Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-12 (12)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
1.  Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection and Endocarditis - A Prospective Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0127385.
To update the epidemiology of S. aureus bloodstream infection (SAB) in a high-income country and its link with infective endocarditis (IE).
All consecutive adult patients with incident SAB (n = 2008) were prospectively enrolled between 2009 and 2011 in 8 university hospitals in France.
SAB was nosocomial in 54%, non-nosocomial healthcare related in 18% and community-acquired in 26%. Methicillin resistance was present in 19% of isolates. SAB Incidence of nosocomial SAB was 0.159/1000 patients-days of hospitalization (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.111-0.219). A deep focus of infection was detected in 37%, the two most frequent were IE (11%) and pneumonia (8%). The higher rates of IE were observed in injecting drug users (IE: 38%) and patients with prosthetic (IE: 33%) or native valve disease (IE: 20%) but 40% of IE occurred in patients without heart disease nor injecting drug use. IE was more frequent in case of community-acquired (IE: 21%, adjusted odds-ratio (aOR) = 2.9, CI = 2.0-4.3) or non-nosocomial healthcare-related SAB (IE: 12%, aOR = 2.3, CI = 1.4-3.5). S. aureus meningitis (IE: 59%), persistent bacteremia at 48 hours (IE: 25%) and C-reactive protein > 190 mg/L (IE: 15%) were also independently associated with IE. Criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock were met in 30% of SAB without IE (overall in hospital mortality rate 24%) and in 51% of IE (overall in hospital mortality rate 35%).
SAB is still a severe disease, mostly related to healthcare in a high-income country. IE is the most frequent complication and occurs frequently in patients without known predisposing conditions.
PMCID: PMC4447452  PMID: 26020939
2.  Efficacy and tolerability of Etravirine in HIV-1 adult patients: Results of a large French prospective cohort 
Journal of the International AIDS Society  2014;17(4Suppl 3):19780.
IEtravirine (ETR) was approved in France in Sept 2008, to be used in combination with a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (bPI) and others antiretrovirals (ARV) in HIV-infected pre-treated patients.
To describe in a real life setting efficacy and tolerability of ETR-including regimen and factors associated with virologic response.
In the French DatAIDS cohort including 18,647 patients, we selected patients who initiated an ETR-including regimen between September 2008 and July 2013. Demographic data and clinico-biological data were collected from the standardized electronic medical record Nadis®. Analyses were done in patients starting ETR and sub-analyses were performed in pre-treated patients starting ETR for virologic failure (VF) or maintenance (MT) therapy, with or without bPI.
2083 patients (ARV-naïve n=77, VF n=1014, MT n=992) were included: median age 47 years, 73.3% male, median duration of HIV infection 15.7 years, CDC stage C 38.7%, HBV/HCV co-infection 25.7%. In pre-treated patients, 75.5% previously received NNRTIs (median duration on EFV and NVP of 480 and 396 days, respectively), 94.3% bPIs, 30.8% raltegravir (RAL) and 19.4% enfuvirtide. The most frequent ARVs associated with ETR were two NRTIs in 37.2% of the cases (21.9% in VF, 52.9% in MT), 1 bPI+RAL in 10.1% (13.5% in VF, 6.6% in MT), RAL in 6.2% (2% in VF, 10.5% in MT). Median duration on ETR was 3.7 and 2.2 years in the VF and MT group, respectively. In the VF group, HIV RNA was <50 c/ml in 71.7% (71.1% without bPI, 72% with bPI) of the patients at M12, 72.8% (71% without bPI, 73.3% with bPI) of the patients at M24. In the MT group, HIV RNA was<50 c/ml in 90.5% of the patients at M12 and 93.1% at M24. ETR was discontinued in 8.8% of the patients (12.8% in VF, 5.4% in MT) for adverse events in 23.9% of cases (21.5% in VF, 29.5% in MT), treatment failure in 15.2% (16.2% in VF, 7.4% in MT) or simplification in 5.4% (4.6% in VF, 7.4% in MT). In the VF group, factors associated with virologic failure in multivariate analysis were a longer duration of HIV infection (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7–4.0) and baseline HIV RNA >5 log10 c/ml (OR: 2.0; 95% CI 1.3–3.2) but not the association with a bPI.
This large study shows that in ARV-pre-treated patients ETR is well tolerated with a high efficacy when combined with other active drugs, even when the regimen does not include a bPI.
PMCID: PMC4225285  PMID: 25397524
3.  French 2013 guidelines for antiretroviral therapy of HIV-1 infection in adults 
These guidelines are part of the French Experts’ recommendations for the management of people living with HIV/AIDS, which were made public and submitted to the French health authorities in September 2013. The objective was to provide updated recommendations for antiretroviral treatment (ART) of HIV-positive adults. Guidelines included the following topics: when to start, what to start, specific situations for the choice of the first session of antiretroviral therapy, optimization of antiretroviral therapy after virologic suppression, and management of virologic failure.
Ten members of the French HIV 2013 expert group were responsible for guidelines on ART. They systematically reviewed the most recent literature. The chairman of the subgroup was responsible for drafting the guidelines, which were subsequently discussed within, and finalized by the whole expert group to obtain a consensus. Recommendations were graded for strength and level of evidence using predefined criteria. Economic considerations were part of the decision-making process for selecting preferred first-line options. Potential conflicts of interest were actively managed throughout the whole process.
ART should be initiated in any HIV-positive person, whatever his/her CD4 T-cell count, even when >500/mm3. The level of evidence of the individual benefit of ART in terms of mortality or progression to AIDS increases with decreasing CD4 cell count. Preferred initial regimens include two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine) plus a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (efavirenz or rilpivirine), or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (atazanavir or darunavir). Raltegravir, lopinavir/r, and nevirapine are recommended as alternative third agents, with specific indications and restrictions. Specific situations such as HIV infection in women, primary HIV infection, severe immune suppression with or without identified opportunistic infection, and person who injects drugs are addressed. Options for optimization of ART once virologic suppression is achieved are discussed. Evaluation and management of virologic failure are described, the aim of any intervention in such situation being to reduce plasma viral load to <50 copies/ml.
These guidelines recommend that any HIV-positive individual should be treated with ART. This recommendation was issued both for the patient’s own sake and for promoting treatment as prevention.
PMCID: PMC4062879  PMID: 24942364
antiretroviral treatment; guidelines; first-line therapy; virologic failure; cost of treatment.
4.  Clinical Presentation, Etiology and Outcome of Infective Endocarditis in the 21st Century: The International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study 
Archives of internal medicine  2009;169(5):463-473.
The aim of this study was to provide a contemporary picture of the presentation, etiology and outcome of infective endocarditis (IE) in a large patient cohort from multiple locations worldwide.
Prospective cohort study of 2781 adults with definite IE admitted to 58 hospitals in 25 countries between June 2000 and September 2005.
The median age of the cohort was 57.9 (IQR 43.2–71.8) years and 72% had native valve IE. Most (77%) patients presented early in the disease (<30 days) with few of the classic clinical hallmarks of IE. Recent health-care exposure was found in one quarter of patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (31%). Mitral (41%) and aortic (38%) valves were infected most commonly. Complications were common: stroke (17%); embolization other than stroke (23%); heart failure (32%) and intracardiac abscess (14%). Surgical therapy was common (48%) and in-hospital mortality remained high (18%). Prosthetic valve involvement (OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.13–1.90), increasing age (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.17–1.46 per 10-year interval), pulmonary edema (OR 1.79, 95%CI 1.39–2.30), S. aureus infection (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.14–2.08), coagulase-negative staphylococcal infection (OR 1.50, 95%CI 1.07–2.10), mitral valve vegetation (OR 1.34, 95%CI 1.06–1.68), and paravalvular complications (OR 2.25, 95%CI 1.64–3.09) were associated with increased risk of in-hospital death, while viridans streptococcal infection (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33–0.81) and surgery (OR 0.61, 95%CI 0.44–0.83) were associated with decreased risk.
In the early 21st century, IE is more often an acute disease, characterized by a high rate of S. aureus infection. Mortality remains relatively high.
PMCID: PMC3625651  PMID: 19273776
5.  Neisseria sicca Endocarditis Complicated by Intracranial and Popliteal Aneurysms in a Patient with a Bicuspid Aortic Valve 
We report a case of infective endocarditis due to Neisseria sicca complicated by intracranial and popliteal aneurysms and hepatic and splenic infarcts in a patient with a bicuspid aortic valve. No predisposing factor other than poor dental condition was found. The patient fully recovered after antibiotic therapy, aortic and mitral valve replacement, endovascular occlusion of the middle-cerebral artery aneurysm, and surgical treatment of the popliteal artery aneurysm.
PMCID: PMC3576735  PMID: 23476838
6.  Borrelia crocidurae Meningoencephalitis, West Africa 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2013;19(2):301-304.
Borrelia crocidurae–associated relapsing fever is endemic to West Africa and is considered benign. We report 4 patients with B. crocidurae–associated neurologic symptoms; 2 of their cases had been misdiagnosed. Frequency and severity of this disease could be underestimated; molecular methods and serodiagnostic tests for Lyme disease might be helpful in its detection.
PMCID: PMC3559064  PMID: 23347436
Borrelia crocidurae; Borrelia meningitis; encephalitis; spirochete; molecular diagnosis; bacteria; tick-borne relapsing fever; Ornithodoros ticks; Lyme disease; West Africa
7.  Brill-Zinsser Disease in Moroccan Man, France, 2011 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2012;18(1):171-172.
PMCID: PMC3310116  PMID: 22261378
Brill-Zinsser disease; Rickettsia prowazekii; Morocco; France; typhus; bacteria
8.  Epidemiology and antibiotic treatment of infective endocarditis: an update 
Heart  2006;92(11):1694-1700.
PMCID: PMC1861255  PMID: 17041124
antibiotics; infective endocarditis
9.  Phylogenetic Analysis of Viridans Group Streptococci Causing Endocarditis ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(9):3087-3090.
Identification of viridans group streptococci (VGS) to the species level is difficult because VGS exchange genetic material. We performed multilocus DNA target sequencing to assess phylogenetic concordance of VGS for a well-defined clinical syndrome. The hierarchy of sequence data was often discordant, underscoring the importance of establishing biological relevance for finer phylogenetic distinctions.
PMCID: PMC2546745  PMID: 18650347
10.  Genotypic Diversity of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Causing Endocarditis: a Global Perspective▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(5):1780-1784.
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important causes of infective endocarditis (IE), but their microbiological profiles are poorly described. We performed DNA target sequencing and susceptibility testing for 91 patients with definite CNS IE who were identified from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis—Microbiology, a large, multicenter, multinational consortium. A hierarchy of gene sequences demonstrated great genetic diversity within CNS from patients with definite endocarditis that represented diverse geographic regions. In particular, rpoB sequence data demonstrated unique genetic signatures with the potential to serve as an important tool for global surveillance.
PMCID: PMC2395089  PMID: 18367572
11.  Negligible Risk for Epidemics after Geophysical Disasters 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2006;12(4):543-548.
Short-term risk for epidemics after geophysical disasters is very low.
After geophysical disasters (i.e., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis), media reports almost always stress the risk for epidemics; whether this risk is genuine has been debated. We analyzed the medical literature and data from humanitarian agencies and the World Health Organization from 1985 to 2004. Of >600 geophysical disasters recorded, we found only 3 reported outbreaks related to these disasters: 1 of measles after the eruption of Pinatubo in Philippines, 1 of coccidioidomycosis after an earthquake in California, and 1 of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Costa Rica related to an earthquake and heavy rainfall. Even though the humanitarian response may play a role in preventing epidemics, our results lend support to the epidemiologic evidence that short-term risk for epidemics after a geophysical disaster is very low.
PMCID: PMC3294713  PMID: 16704799
Earthquake; volcano eruption; tidal wave; tsunami; epidemics
12.  Introduction of SARS in France, March–April, 2003 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2004;10(2):195-200.
We describe severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in France. Patients meeting the World Health Organization definition of a suspected case underwent a clinical, radiologic, and biologic assessment at the closest university-affiliated infectious disease ward. Suspected cases were immediately reported to the Institut de Veille Sanitaire. Probable case-patients were isolated, their contacts quarantined at home, and were followed for 10 days after exposure. Five probable cases occurred from March through April 2003; four were confirmed as SARS coronavirus by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, serologic testing, or both. The index case-patient (patient A), who had worked in the French hospital of Hanoi, Vietnam, was the most probable source of transmission for the three other confirmed cases; two had been exposed to patient A while on the Hanoi-Paris flight of March 22–23. Timely detection, isolation of probable cases, and quarantine of their contacts appear to have been effective in preventing the secondary spread of SARS in France.
PMCID: PMC3322920  PMID: 15030682
severe acute respiratory syndrome; epidemiology; transmission; coronavirus; commercial flight; research

Results 1-12 (12)