocarditis) who were successfully treated with high-dose intravenous daptomycin (10 mg/kg/day) plus fosfomycin (2 g every 6 h) for 6 weeks. This combination was tested in vitro against 7 MSSA, 5 MRSA, and 2 intermediately glycopeptide-resistant S. aureus isolates and proved to be synergistic against 11 (79%) strains and bactericidal against 8 (57%) strains. This combination deserves further clinical study.
PMCID: PMC3421550  PMID: 22644033
5.  Prospective Multicenter Study of the Epidemiology, Molecular Identification, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis Isolated from Patients with Candidemia ▿ 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2011;55(12):5590-5596.
A 13-month prospective multicenter study including 44 hospitals was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis complex candidemia in Spain. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin was tested by the microdilution colorimetric method. A total of 364 C. parapsilosis complex isolates were identified by molecular methods: C. parapsilosis (90.7%), Candida orthopsilosis (8.2%), and Candida metapsilosis (1.1%). Most candidemias (C. parapsilosis, 76.4%; C. orthopsilosis, 70.0%; C. metapsilosis, 100%) were observed in adults. No C. orthopsilosis or C. metapsilosis candidemias occurred in neonates. C. parapsilosis was most frequent in adult intensive care unit (28.8%), surgery (20.9%), and internal medicine (19.7%) departments; and C. orthopsilosis was most frequent in hematology (28.6%), pediatrics (12.0%), and neonatology (11.5%) departments. The geographic distribution of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis was not uniform. According to CLSI clinical breakpoints, all C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the nine agents tested. Resistance (MICs > 1 mg/liter) was observed only in C. parapsilosis: amphotericin B, posaconazole, itraconazole, and caspofungin (0.3% each), anidulafungin (1.9%), and micafungin (2.5%). Applying the new species-specific fluconazole and echinocandin breakpoints, the rates of resistance to fluconazole for C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis increased to 4.8% and 0.3%, respectively; conversely, for C. parapsilosis they shifted from 1.9 to 0.6% (anidulafungin) and from 2.5 to 0.6% (micafungin). Our study confirms the different prevalence of C. parapsilosis complex candidemia among age groups: neither C. orthopsilosis nor C. metapsilosis was isolated from neonates; interestingly, C. metapsilosis was isolated only from adults and the elderly. The disparity in antifungal susceptibility among species could be important for therapy.
PMCID: PMC3232769  PMID: 21930869
6.  First Outbreak of a Plasmid-Mediated Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing OXA-48 β-Lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae in Spain▿ 
Twenty Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing OXA-48 were collected from April 2009 to September 2010. Strains were clonally related and coproduced a CTX-M-15 β-lactamase. A conjugative plasmid of circa 70 kb carrying blaOXA-48 was identified. Eleven isolates showed low-level resistance to carbapenems, whereas nine showed high-level resistance. Decreased expression of OmpK36 was related to high-level resistance to carbapenems. The isolates belonged to sequence type 101 (ST101). This is the first outbreak caused by an OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae strain in Spain.
PMCID: PMC3165339  PMID: 21746954
7.  First Description of an Escherichia coli Strain Producing NDM-1 Carbapenemase in Spain▿ 
A carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli strain (DVR22) was recovered from a stool specimen from a patient with traveler's diarrhea who had traveled to India. Molecular screening led to the first identification of NDM-1 in Spain. The blaNDM-1 gene was located in a conjugative plasmid of ca. 300 kb that also contained the blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-1, ΔblaDHA-1, and armA genes. In addition, blaNDM-1 was preceded by an ISAba125 insertion element only found in Acinetobacter spp.
PMCID: PMC3165357  PMID: 21730115
8.  Evaluation of Three Automated Systems for Susceptibility Testing of Enterobacteria Containing qnrB, qnrS, and/or aac(6′)-Ib-cr ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2011;49(9):3343-3345.
The accuracy of the MicroScan WalkAway, BD Phoenix, and Vitek-2 systems for susceptibility testing of quinolones and aminoglycosides against 68 enterobacteria containing qnrB, qnrS, and/or aac(6 ′)-Ib-cr was evaluated using reference microdilution. Overall, one very major error (0.09%), 6 major errors (0.52%), and 45 minor errors (3.89%) were noted.
PMCID: PMC3165611  PMID: 21775549
9.  Genotypic versus Phenotypic Characterization, with Respect to β-Lactam Susceptibility, of Haemophilus influenzae Isolates Exhibiting Decreased Susceptibility to β-Lactam Resistance Markers▿  
Among 165 Spanish Haemophilus influenzae isolates with mutations in the ftsI gene (ftsI+) (2005 to 2007), 73% were β-lactamase negative and 26.7% were positive. The proportion of β-lactamase-negative isolates to β-lactamase-positive isolates was 2:1 to 4:1 in general, versus 1:3 in pediatric hospitals. Among 44 β-lactamase-positive strains, 8 strains produced ROB-1 (5 from the pediatric hospital). β-Lactamase-positive ftsI+ strains were phylogenetically closer than were β-lactamase-negative strains.
PMCID: PMC2612133  PMID: 18955529
10.  Phylogenetic Analysis of Viridans Group Streptococci Causing Endocarditis ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(9):3087-3090.
Identification of viridans group streptococci (VGS) to the species level is difficult because VGS exchange genetic material. We performed multilocus DNA target sequencing to assess phylogenetic concordance of VGS for a well-defined clinical syndrome. The hierarchy of sequence data was often discordant, underscoring the importance of establishing biological relevance for finer phylogenetic distinctions.
PMCID: PMC2546745  PMID: 18650347
11.  Daptomycin Is Effective in Treatment of Experimental Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant and Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus▿  
Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic with potent in vitro activity against gram-positive cocci, including Staphylococcus aureus. This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of daptomycin against two clinical isolates: methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) 277 (vancomycin MIC, 2 μg/ml) and glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus (GISA) ATCC 700788 (vancomycin MIC, 8 μg/ml). Time-kill experiments demonstrated that daptomycin was bactericidal in vitro against these two strains. The in vivo activity of daptomycin (6 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h) was evaluated by using a rabbit model of infective endocarditis and was compared with the activities of a high-dose (HD) vancomycin regimen (1 g intravenously every 6 h), the recommended dose (RD) of vancomycin regimen (1 g intravenously every 12 h) for 48 h, and no treatment (as a control). Daptomycin was significantly more effective than the vancomycin RD in reducing the density of bacteria in the vegetations for the MRSA strains (0 [interquartile range, 0 to 1.5] versus 2 [interquartile range, 0 to 5.6] log CFU/g vegetation; P = 0.02) and GISA strains (2 [interquartile range, 0 to 2] versus 6.6 [interquartile range, 2.0 to 6.9] log CFU/g vegetation; P < 0.01) studied. In addition, daptomycin sterilized more MRSA vegetations than the vancomycin RD (13/18 [72%] versus 7/20 [35%]; P = 0.02) and sterilized more GISA vegetations than either vancomycin regimen (12/19 [63%] versus 4/20 [20%]; P < 0.01). No statistically significant difference between the vancomycin HD and the vancomycin RD for MRSA treatment was noted. These results support the use of daptomycin for the treatment of aortic valve endocarditis caused by GISA and MRSA.
PMCID: PMC2443906  PMID: 18426900
12.  Genotypic Diversity of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Causing Endocarditis: a Global Perspective▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(5):1780-1784.
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important causes of infective endocarditis (IE), but their microbiological profiles are poorly described. We performed DNA target sequencing and susceptibility testing for 91 patients with definite CNS IE who were identified from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis—Microbiology, a large, multicenter, multinational consortium. A hierarchy of gene sequences demonstrated great genetic diversity within CNS from patients with definite endocarditis that represented diverse geographic regions. In particular, rpoB sequence data demonstrated unique genetic signatures with the potential to serve as an important tool for global surveillance.
PMCID: PMC2395089  PMID: 18367572
13.  Efficacy of Telavancin in the Treatment of Experimental Endocarditis Due to Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus▿  
The efficacy of telavancin, a novel lipoglycopeptide, was evaluated in experimental endocarditis in rabbits using two clinical isolates of glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 700788 and HIP 5836. Infected rabbits were treated for 2 days with telavancin (10 mg/kg of body weight once daily intravenously) or vancomycin (1 g twice daily intravenously), administered with a computer-controlled infusion pump system simulating human serum kinetics. Vegetations were harvested at 16 h postinoculation in the control group and at the end of treatment in the drug-treated group. For ATCC 700788, MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), respectively, were 1 mg/liter and 4 mg/liter for telavancin and 8 mg/liter and 128 mg/liter for vancomycin. For HIP 5836, MICs and MBCs, respectively, were 4 mg/liter and 8 mg/liter for telavancin and 8 mg/liter and 128 mg/liter for vancomycin. Peak and trough levels were 90 μg/ml and 6 μg/ml, respectively, for telavancin and 46 μg/ml and 6 μg/ml, respectively, for vancomycin. In glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus ATCC 700788, telavancin sterilized 6 of 16 vegetations (37%), whereas vancomycin sterilized 4 of 20 (20%) (P = 0.29) compared with 0 of 17 in the control group. In HIP 5836 experiments, telavancin and vancomycin sterilized 5 of 16 (31%) and 1 of 15 (7%) vegetations (P = 0.17), respectively, compared with none in the control group. Telavancin reduced vegetation titers by 2.0 and 2.3 logs greater than vancomycin for the ATCC 700788 (4.6 [2.0 to 5.8] versus 6.6 [2.0 to 6.9] log CFU/g vegetation; P = 0.05) and HIP 5836 (4.4 [2.0 to 7.4] versus 6.7 [4.5 to 8.7] log CFU/g vegetation; P = 0.09) strains, respectively; these differences did not reach statistical significance. All isolates from vegetations remained susceptible to telavancin after therapy. The results suggest that telavancin may be an effective treatment for endocarditis caused by glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus.
PMCID: PMC1913277  PMID: 17485502
14.  Relationship of Phylogenetic Background, Biofilm Production, and Time to Detection of Growth in Blood Culture Vials with Clinical Variables and Prognosis Associated with Escherichia coli Bacteremia 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(4):1468-1474.
In patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia, data on the relationship of phylogenetic background, biofilm production, and degree of bacteremia with clinical variables and prognosis are scarce. During a 1-year period, all adults with bacteremia due to Escherichia coli diagnosed at a university center were enrolled. Determination of phylogenetic background, biofilm production, and genotyping was performed with all strains, and the time to positivity of blood culture vials was recorded. A total of 185 episodes of diverse-source E. coli bacteremia was analyzed. Strains of phylogroup D were predominant (52%). Phylogroup A isolates were associated with pneumonia and prior antibiotic intake, B1 with an abdominal source of infection, B2 with the absence of urological abnormalities, and D with urological abnormalities and age below 65 years. Resistance to antibiotics and no biofilm production were concentrated in phylogroup A strains. Biofilm production was not associated with any clinical variable. An immunocompromising condition (odds ratio [OR] = 5.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4 to 17.9), peritonitis (OR = 17, 95% CI = 3.32 to 87), pneumonia (OR = 9.97, 95% CI = 1.96 to 50.6), and ≤7 h to bacteremia detection (OR = 4.37, 95% CI = 1.38 to 13.8) were the best predictors of a fatal outcome. Results from this study suggest that the distribution of phylogenetic backgrounds among E. coli strains involved in diverse-source bacteremia may be subject to geographical variation and that, in afflicted individuals, some high-risk sources, the patient's underlying condition, and the degree of bacteremia are more important than microbial factors in determining the outcome. Time to positivity of blood culture vials may be a variable of potential clinical impact.
PMCID: PMC1448679  PMID: 16597878
15.  Class 1 Integrons in Salmonella Strains Causing Traveler's Diarrhea 
PMCID: PMC1426920  PMID: 16569899
16.  Mechanism of Resistance to Several Antimicrobial Agents in Salmonella Clinical Isolates Causing Traveler's Diarrhea 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2004;48(10):3934-3939.
The evolution of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolates causing traveler's diarrhea (TD) and their mechanisms of resistance to several antimicrobial agents were analyzed. From 1995 to 2002, a total of 62 Salmonella strains were isolated from stools of patients with TD. The antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 antibiotics was determined, and the molecular mechanisms of resistance to several of them were detected as well. The highest levels of resistance were found against tetracycline and ampicillin (21 and 19%, respectively), followed by resistance to nalidixic acid (16%), which was mainly detected from 2000 onward. Molecular mechanisms of resistance were analyzed in 16 isolates. In these isolates, which were resistant to ampicillin, two genes encoding β-lactamases were detected: oxa-1 (one isolate) and tem-like (seven isolates [in one strain concomitantly with a carb-2]). Resistance to tetracycline was mainly related to tetA (five cases) and to tetB and tetG (one case each). Resistance to chloramphenicol was related to the presence of the floR and cmlA genes and to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in one case each. Different genes encoding dihydrofolate-reductases (dfrA1, dfrA12, dfrA14, and dfrA17) were detected in trimethoprim-resistant isolates. Resistance to nalidixic acid was related to the presence of mutations in the amino acid codons 83 or 87 of the gyrA gene. Further surveillance of the Salmonella spp. causing TD is needed to detect trends in their resistance to antimicrobial agents, as we have shown in our study with nalidixic acid. Moreover, such studies will lead to better treatment and strategies to prevent and limit their spread.
PMCID: PMC521922  PMID: 15388455
17.  Lack of Vancomycin Tolerance in Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Isolated in Barcelona, Spain, from 1999 to 2001 
To evaluate the incidence of vancomycin tolerance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, we performed killing curve studies with 633 isolates. The penicillin MIC was ≥0.12 mg/liter for 481 (76%) of the isolates. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin. Killing curve studies were performed with a vancomycin concentration of 2.5 mg/liter. The Tupelo strain was used for quality control. No vancomycin-tolerant strain was detected.
PMCID: PMC155855  PMID: 12760878
18.  Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of 1,730 Haemophilus influenzae Respiratory Tract Isolates in Spain in 1998-1999 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2001;45(11):3226-3228.
A β-lactamase prevalence of 23% was found among 1,730 Haemophilus influenzae isolates. Ampicillin susceptibility was 70%, and 12% of β-lactamase-negative strains presented diminished susceptibility to ampicillin (BLNAR phenotype). Susceptibility of 90% was found for cefaclor and clarithromycin, whereas it was nearly 100% for cefotaxime, cefixime, azithromycin, and cefuroxime. Ciprofloxacin-resistant (0.1%) and β-lactamase-positive amoxicillin/clavulanate-resistant (BLPACR) phenotypes (0.1%) are anecdotal so far.
PMCID: PMC90812  PMID: 11600386

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