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1.  Telavancin for Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia: Clinical Response and 28-Day Survival 
U.S. Food and Drug Administration draft guidance for future antibiotic clinical trials of bacterial nosocomial pneumonia recommends the use of diagnostic criteria according to American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) guidelines and the use of a primary endpoint of 28-day all-cause mortality. The effect of applying these guidelines on outcomes of phase III nosocomial pneumonia studies of telavancin was evaluated in a post hoc analysis. ATS/IDSA criteria were applied in a blind fashion to the original all-treated (AT) group. Clinical cure rates at final follow-up were determined in the refined AT and clinically evaluable (CE) groups (ATS/IDSA-AT and ATS/IDSA-CE, respectively). The exploratory endpoint of 28-day survival was evaluated for the ATS/IDSA-AT group. Noninferiority of telavancin versus vancomycin was demonstrated, with similar cure rates in the ATS/IDSA-AT (59% versus 59%) and ATS/IDSA-CE (83% versus 80%) groups. Cure rates favored telavancin in ATS/IDSA-CE patients where Staphylococcus aureus was the sole pathogen (86% versus 75%). Overall, 28-day survival rates were similar in the telavancin (76%) and vancomycin (77%) groups but lower in telavancin-treated patients with preexisting moderate-to-severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CLCR] of <50 ml/min). Telavancin should be administered to patients with moderate-to-severe renal impairment only if treatment benefit outweighs the risk or if no suitable alternatives are available.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02330-13
PMCID: PMC4023742  PMID: 24419353
3.  A randomized Phase 2 trial of telavancin versus standard therapy in patients with uncomplicated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: the ASSURE study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:289.
Background
Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a common infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Telavancin is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide active against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, Phase 2 trial in patients with uncomplicated S. aureus bacteremia.
Methods
Patients were randomized to either telavancin or standard therapy (vancomycin or anti-staphylococcal penicillin) for 14 days. Continuation criteria were set to avoid complicated S. aureus bacteremia. The primary end point was clinical cure at 84 days.
Results
In total, 60 patients were randomized and 58 received ≥1 study medication dose (all-treated), 31 patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion and continuation criteria (all-treated target [ATT]) (telavancin 15, standard therapy 16), and 17 patients were clinically evaluable (CE) (telavancin 8, standard therapy 9). Mean age (ATT) was 60 years. Intravenous catheters were the most common source of S. aureus bacteremia and ~50% of patients had MRSA. A similar proportion of CE patients were cured in the telavancin (88%) and standard therapy (89%) groups. All patients with MRSA bacteremia were cured and one patient with MSSA bacteremia failed study treatment in each group. Although adverse events (AEs) were more common in the telavancin ATT group (90% vs. 72%), AEs leading to drug discontinuation were similar (7%) in both treatment arms. Potentially clinically significant increases in serum creatinine (≥1.5 mg/dl and at least 50% greater than baseline) were more common in the telavancin group (20% vs. 7%).
Conclusions
This study suggests that telavancin may have utility for treatment of uncomplicated S. aureus bacteremia; additional studies are warranted. (Telavancin for Treatment of Uncomplicated Staphylococcus Aureus Bacteremia (ASSURE); NCT00062647).
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-289
PMCID: PMC4048626  PMID: 24884578
Bacteremia; Staphylococcus aureus; Telavancin; Vancomycin
4.  Clinical utility of telavancin for treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia: focus on non-ventilator-associated pneumonia 
Background
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is the most common health care-associated infection contributing to death. Studies have indicated that there may be differences in the causative pathogens and outcomes of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and non-ventilator-associated pneumonia (NV-HAP). However, with limited NV-HAP-specific data available, treatment is generally based on data from studies of VAP. The Phase 3 Assessment of Telavancin for Treatment of Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (ATTAIN) studies were two double-blind randomized controlled trials that demonstrated the non-inferiority of telavancin to vancomycin for treatment of Gram-positive HAP. We conducted a post hoc subgroup analysis of patients enrolled in the ATTAIN studies who had NV-HAP.
Methods
Data from the two ATTAIN studies were pooled, and patients with NV-HAP were analyzed. The all-treated (AT) population consisted of all randomized patients who received ≥1 dose of study medication, and the clinically evaluable (CE) population consisted of AT patients who were protocol-adherent or who died on or after study day 3, where death was attributable to the HAP episode under study. The primary endpoint was clinical response (cure, failure, or indeterminate) at the follow-up/test of cure visit, conducted 7–14 days after the end of therapy.
Results
A total of 1,076 patients (71.6% of overall ATTAIN AT population) had NV-HAP (533 and 543 patients in the telavancin and vancomycin treatment groups, respectively). Clinical cure rates in the CE population were similar for patients with NV-HAP treated with telavancin and vancomycin (83.1% [201/242] and 84.1% [233/277], respectively). In patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated at baseline, cure rates in the CE population were 74.8% (77/103) for telavancin and 79.3% (96/121) for vancomycin. The incidence of adverse events, serious adverse events, and deaths in patients with NV-HAP was similar whether patients received telavancin or vancomycin.
Conclusion
This post hoc subgroup analysis of the ATTAIN studies demonstrated similar cure rates for telavancin and vancomycin for treatment of NV-HAP.
doi:10.2147/IDR.S25930
PMCID: PMC4035308  PMID: 24876786
nosocomial pneumonia; Staphylococcus aureus; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
5.  Effect of vancomycin serum trough levels on outcomes in patients with nosocomial pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus: a retrospective, post hoc, subgroup analysis of the Phase 3 ATTAIN studies 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:183.
Background
Existing data are not consistently supportive of improved clinical outcome when vancomycin dosing regimens aimed at achieving target trough levels are used. A retrospective, post hoc, subgroup analysis of prospectively collected data from the Phase 3 ATTAIN trials of telavancin versus vancomycin for treatment of nosocomial pneumonia was conducted to further investigate the relationship between vancomycin serum trough levels and patient outcome.
Methods
Study patients were enrolled in 274 study sites across 38 countries. A total of 98 patients had Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial pneumonia and vancomycin serum trough levels available. These patients were grouped according to their median vancomycin trough level; < 10 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL to < 15 μg/mL, and ≥ 15 μg/mL.
Results
Clinical cure rates in the < 10 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL to < 15 μg/mL, and ≥ 15 μg/mL vancomycin trough level groups were 70% (21/30), 55% (18/33), and 49% (17/35), respectively (p = 0.09), and the frequencies of patient death were 10% (3/30), 15% (5/33), and 20% (7/35), respectively (p = 0.31). Renal adverse events were more frequent in the ≥ 15 μg/mL (17% [6/35]) than the < 10 μg/mL (0%) and 10 μg/mL to < 15 μg/mL (3% [1/33]) trough level groups (p < 0.01). When patients with acute renal failure or vancomycin exposure within 7 days prior to study medication were excluded, clinical cure rates in the < 10 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL to < 15 μg/mL, and ≥ 15 μg/mL vancomycin trough level groups (71% [12/17], 60% [9/15], and 27% [3/11], respectively; p = 0.04) and the number of deaths (12% [2/17], 20% [3/15], and 45% [5/11], respectively; p = 0.07) demonstrated a trend towards worse outcomes in the higher vancomycin trough level groups.
Conclusions
The findings of our study suggest that higher vancomycin trough levels do not result in improved clinical response but likely increase the incidence of nephrotoxicity.
Trial registration
NCT00107952 and NCT00124020
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-183
PMCID: PMC4101862  PMID: 24708675
Vancomycin; Trough levels; Nosocomial pneumonia; Staphylococcus aureus
7.  TD-1792 versus Vancomycin for Treatment of Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(11):5476-5483.
TD-1792 is a first-in-class glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer that exhibits bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, active-control, phase II trial in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by suspected or confirmed Gram-positive organisms. Patients 18 to 65 years old were randomized to receive 7 to 14 days of either TD-1792 (2 mg/kg of body weight intravenously [i.v.] every 24 h [q24h]) or vancomycin (1 g i.v. q12h, with dosage regimens adjusted per site-specific procedures). A total of 197 patients were randomized and received at least one dose of study medication. Rates of clinical success at the test-of-cure evaluation were similar in all analysis populations. Among 170 clinically evaluable patients, cure rates were 91.7% and 90.7% in the TD-1792 and vancomycin groups, respectively (95% confidence interval [CI] of −7.9 to 9.7 for the difference). In microbiologically evaluable patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at baseline (n = 75), cure rates were 94.7% in the TD-1792 group and 91.9% in the vancomycin group. Microbiological eradication of Gram-positive pathogens (n = 126) was achieved in 93.7% and 92.1% of patients in the TD-1792 and vancomycin groups, respectively. Seven patients were discontinued from study medication due to an adverse event (AE): 2 and 5 in the TD-1792 and vancomycin groups, respectively. AEs were of similar types and severities between the two groups, other than pruritus, which was more common in patients who received vancomycin. No patients in the TD-1792 group experienced a serious AE. This study supports further clinical development of TD-1792 in patients with Gram-positive infection.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00712-12
PMCID: PMC3486540  PMID: 22869571
8.  Population Pharmacokinetics of Telavancin in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Infections 
A population pharmacokinetic model of telavancin, a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic, was developed and used to identify sources of interindividual variability. Data were obtained from healthy subjects (seven phase 1 studies), patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI; two phase 2 and two phase 3 studies), and patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP; two phase 3 studies). A two-compartment open model with zero-order input best fit the telavancin data from healthy individuals and patients with cSSSI or HAP. Telavancin clearance was highly correlated with renal function and, to a lesser extent, with body weight. Other covariates were related to at least one parameter in cSSSI (gender, bacterial eradication, and surgery) or HAP (age of ≥75 years) but did not markedly affect exposure. These analyses support current dosing recommendations for telavancin based on patient weight and renal function.
doi:10.1128/AAC.05915-11
PMCID: PMC3318396  PMID: 22252798
9.  Presence of Genes Encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Is Not the Primary Determinant of Outcome in Patients with Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(3):848-856.
The impact of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) on the outcome in Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia is controversial. We genotyped S. aureus isolates from patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) enrolled in two registrational multinational clinical trials for the genetic elements carrying pvl and 30 other virulence genes. A total of 287 isolates (173 methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] and 114 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] isolates) from patients from 127 centers in 34 countries for whom clinical outcomes of cure or failure were available underwent genotyping. Of these, pvl was detected by PCR and its product confirmed in 23 isolates (8.0%) (MRSA, 18/173 isolates [10.4%]; MSSA, 5/114 isolates [4.4%]). The presence of pvl was not associated with a higher risk for clinical failure (4/23 [17.4%] versus 48/264 [18.2%]; P = 1.00) or mortality. These findings persisted after adjustment for multiple potential confounding variables. No significant associations between clinical outcome and (i) presence of any of the 30 other virulence genes tested, (ii) presence of specific bacterial clone, (iii) levels of alpha-hemolysin, or (iv) delta-hemolysin production were identified. This study suggests that neither pvl presence nor in vitro level of alpha-hemolysin production is the primary determinant of outcome among patients with HAP caused by S. aureus.
doi:10.1128/JCM.06219-11
PMCID: PMC3295120  PMID: 22205797
12.  Telavancin versus Vancomycin for Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia due to Gram-positive Pathogens 
The results from two methodologically identical double-blind studies indicate that telavancin is noninferior to vancomycin based on clinical response in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia due to Gram-positive pathogens.
Background. Telavancin is a lipoglycopeptide bactericidal against gram-positive pathogens.
Methods. Two methodologically identical, double-blind studies (0015 and 0019) were conducted involving patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) due to gram-positive pathogens, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Patients were randomized 1:1 to telavancin (10 mg/kg every 24 h) or vancomycin (1 g every 12 h) for 7–21 days. The primary end point was clinical response at follow-up/test-of-cure visit.
Results. A total of 1503 patients were randomized and received study medication (the all-treated population). In the pooled all-treated population, cure rates with telavancin versus vancomycin were 58.9% versus 59.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference, –5.6% to 4.3%). In the pooled clinically evaluable population (n = 654), cure rates were 82.4% with telavancin and 80.7% with vancomycin (95% CI for the difference, –4.3% to 7.7%). Treatment with telavancin achieved higher cure rates in patients with monomicrobial S. aureus infection and comparable cure rates in patients with MRSA infection; in patients with mixed gram-positive/gram-negative infections, cure rates were higher in the vancomycin group. Incidence and types of adverse events were comparable between the treatment groups. Mortality rates for telavancin-treated versus vancomycin-treated patients were 21.5% versus 16.6% (95% CI for the difference, –0.7% to 10.6%) for study 0015 and 18.5% versus 20.6% (95% CI for the difference, –7.8% to 3.5%) for study 0019. Increases in serum creatinine level were more common in the telavancin group (16% vs 10%).
Conclusions. The primary end point of the studies was met, indicating that telavancin is noninferior to vancomycin on the basis of clinical response in the treatment of HAP due to gram-positive pathogens.
doi:10.1093/cid/ciq031
PMCID: PMC3060890  PMID: 21148517
13.  Presence of Genes Encoding the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Exotoxin Is Not the Primary Determinant of Outcome in Patients with Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Results of a Multinational Trial▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(12):3952-3957.
The role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in determining the severity and outcome of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is controversial. We evaluated potential associations between clinical outcome and PVL status by using MRSA isolates from patients enrolled in two large, multinational phase three clinical trials assessing telavancin for the treatment of cSSSI (the ATLAS program). MRSA isolates from microbiologically evaluable patients were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR for pvl and 31 other putative virulence determinants. A single baseline pathogen of MRSA was isolated from 522 microbiologically evaluable patients (25.1%) among 2,079 randomized patients. Of these MRSA isolates, 83.2% (432/519) exhibited the USA300 PFGE genotype and 89.1% (465/522) were pvl positive. Patients with pvl-positive MRSA were more likely than those with pvl-negative MRSA to be young, to be North American, and to present with major abscesses (P < 0.001 for each). Patients were significantly more likely to be cured if they were infected with pvl-positive MRSA than if they were infected with pvl-negative MRSA (91.6% versus 80.7%; P = 0.015). This observation remained statistically significant after adjustment for presence of abscess, fever, or leukocytosis; infection size; diabetes; patient age; and study medication received. The fnbA, cna, sdrC, map-eap, sed, seg, sei, sej, SCCmec type IV, and agr group II genes were also associated with clinical response (P < 0.05). This contemporary, international study demonstrates that pvl was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with MRSA cSSSI.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01643-09
PMCID: PMC2786648  PMID: 19846653
14.  Intrapulmonary Distribution of Intravenous Telavancin in Healthy Subjects and Effect of Pulmonary Surfactant on In Vitro Activities of Telavancin and Other Antibiotics▿  
Steady-state concentrations of telavancin, a novel, bactericidal lipoglycopeptide, were determined in the plasma, pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar macrophages (AMs) of 20 healthy subjects. Telavancin at 10 mg of drug/kg of body weight/day was administered as a 1-h intravenous infusion on three successive days, with bronchoalveolar lavage performed on five subjects, each at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after the last dose. Plasma samples were collected before the first and third infusions and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after the third infusion. The plasma telavancin concentration-time profile was as reported previously. Telavancin (mean ± standard deviation) penetrated well into ELF (3.73 ± 1.28 μg/ml at 8 h and 0.89 ± 1.03 μg/ml at 24 h) and extensively into AMs (19.0 ± 16.8 μg/ml at 8 h, 45.0 ± 22.4 μg/ml at 12 h, and 42.0 ± 31.4 μg/ml at 24 h). Mean concentrations in AMs and plasma at 12 h were 45.0 μg/ml and 22.9 μg/ml (mean AM/plasma ratio, 1.93), respectively, and at 24 h were 42.0 μg/ml and 7.28 μg/ml (mean AM/plasma ratio, 6.67), respectively. Over the entire dosing interval, telavancin was present in ELF and AMs at concentrations up to 8-fold and 85-fold, respectively, above its MIC90 for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (0.5 μg/ml). Pulmonary surfactant did not affect telavancin's in vitro antibacterial activity. Telavancin was well tolerated. These results support the proposal for further clinical evaluation of telavancin for treating gram-positive respiratory infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00875-07
PMCID: PMC2223919  PMID: 17923490
15.  Genotypic Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Multinational Trial of Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections▿ † 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;46(2):678-684.
The impact of bacterial genetic characteristics on the outcome of patients with Staphylococcus aureus infections is uncertain. This investigation evaluated potential associations between bacterial genotype and clinical outcome using isolates collected as part of an international phase 2 clinical trial (FAST II) evaluating telavancin for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). Ninety S. aureus isolates from microbiologically evaluable patients with cSSSI enrolled in the FAST II trial from 11 sites in the United States (56 isolates, or 62%) and 7 sites in South Africa (34 isolates, or 38%) were examined for staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, agr, and the presence of 31 virulence genes and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). South African methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were more likely to carry certain virulence genes, including sdrD (P = 0.01), sea (P < 0.01), and pvl (P = 0.01). All 44 (49%) methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were from the United States; 37 (84%) were strain USA 300 by PFGE. In the United States, MRSA isolates were more likely than MSSA isolates to carry genes for sdrC (P = 0.03), map/eap (P = 0.05), fnbB (P = 0.11), tst (P = 0.02), sea (P = 0.04), sed (P = 0.04), seg (P = 0.11), sej (P = 0.11), agr (P = 0.09), V8 (P = 0.06), sdrD, sdrE, eta, etb, and see (P < 0.01 for all). MRSA isolates were more often clonal than MSSA isolates by PFGE. Isolates from patients who were cured were significantly more likely to contain the pvl gene than isolates from patients that failed or had indeterminate outcomes (79/84 [94%] versus 3/6 [50%]; P = 0.01). S. aureus strains from different geographic regions have different distributions of virulence genes.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01822-07
PMCID: PMC2238106  PMID: 18077636
16.  Telavancin versus Standard Therapy for Treatment of Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Bacteria: FAST 2 Study 
Telavancin is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide with a multifunctional mechanism of action. We conducted a randomized, double blind, active-control phase II trial. Patients ≥18 years of age with complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by suspected or confirmed gram-positive organisms were randomized to receive either telavancin at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 24 h (q24h) or standard therapy (antistaphylococcal penicillin at 2 g q6h or vancomycin at 1 g q12h). A total of 195 patients were randomized and received at least one dose of study medication. Clinical success rates were similar in all analysis populations at test of cure. In microbiologically evaluable patients with Staphylococcus aureus at baseline (n = 91), 96% of the telavancin group and 90% of the standard-therapy group were cured. Among patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at baseline (n = 45), clinical cure rates were also 96% for telavancin and 90% for standard therapy. Microbiologic eradication in patients with S. aureus infection was better with telavancin compared to standard therapy (92% versus 78%, P = 0.07) and significantly better in patients with MRSA (92% versus 68%; P = 0.04). Therapy was discontinued for an adverse event (AE) in 6% and 3% of the patients receiving telavancin and standard therapy, respectively. Except for two cases of rash in the telavancin group, these AEs were similar in type and severity in the two groups. The overall incidences and severities of AEs and laboratory abnormalities were similar between the two groups. These data support the ongoing studies assessing the efficacy and safety of telavancin in the treatment of serious gram-positive infections, particularly involving MRSA.
doi:10.1128/AAC.50.3.862-867.2006
PMCID: PMC1426424  PMID: 16495243
17.  Absence of Nafcillin-Associated Nephritis 
Western Journal of Medicine  1980;133(6):472-477.
In a prospective study of 210 consecutively seen patients receiving nafcillin, no patient's therapy was discontinued because of clinically manifested or suspected nephritis. Administration of nafcillin was discontinued because of an adverse reaction in only two patients, one with a rash and one with neutropenia. In seven of the ten patients in whom renal dysfunction developed during treatment, renal function improved while the patients continued to receive nafcillin. In the remaining three patients, renal failure was attributed to other factors including rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and hypotension, and what appeared to be aminoglycoside toxicity.
No renal biopsy studies were done because none were clinically indicated. Although the results of this study do not rule out the possibility that nafcillin may induce nephritis, if it does occur it appears in such a mild form—manifested solely as urinary sediment abnormalities—or so infrequently that it was not detected in this group of patients.
In four patients, leukopenia could not be explained on any basis other than nafcillin administration.
PMCID: PMC1272389  PMID: 7467307
18.  Review of the Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, and Clinical Use of Cephalosporins 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  1990;17(3):203-215.
PMCID: PMC324918  PMID: 15227172
Antibiotics; cephalosporins; bacterial infections; drug resistance, microbial

Results 1-18 (18)