We investigated the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among the health care workers (HCWs) and analyzed its risk factors in South Korea.
A standard questionnaire regarding the baseline demographics and risk factors for LTBI was given to each participant and tuberculin skin test (TST), QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assay, and chest radiography were performed.
A total of 493 participants, 152 (30.8%) doctors and 341 (69.2%) nurses were enrolled in eight tertiary referral hospitals. The mean age of the subjects was 30.6 years old, and 383 (77.7%) were female. Of the 152 doctors, 63 (41.4%) and 36 (23.7%) were positive by TST and by QTF-GIT, respectively, and among the 341 nurses, 119 (34.9%) and 49 (14.4%) had positive TST and QFT-GIT results, respectively. Overall, the agreement between the two tests was 0.22 by the chance corrected proportional agreement rate (kappa coefficient) in 493 subjects. Experience of working in tuberculosis (TB)-related departments was significantly associated with positive LTBI test results by QFT-GIT assay, not by TST. In multivariate analysis, only age was independently associated with increased risk of a positive TST result, while age and experience of working in TB-related departments (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-5.12) were independently associated with increased risk of a positive QFT-GIT result.
A high prevalence of LTBI was found among South Korean HCWs. Considering the association between the experience of working in TB-related departments and high risk of LTBI, QFT-GIT may be a better diagnostic test for LTBI than TST in HCWs.
Latent Tuberculosis; Health Personnel; Tuberculin Test; Interferon-gamma Release Tests; Republic of Korea
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a broad spectrum of illnesses ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infections to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Quantitative data on the burden of pneumococcal disease, important for the establishment of appropriate vaccination strategies, is currently lacking in adults.
This multicenter, retrospective cohort study was designed to estimate the clinical and economic burden of IPD in adults over the last decade. Data were collected from patients with IPD at 10 university hospitals in South Korea. We estimated the proportion of IPD among all hospitalized patients, the case fatality rate, and the direct medical costs of IPD. Data were further analyzed according to age and risk groups.
During the study period, 970 patients with IPD were identified. The mean age for all patients was 60.9 years; patients aged 50–64 years (33.0%) were most numerous, followed by those aged 65–74 years (27.4%). Overall, the proportion of IPD was 0.36 cases/1000 hospitalized patients and the case fatality rate was 30.9%, which increased significantly with age (p < 0.01). The mean direct medical costs were estimated to be US $7,452 without a difference between age and risk groups. On multivariate analysis, old age, advanced ECOG performance status, bacteremic pneumonia, and nosocomial infection were independent risk factors of 30-day case fatality.
The clinical disease burden of IPD increased significantly with age and direct medical costs from IPD were substantial, regardless of age and co-morbid conditions. The current age-based vaccination strategy appears to be appropriate.
Cost of illness; Pneumococcal infection; Pneumococcal vaccines; Streptococcus pneumoniae
The significance of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) is unknown. Using a multinational collection of isolates from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infective endocarditis (IE), we characterized IE patients with and without hVISA, and genotyped the infecting strains.
MRSA bloodstream isolates from 65 patients with definite IE from 8 countries underwent PCR for 31 virulence genes, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. hVISA was defined using population analysis profiling (PAP).
Nineteen (29.2%) of 65 MRSA IE isolates exhibited hVISA by PAP. Isolates from Oceania and Europe were more likely to exhibit hVISA than isolates from the United States (77.8% vs. 35.0% vs. 13.9%; P < .001). The prevalence of hVISA was higher among isolates with a vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 mg/L (P = .026). hVISA-infected patients were more likely to have persistent bacteremia (68.4% vs. 37.0%; P = .029) and heart failure (47.4% vs. 19.6%; P = .033). Mortality of hVISA- and non-hVISA-infected patients did not differ (42.1% vs. 34.8%, P = .586). hVISA and non-hVISA isolates were genotypically similar.
In these analyses, hVISA occurred in over one-quarter of MRSA IE isolates, was associated with certain IE complications, and varied in frequency by geographic region.
hVISA; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; endocarditis; genotype
This study was conducted in order to demonstrate the initial experience of the Solitaire AB stent in mechanical intracranial thrombectomy.
We conducted a retrospective review of 40 consecutive patients who underwent intra-arterial Solitaire AB stent thrombectomy for treatment of acute ischemic strokes between October 2010 and November 2011. Demographic, clinical, and radiological presentations and outcomes were studied.
Twenty six men and 14 women with a mean initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 14.1 (range, 8-26) and a mean age of 65.4 (range, 32-89) years were included in this study. Occlusion sites were as follows: internal carotid artery (n = 11), middle cerebral artery M1 (n = 22), M2 (n = 5), and basilar artery (n = 2). Successful revascularization was achieved in 36 (90%) patients. The mean NIHSS score was 11.6 (range, 1-23) at 24 hours after the procedure, and 42.5% of patients showed a modified Rankin scale score of ≤ 2 at 90 days. New occlusion by migrated emboli was observed in one (2.5%) case. Post-procedural intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in only one case (2.5%), with an all-cause mortality of two (5%).
The Solitaire AB device is a relatively safe and effective tool for use in performance of mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Acute ischemic stroke; Thrombectomy; Solitaire AB stent
A functional link is identified between Cdo and Stim1 that leads to NFATc3 activation. Stim1 is required for muscle differentiation via activation of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway. The netrin-2–mediated activation of NFATc3 is coincident with an interaction between Cdo and Stim1 via ERK-mediated phosphorylation of Stim1 at Ser-575.
The promyogenic cell surface molecule Cdo is required for activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor of activated T cells c3 (NFATc3) induced by netrin-2 in myogenic differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism leading to NFATc3 activation is unknown. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (Stim1), an internal calcium sensor of the endoplasmic reticulum store, promotes myogenesis via activation of NFATc3. In this study we investigated the functional interaction between Cdo and Stim1 in myogenic differentiation. Overexpression and depletion of Stim1 enhanced or decreased myotube formation, respectively. Of interest, Stim1 protein levels were decreased in Cdo-deficient perinatal hindlimb muscles or primary myoblasts; this correlates with defective NFATc3 activation in Cdo−/− myoblasts upon differentiation. Forced activation of NFATc3 by overexpression of calcineurin restored differentiation of Cdo-depleted C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, Cdo and Stim1 formed a complex in 293T cells or in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts. The netrin-2–mediated NFATc3 activation was coincident with robust interactions between Cdo and Stim1 in myoblasts and the ERK-mediated Stim1 phosphorylation at serine 575. The serine 575 phosphorylation was enhanced in C2C12 cells upon differentiation, and the alanine substitution of serine 575 failed to restore differentiation of Stim1-depleted myoblasts. Taken together, the results indicate that cell adhesion signaling triggered by netrin-2/Cdo induces Stim1 phosphorylation at serine 575 by ERK, which promotes myoblast differentiation.
Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors of the bone and soft tissue. Spinal mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are even rarer and, to the best of our knowledge those that are concomitantly located in the intradural and extradural regions, have never been reported. We report a case of a 25-year-old man with back pain and bilateral progressive weakness of the lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a markedly enhanced dumbbell-shaped mass at the T7 level. The lesion was intradurally located at the left side of the spinal cord, and extended extradurally to the extraforminal space through the T7-8 intervertebral foramen. The tumor was completely excised through a posterior approach. Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical studies confirmed mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. Postoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy were also performed to prevent local recurrence and metastasis. The patient has been symptom-free for two years after surgery. Herein, we reviewed and discussed the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of primary intraspinal mesenchymal chondrosarcomas in the literature.
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma; Spinal tumor; Intradural; Extradural
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is caused by a failure to form the midline of the forebrain and/or midface. It is one of the most common human birth defects, but clinical expression is extremely variable. HPE is associated with mutations in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway. Mice lacking the Shh pathway regulator Cdo (also called Cdon) display HPE with strain-dependent penetrance and expressivity, implicating silent modifier genes as one cause of the variability. However, the identities of potential HPE modifiers of this type are unknown. We report here that whereas mice lacking the Cdo paralog Boc do not have HPE, Cdo;Boc double mutants on a largely Cdo-resistant genetic background have lobar HPE with strong craniofacial anomalies and defects in Shh target gene expression in the developing forebrain. Boc is therefore a silent HPE modifier gene in mice. Furthermore, Cdo and Boc have specific, selective roles in Shh signaling in mammals, because Cdo;Boc double-mutant mice do not display the most severe HPE phenotype seen in Shh-null mice, nor do they have major defects in digit patterning or development of vertebrae, which are also Shh-dependent processes. This is in contrast to reported observations in Drosophila, where genetic removal of the Cdo and Boc orthologs Ihog and Boi results in a complete loss of response to the hedgehog ligand. Therefore, there is evolutionary divergence between mammals and insects in the requirement of the hedgehog pathway for Cdo/Ihog family members, with mammalian development involving additional factors and/or distinct mechanisms at this level of pathway regulation.
The purpose of this study was to establish a prediction rule for severe illness in adult patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. At the time of initial presentation, the baseline characteristics of those with severe illness (i.e., admission to intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, or death) were compared to those of patients with non-severe illnesses. A total of 709 adults hospitalized with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 were included: 75 severe and 634 non-severe cases. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that altered mental status, hypoxia (PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 250), bilateral lung infiltration, and old age (≥ 65 yr) were independent risk factors for severe cases (all P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve (0.834 [95% CI, 0.778-0.890]) of the number of risk factors were not significantly different with that of APACHE II score (0.840 [95% CI, 0.790-0.891]) (P = 0.496). The presence of ≥ 2 risk factors had a higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value than an APACHE II score of ≥ 13. As a prediction rule, the presence of ≥ 2 these risk factors is a powerful and easy-to-use predictor of the severity in adult patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009.
pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009; Severity; Risk Factors; Prediction Rule
Nocardia farcinica is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised hosts. Even though several species of Nocardia have been reported as causative pathogens of catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI), CRBSI caused by N. farcinica has not been reported. A 70-yr-old man with a tunneled central venous catheter (CVC) for home parenteral nutrition was admitted with fever for two days. Norcardia species was isolated from the blood through CVC and peripheral bloods and identified to N. farcinica by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analyses. This report emphasizes the rapid and correct identification of causative agents in infectious diseases in the selection of antimicrobial agents and the consideration of catheter removal.
Nocardia farcinica; Catheter-related Blood Stream Infection (CRBSI); rpoB
Cdo activates Akt via indirect interaction with APPL1 during myoblast differentiation, and this complex likely mediates some of the promyogenic effect of cell–cell interaction. The promyogenic function of Cdo involves a coordinated activation of p38MAPK and Akt via interaction with scaffold proteins, JLP and Bnip-2 for p38MAPK and APPL1 for Akt.
Cell–cell interactions between muscle precursors are required for myogenic differentiation; however, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Promyogenic cell surface protein Cdo functions as a component of multiprotein complexes containing other cell adhesion molecules, Boc, Neogenin and N-cadherin, and mediates some of signals triggered by cell–cell interactions between muscle precursors. Cdo activates p38MAPK via interaction with two scaffold proteins JLP and Bnip-2 to promote myogenesis. p38MAPK and Akt signaling are required for myogenic differentiation and activation of both signaling pathways is crucial for efficient myogenic differentiation. We report here that APPL1, an interacting partner of Akt, forms complexes with Cdo and Boc in differentiating myoblasts. Both Cdo and APPL1 are required for efficient Akt activation during myoblast differentiation. The defective differentiation of Cdo-depleted cells is fully rescued by overexpression of a constitutively active form of Akt, whereas overexpression of APPL1 fails to do so. Taken together, Cdo activates Akt through association with APPL1 during myoblast differentiation, and this complex likely mediates some of the promyogenic effect of cell–cell interaction. The promyogenic function of Cdo involves a coordinated activation of p38MAPK and Akt via association with scaffold proteins, JLP and Bnip-2 for p38MAPK and APPL1 for Akt.
The role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in determining the severity and outcome of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is controversial. We evaluated potential associations between clinical outcome and PVL status by using MRSA isolates from patients enrolled in two large, multinational phase three clinical trials assessing telavancin for the treatment of cSSSI (the ATLAS program). MRSA isolates from microbiologically evaluable patients were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR for pvl and 31 other putative virulence determinants. A single baseline pathogen of MRSA was isolated from 522 microbiologically evaluable patients (25.1%) among 2,079 randomized patients. Of these MRSA isolates, 83.2% (432/519) exhibited the USA300 PFGE genotype and 89.1% (465/522) were pvl positive. Patients with pvl-positive MRSA were more likely than those with pvl-negative MRSA to be young, to be North American, and to present with major abscesses (P < 0.001 for each). Patients were significantly more likely to be cured if they were infected with pvl-positive MRSA than if they were infected with pvl-negative MRSA (91.6% versus 80.7%; P = 0.015). This observation remained statistically significant after adjustment for presence of abscess, fever, or leukocytosis; infection size; diabetes; patient age; and study medication received. The fnbA, cna, sdrC, map-eap, sed, seg, sei, sej, SCCmec type IV, and agr group II genes were also associated with clinical response (P < 0.05). This contemporary, international study demonstrates that pvl was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with MRSA cSSSI.
A variety of signaling pathways participate in the development of skeletal muscle, but the extracellular cues that regulate such pathways in myofiber formation are not well understood. Neogenin is a receptor for ligands of the netrin and repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) families involved in axon guidance. We reported previously that neogenin promoted myotube formation by C2C12 myoblasts in vitro and that the related protein Cdo (also Cdon) was a potential neogenin coreceptor in myoblasts. We report here that mice homozygous for a gene-trap mutation in the Neo1 locus (encoding neogenin) develop myotomes normally but have small myofibers at embryonic day 18.5 and at 3 wk of age. Similarly, cultured myoblasts derived from such animals form smaller myotubes with fewer nuclei than myoblasts from control animals. These in vivo and in vitro defects are associated with low levels of the activated forms of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), both known to be involved in myotube formation, and inefficient expression of certain muscle-specific proteins. Recombinant netrin-2 activates FAK and ERK in cultured myoblasts in a neogenin- and Cdo-dependent manner, whereas recombinant RGMc displays lesser ability to activate these kinases. Together, netrin-neogenin signaling is an important extracellular cue in regulation of myogenic differentiation and myofiber size.
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an increasingly common worldwide and colonizing S. aureus strains may serve as the causative pathogen for overt clinical infections. This study was performed to determine whether the pathogenic CA-MRSA isolate in clinical infections was genetically related to the MRSA isolates in community carriers. We prospectively collected a total of 42 CA-MRSA isolates (23 clinical infection isolates and 19 colonization isolates) in a local region of Korea. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests, staphylococcal toxin assays, SCCmec typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and spa (staphylococcal protein A) typing were performed with all isolates. Thirty-four (81%) of 42 CA-MRSA isolates belonged to sequence type (ST) 72 in the MLST analysis. The distribution of STs did not differ significantly between colonization and clinical infection isolates (89.5% [17/19] vs. 73.9% [17/23], P=0.26). Among the ST72-MRSA isolates, spa type t664 (18, 52.9%) and t324 (8, 23.5%) were common in both groups. This study demonstrates that the community-associated MRSA strains from patients with clinical infections are closely related to the strains found in carriers from one local community.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Community-Acquired Infections; Genotype; Carrier State
The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is required for differentiation of skeletal myoblasts, but how the pathway is activated during this process is not well understood. One mechanism involves the cell surface receptor Cdo (also known as Cdon), which binds to Bnip-2 and JLP, scaffold proteins for Cdc42 and p38, respectively; formation of these complexes results in Bnip-2/Cdc42-dependent activation of p38. It has been reported that the tyrosine kinase Abl promotes myogenic differentiation in a manner dependent on its cytoplasmic localization, but the cytoplasmic signaling proteins with which it interacts to achieve this effect are unidentified. We report that Abl associates with both Cdo and JLP during myoblast differentiation. Abl binds a proline-rich motif in Cdo via its SH3 domain, and these regions of Abl and Cdo are required for their promyogenic effects. Cdo is important for full Abl kinase activity, and Abl is necessary for full activation of p38 MAPK, during myogenic differentiation. As seen with myoblasts depleted of Cdo, the diminished differentiation displayed by Abl-depleted cells is rescued by the expression of an activated form of the immediate upstream p38-activating kinase MAPK kinase 6. Abl's promyogenic effect is therefore linked to a multiprotein cell surface complex that regulates differentiation-dependent p38 activation.
Several cases of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb-induced hepatitis have been reported worldwide. Anthraquinone is an active ingredient of P. multiflorum Thunb. that has been thought to play a role in its hepatotoxicity. Here we report the case of a 34-year-old Korean man who had P. multiflorum Thunb-induced hepatitis and reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by bone marrow suppression, which developed simultaneously. He was admitted to our hospital with recently developed fatigue and aggravated jaundice. He was a previously healthy man except for the sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis seen on chest X-ray. He had a 30-day history of ingesting the root of P. multiflorum as a form of liquor and tea. The patient was diagnosed with P. multiflorum Thunb-induced hepatitis after excluding all other potential causes of acute hepatitis. Liver function gradually improved following the total cessation of the consumption of the material. However, he suffered from spiking fever with progressive pancytopenia during the hospital stay. A bone marrow biopsy showed markedly hypocellular marrow, suggesting transient bone marrow suppression, which was probably caused by extrinsic factors such as drugs, toxins, and viral infection. Although he began to complain of a dry cough, repeated sputum investigations revealed positive acid-fast bacillus staining. The fever subsided and pancytopenia improved after treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. These observations suggest that P. multiflorum Thunb induces both bone marrow suppression and hepatotoxicity.
Polygonum multiflorum Thunb; Hepatotoxicity; Bone marrow suppression; Pulmonary tuberculosis
We investigated associations between the genotypic and phenotypic features of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates and the clinical characteristics of bacteremic patients enrolled in a phase III trial of S. aureus bacteremia and endocarditis. Isolates underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR for 33 putative virulence genes, and screening for heteroresistant glycopeptide intermediate S. aureus (hGISA). A total of 230 isolates (141 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and 89 methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) were analyzed. North American and European S. aureus isolates differed in their genotypic characteristics. Overall, 26% of the MRSA bloodstream isolates were USA 300 strains. Patients with USA 300 MRSA bacteremia were more likely to be injection drug users (61% versus 15%; P < 0.001), to have right-sided endocarditis (39% versus 9%; P = 0.002), and to be cured of right-sided endocarditis (100% versus 33%; P = 0.01) than patients with non-USA 300 MRSA bacteremia. Patients with persistent bacteremia were less likely to be infected with Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl)-constitutive MRSA (19% versus 56%; P = 0.005). Although 7 of 89 MRSA isolates (8%) exhibited the hGISA phenotype, no association with persistent bacteremia, daptomycin resistance, or bacterial genotype was observed. This study suggests that the virulence gene profiles of S. aureus bloodstream isolates from North America and Europe differ significantly. In this study of bloodstream isolates collected as part of a multinational randomized clinical trial, USA 300 and pvl-constitutive MRSA strains were associated with better clinical outcomes.
The p38α/β mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway promotes skeletal myogenesis, but the mechanisms by which it is activated during this process are unclear. During myoblast differentiation, the promyogenic cell surface receptor Cdo binds to the p38α/β pathway scaffold protein JLP and, via JLP, p38α/β itself. We report that Cdo also interacts with Bnip-2, a protein that binds the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Cdc42 and a negative regulator of Cdc42, Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Moreover, Bnip-2 and JLP are brought together through mutual interaction with Cdo. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments with myoblasts indicate that the Cdo–Bnip-2 interaction stimulates Cdc42 activity, which in turn promotes p38α/β activity and cell differentiation. These results reveal a previously unknown linkage between a cell surface receptor and downstream modulation of Cdc42 activity. Furthermore, interaction with multiple scaffold-type proteins is a distinctive mode of cell surface receptor signaling and provides one mechanism for specificity of p38α/β activation during cell differentiation.
The impact of bacterial genetic characteristics on the outcome of patients with Staphylococcus aureus infections is uncertain. This investigation evaluated potential associations between bacterial genotype and clinical outcome using isolates collected as part of an international phase 2 clinical trial (FAST II) evaluating telavancin for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). Ninety S. aureus isolates from microbiologically evaluable patients with cSSSI enrolled in the FAST II trial from 11 sites in the United States (56 isolates, or 62%) and 7 sites in South Africa (34 isolates, or 38%) were examined for staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, agr, and the presence of 31 virulence genes and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). South African methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were more likely to carry certain virulence genes, including sdrD (P = 0.01), sea (P < 0.01), and pvl (P = 0.01). All 44 (49%) methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were from the United States; 37 (84%) were strain USA 300 by PFGE. In the United States, MRSA isolates were more likely than MSSA isolates to carry genes for sdrC (P = 0.03), map/eap (P = 0.05), fnbB (P = 0.11), tst (P = 0.02), sea (P = 0.04), sed (P = 0.04), seg (P = 0.11), sej (P = 0.11), agr (P = 0.09), V8 (P = 0.06), sdrD, sdrE, eta, etb, and see (P < 0.01 for all). MRSA isolates were more often clonal than MSSA isolates by PFGE. Isolates from patients who were cured were significantly more likely to contain the pvl gene than isolates from patients that failed or had indeterminate outcomes (79/84 [94%] versus 3/6 [50%]; P = 0.01). S. aureus strains from different geographic regions have different distributions of virulence genes.
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a common opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). Pulmonary involvement of MAC may range from asymptomatic colonization of the respiratory tract to invasive parenchymal or cavitary disease. However, endobronchial lesions with MAC infection are rare in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. Here, we report MAC infection presenting as an endobronchial mass in a patient with AIDS.
Mycobacterium avium complex; Endobronchial mass; AIDS
The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays an important role in cell differentiation, but the signaling mechanisms by which it is activated during this process are largely unknown. Cdo is an immunoglobulin superfamily member that functions as a component of multiprotein cell surface complexes to promote myogenesis. In this study, we report that the Cdo intracellular region interacts with JLP, a scaffold protein for the p38α/β MAPK pathway. Cdo, JLP, and p38α/β form complexes in differentiating myoblasts, and Cdo and JLP cooperate to enhance levels of active p38α/β in transfectants. Primary myoblasts from Cdo−/− mice, which display a defective differentiation program, are deficient in p38α/β activity, and the expression of an activated form of MKK6 (an immediate upstream activator of p38) rescues the ability of Cdo−/− cells to differentiate. These results document a novel mechanism of signaling during cell differentiation: the interaction of a MAPK scaffold protein with a cell surface receptor.
Dishevelled (Dsh) is a key component of multiple signaling pathways that are initiated by Wnt secreted ligands and Frizzled receptors during embryonic development. Although Dsh has been detected in a number of cellular compartments, the importance of its subcellular distribution for signaling remains to be determined.
We report that Dsh protein accumulates in cell nuclei when Xenopus embryonic explants or mammalian cells are incubated with inhibitors of nuclear export or when a specific nuclear-export signal (NES) in Dsh is disrupted by mutagenesis. Dsh protein with a mutated NES, while predominantly nuclear, remains fully active in its ability to stimulate canonical Wnt signaling. Conversely, point mutations in conserved amino-acid residues that are essential for the nuclear localization of Dsh impair the ability of Dsh to activate downstream targets of Wnt signaling. When these conserved residues of Dsh are replaced with an unrelated SV40 nuclear localization signal, full Dsh activity is restored. Consistent with a signaling function for Dsh in the nucleus, treatment of cultured mammalian cells with medium containing Wnt3a results in nuclear accumulation of endogenous Dsh protein.
These findings suggest that nuclear localization of Dsh is required for its function in the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We discuss the relevance of these findings to existing models of Wnt signal transduction to the nucleus.
A nested PCR and direct sequencing methods were used to define human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) reverse transcriptase codons 41 to 219 in DNA from 127 peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples obtained from 35 patients treated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). The follow-up period after the initiation of NRTI therapy was 61.8 ± 31 months (mean and standard deviation). In addition to NRTI therapy, 32 of 35 patients were simultaneously treated with Korean red ginseng. The annual decrease in the CD4+ T-cell count over 5 years was 13.2/μl. Twenty-eight (80%) of the 35 patients had mutations conferring resistance to NRTI. The frequencies of K70R, T215S/Y/F (i.e., mutation of T at codon 215 to S, Y, or F), D67N/E, K219Q, T69N/S/A, M41L, and L210W mutations conferring resistance to zidovudine were 57.6, 36.4, 36.4, 27.2, 24.2, 21.2, and 12.1%, respectively. Mutations conferring resistance to didanosine and lamivudine were detected in 2 (L74V and M184I; 14.2%) of 11 patients tested and in 4 (M184V; 57%) of 7 patients tested, respectively. In particular, the frequency of T69N/S/A increased sharply after more than 48 months of zidovudine monotherapy. However, Q151M was not detected. As the first report on the frequency of NRTI resistance mutations in Korea, our data suggest that genotypic antiretroviral drug testing should be considered for the design of better drug regimens to improve the management of HIV-1-infected patients.