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2.  Surveillance Definitions of Infections in Long-Term Care Facilities: Revisiting the McGeer Criteria 
(See the commentary by Moro, on pages 978–980.)
Infection surveillance definitions for long-term care facilities (ie, the McGeer Criteria) have not been updated since 1991. An expert consensus panel modified these definitions on the basis of a structured review of the literature. Significant changes were made to the criteria defining urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. New definitions were added for norovirus gastroenteritis and Clostridum difficile infections.
doi:10.1086/667743
PMCID: PMC3538836  PMID: 22961014
3.  Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Susceptibility Phenotype in Bloodstream Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from an International Cohort of Patients with Infective Endocarditis: Prevalence, Genotype, and Clinical Significance 
The Journal of infectious diseases  2009;200(9):1355-1366.
Background
The significance of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) is unknown. Using a multinational collection of isolates from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infective endocarditis (IE), we characterized IE patients with and without hVISA, and genotyped the infecting strains.
Methods
MRSA bloodstream isolates from 65 patients with definite IE from 8 countries underwent PCR for 31 virulence genes, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. hVISA was defined using population analysis profiling (PAP).
Results
Nineteen (29.2%) of 65 MRSA IE isolates exhibited hVISA by PAP. Isolates from Oceania and Europe were more likely to exhibit hVISA than isolates from the United States (77.8% vs. 35.0% vs. 13.9%; P < .001). The prevalence of hVISA was higher among isolates with a vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 mg/L (P = .026). hVISA-infected patients were more likely to have persistent bacteremia (68.4% vs. 37.0%; P = .029) and heart failure (47.4% vs. 19.6%; P = .033). Mortality of hVISA- and non-hVISA-infected patients did not differ (42.1% vs. 34.8%, P = .586). hVISA and non-hVISA isolates were genotypically similar.
Conclusions
In these analyses, hVISA occurred in over one-quarter of MRSA IE isolates, was associated with certain IE complications, and varied in frequency by geographic region.
doi:10.1086/606027
PMCID: PMC3600359  PMID: 19811099
hVISA; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; endocarditis; genotype
4.  MRSA colonisation (eradicating colonisation in people without active/invasive infection) 
Clinical Evidence  2011;2011:0923.
Introduction
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a gene that makes it resistant to methicillin as well as to other beta-lactam antibiotics, including flucloxacillin, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. MRSA can be part of the normal body flora (colonisation), especially in the nose, but it can cause infection. Until recently, MRSA has primarily been a problem associated with exposure to the healthcare system, especially in people with prolonged hospital admissions, with underlying disease, or after antibiotic use. In many countries worldwide, a preponderance of S aureus bloodstream isolates are resistant to methicillin.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatment for MRSA nasal or extra-nasal colonisation? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 9 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiseptic body washes, chlorhexidine–neomycin nasal cream, mupirocin nasal ointment, systemic antimicrobials, tea tree oil preparations, and other topical antimicrobials.
Key Points
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a gene that makes it resistant to methicillin as well as other beta-lactam antibiotics, including flucloxacillin, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. MRSA can be part of the normal body flora (colonisation), especially in the nose, but it can cause infection, especially in people with prolonged hospital admissions, with underlying disease, or after antibiotic use.Bloodstream infection due to MRSA is an all-too-common problem worldwide.
Mupirocin nasal ointment may improve eradication of colonised MRSA compared with placebo, and may be as effective as topical fusidic acid plus oral trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) and more effective than tea tree oil, although studies have given conflicting results. We don't know whether antiseptic body washes, chlorhexidine–neomycin nasal cream, other topical antimicrobials, or systemic antimicrobials are effective at clearing MRSA colonisation.
PMCID: PMC3217659  PMID: 21477403
6.  Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in 2 Long-Term Care Facilities 
Persistent colonization with Staphylococcus aureus was assessed in 22 nursing home residents. Eighteen residents (82%) remained colonized with the same strain found at baseline; 6 (33%) of 18 residents transiently acquired a new strain. Four residents (18%) acquired a new persistent strain. Residents colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus were more likely to acquire a new strain (67%) than were residents colonized with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (20%) (P =.04).
doi:10.1086/500618
PMCID: PMC3319387  PMID: 16465644
7.  Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Nursing Home Residents 
Background
We sought to characterize the clinical and molecular epidemiologic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus colonization (especially extranasal colonization) and to determine the extent to which community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has emerged in community nursing homes.
Methods
The study enrolled a total of 213 residents, with or without an indwelling device, from 14 nursing homes in southeastern Michigan. Samples were obtained from the nares, oropharynx, groin, perianal area, wounds, and enteral feeding tube site. Standard microbiologic methods were used to identify methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and MRSA. Molecular epidemiologic methods included pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin, and SCCmec and agr typing.
Results
One hundred thirty-one residents (62%) were colonized with S. aureus (MRSA colonization in 86). S. aureus colonization occurred in 80 (76%) of 105 residents with indwelling devices and in 51 (47%) of 108 residents without indwelling devices (P < .001). Of the 86 residents who were colonized with MRSA, nares culture results were positive for only 56 (65%). Residents with devices in place were more likely to be colonized at multiple sites. Eleven different strains of MRSA were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Seventy-three residents (85%) were colonized with hospital-associated SCCmec II strains, and 8 (9%) were colonized with community-associated SCCmec IV strains, 2 of which carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin.
Conclusions
Extranasal colonization with MRSA is common among nursing home residents—particularly among residents with an indwelling device. We documented the emergence of community-associated SCCmec IV MRSA strains in the community nursing home setting in southeastern Michigan.
doi:10.1086/586751
PMCID: PMC3319393  PMID: 18419438
8.  Indwelling Device Use and Antibiotic Resistance in Nursing Homes: Identifying a High-Risk Group 
Objectives
To quantify the relationship between indwelling devices (urinary catheters, feeding tubes, and peripherally inserted central catheters) and carriage of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in nursing home residents.
Design
Cross-sectional.
Setting
Community nursing home in Southeast Michigan.
Participants
Residents with indwelling devices (n = 100) and randomly selected control residents (n = 100) in 14 nursing homes.
Measurements
Data on age, functional status, and Charlson comorbidity score were collected. Samples were obtained from nares, oropharynx, groin, wounds, perianal area, and enteral feeding tube site. Standard microbiological methods were used to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and ceftazidime-resistant (CTZ-R) gram-negative bacteria (GNB).
Results
Use of indwelling devices was associated with colonization with MRSA at any site (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, P = .04), groin (OR = 4.8, P = .006), and perianal area (OR = 3.6, P = .01) and CTZ-R GNB at any site (OR = 5.6, P = .003). Use of enteral feeding tubes was associated with MRSA colonization in the oropharynx (OR = 3.3, P = .02).
Conclusion
Use of indwelling devices is associated with greater colonization with antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. This study serves as an initial step in defining a high-risk group that merits intensive infection control efforts.
doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01468.x
PMCID: PMC3319402  PMID: 18081670
antibiotic resistance; nursing homes; indwelling device use; MRSA
9.  Mupirocin-Based Decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus Carriers in Residents of 2 Long-Term Care Facilities: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial 
Mupirocin has been used in nursing homes to prevent the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), despite the lack of controlled trials. In this double-blind, randomized study, the efficacy of intranasal mupirocin ointment versus that of placebo in reducing colonization and preventing infection was assessed among persistent carriers of S. aureus. Twice-daily treatment was given for 2 weeks, with a follow-up period of 6 months. Staphylococcal colonization rates were similar between residents at the Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs (VA) Extended Care Center, Michigan (33%), and residents at a community-based long-term care facility in Ann Arbor (36%), although those at the VA Center carried MRSA more often (58% vs. 35%; P = .017). After treatment, mupirocin had eradicated colonization in 93% of residents, whereas 85% of residents who received placebo remained colonized (P < .001). At day 90 after study entry, 61% of the residents in the mupirocin group remained decolonized. Four patients did not respond to mupirocin therapy; 3 of the 4 had mupirocin-resistant S. aureus strains. Thirteen (86%) of 14 residents who became recolonized had the same pretherapy strain; no strain recovered during relapse was resistant to mupirocin. A trend toward reduction in infections was seen with mupirocin treatment.
doi:10.1086/379325
PMCID: PMC3319403  PMID: 14614669
10.  In vivo transfer of high-level mupirocin resistance from Staphylococcus epidermidis to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with failure of mupirocin prophylaxis 
Objectives
We examined the molecular basis of the emergence of mupirocin resistance in a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain colonizing a nursing home resident undergoing mupirocin prophylaxis.
Patient and methods
A persistent carrier of mupirocin-susceptible MRSA participated in a trial of mupirocin for nasal decolonization among nursing home residents. During prophylaxis a high-level mupirocin-resistant MRSA emerged in the nasal isolates from this patient. S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated prior to, during and after 14 days of mupirocin treatment. The staphylococcal isolates and their plasmids were examined by molecular genetic methods.
Results
Allmupirocin-susceptible and-resistant MRSA isolates possessed the same genotype. The patient was also colonized by a single mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain. The mupirocin-resistant MRSA and S. epidermidis strains harboured identical plasmids that carried the mupA determinant and genes for conjugative DNA transfer in staphylococci. These plasmids could be transferred in vitro from both clinical isolates to S. aureus RN2677.
Conclusions
The MRSA strain contained a conjugative plasmid expressing mupA that was identical with that found in the S. epidermidis strain which colonized the patient. These findings suggest that transfer of mupA from S. epidermidis to MRSA probably occurred during mupirocin prophylaxis.
doi:10.1093/jac/dki387
PMCID: PMC3319406  PMID: 16275681
MRSA; nasal decolonization; coagulase-negative; staphylococci
12.  Preventing infections in nursing homes: A survey of infection control practices in southeast Michigan 
Background
Studies on adherence to infection control policies in nursing homes (NHs) are limited. This pilot study explores the use of various infection control practices and the role of infection control practitioners in southeast Michigan NHs.
Methods
A 43-item self-administered questionnaire and explanatory cover letter were mailed to 105 licensed NHs in southeast Michigan. A second mailing was sent to the nonresponders 4 weeks later.
Results
Significant variability existed in adoption of various infection control measures with respect to time spent in infection control activities (50% of facilities having a full-time infection control practitioner), definitions used in monitoring infections, and immunization rates (influenza: range, 0%–100%; mean, 73.2%; pneumococcal: range, 0%–100%; mean, 38.5%).
Conclusion
Although strides have been made in infection control research in NHs, significant variations exist in implementation of infection control methods and guidelines. Future research should focus on identifying barriers to infection control in NHs.
doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2005.01.011
PMCID: PMC3319408  PMID: 16216667
13.  Assessment of Pneumonia in Older Adults: Effect of Functional Status 
Objectives
Evaluate the effect of preadmission functional status on severity of pneumonia, length of hospital stay (LOS), and all-cause 30-day and 1-year mortality of adults aged 60 and older and to understand the effect of pneumonia on short-term functional impairment.
Design
Prospective cohort study.
Setting
University hospital.
Participants
One hundred twelve patients with radiograph-proven pneumonia (mean age 74.6) were enrolled.
Measurements
Functional status and comorbidities were assessed using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF) and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Clinical information was used to calculate the Pneumonia Prognostic Index (PPI).
Results
Eighty-four (75%) patients were functionally independent (FI) before admission, with a SMAF score of 40 or lower. Dementia and aspiration history were higher in the group that was functionally dependent (FD) before admission (P < .001). The FI group had less-severe pneumonia per the PPI and shorter mean LOS ± standard deviation (5.62 ± 0.51 days) than the FD group (11.42 ± 2.58, P < .004). The FI group had lower 1-year mortality (19/65, 23%) than the FD group (14/28, 50%), and the difference remained significant after adjusting for Charlson Index and severity of illness (P = .009). All patients lost function after admission, with loss being more pronounced in the FI group (mean change 19.24 ± 12.9 vs 4.72 ± 6.55, P < .001).
Conclusion
Older adults who were FI before admission were more likely to present with less-severe pneumonia and have a shorter LOS. In addition, further loss of function was common in these patients. Assessment of function before and during hospitalization should be an integral part of clinical evaluation in all older adults with pneumonia.
doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2006.00797.x
PMCID: PMC3319410  PMID: 16866676
pneumonia; functional assessment; older adults
14.  Conceptual Model for Reducing Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance in Skilled Nursing Facilities: Focusing on Residents with Indwelling Devices 
Infections in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) are common and result in frequent hospital transfers, functional decline, and death. Colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) – including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (R-GNB) – is also increasingly prevalent in SNFs. Antimicrobial resistance among common bacteria can adversely affect clinical outcomes and increase health care costs. Recognizing a need for action, legislators, policy-makers, and consumer groups are advocating for surveillance cultures to identify asymptomatic patients with MDROs, particularly MRSA in hospitals and SNFs. Implementing this policy for all SNF residents may be costly, impractical, and ineffective. Such a policy may result in a large increase in the number of SNF residents placed in isolation precautions with the potential for reduced attention by health care workers, isolation, and functional decline. Detection of colonization and subsequent attempts to eradicate selected MDROs can also lead to more strains with drug resistance. We propose an alternative strategy that uses a focused multicomponent bundle approach that targets residents at a higher risk of colonization and infection with MDROs, specifically those who have an indwelling device. If this strategy is effective, similar strategies can be studied and implemented for other high-risk groups.
doi:10.1093/cid/ciq205
PMCID: PMC3045539  PMID: 21292670
15.  Conceptual Model for Reducing Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance in Skilled Nursing Facilities: Focusing on Residents with Indwelling Devices 
Infections in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) are common and result in frequent hospital transfers, functional decline, and death. Colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) – including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (R-GNB) – is also increasingly prevalent in SNFs. Antimicrobial resistance among common bacteria can adversely affect clinical outcomes and increase health care costs. Recognizing a need for action, legislators, policy-makers, and consumer groups are advocating for surveillance cultures to identify asymptomatic patients with MDROs, particularly MRSA in hospitals and SNFs. Implementing this policy for all SNF residents may be costly, impractical, and ineffective. Such a policy may result in a large increase in the number of SNF residents placed in isolation precautions with the potential for reduced attention by health care workers, isolation, and functional decline. Detection of colonization and subsequent attempts to eradicate selected MDROs can also lead to more strains with drug resistance. We propose an alternative strategy that uses a focused multicomponent bundle approach that targets residents at a higher risk of colonization and infection with MDROs, specifically those who have an indwelling device. If this strategy is effective, similar strategies can be studied and implemented for other high-risk groups.
doi:10.1093/cid/ciq205
PMCID: PMC3045539  PMID: 21292670
16.  Phylogenetic Analysis of Viridans Group Streptococci Causing Endocarditis ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(9):3087-3090.
Identification of viridans group streptococci (VGS) to the species level is difficult because VGS exchange genetic material. We performed multilocus DNA target sequencing to assess phylogenetic concordance of VGS for a well-defined clinical syndrome. The hierarchy of sequence data was often discordant, underscoring the importance of establishing biological relevance for finer phylogenetic distinctions.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00920-08
PMCID: PMC2546745  PMID: 18650347
17.  Genotypic Diversity of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Causing Endocarditis: a Global Perspective▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(5):1780-1784.
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important causes of infective endocarditis (IE), but their microbiological profiles are poorly described. We performed DNA target sequencing and susceptibility testing for 91 patients with definite CNS IE who were identified from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis—Microbiology, a large, multicenter, multinational consortium. A hierarchy of gene sequences demonstrated great genetic diversity within CNS from patients with definite endocarditis that represented diverse geographic regions. In particular, rpoB sequence data demonstrated unique genetic signatures with the potential to serve as an important tool for global surveillance.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02405-07
PMCID: PMC2395089  PMID: 18367572
18.  Nursing Home Residents and Enterobacteriaceae Resistant to Third-Generation Cephalosporins 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2004;10(6):1050-1055.
Limited data identify the risk factors for infection with Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins among residents of long-term-care facilities. Using a nested case-control study design, nursing home residents with clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins were compared to residents with isolates of Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins. Data were collected on antimicrobial drug exposure 10 weeks before detection of the isolates, facility-level demographics, hygiene facilities, and staffing levels. Logistic regression models were built to adjust for confounding variables. Twenty-seven case-residents were identified and compared to 85 controls. Exposure to any cephalosporin (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to13.6) and log percentage of residents using gastrostomy tubes within the nursing home (adjusted OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.3 to 12.0) were associated with having a clinical isolate resistant to third-generation cephalosporins.
doi:10.3201/eid1006.030662
PMCID: PMC3323163  PMID: 15207056
Cephalosporin Resistance; Cephalosporins; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriaceae Infections; Long-Term Care; Nursing Homes; Risk Factors

Results 1-19 (19)