In heart failure (HF) cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) is increased, which has detrimental effects on the heart and promotes arrhythmias and sudden death. There is evidence that the central renin angiotensin system plays an important role in stimulating renal SNA (RSNA) in HF. Since SNA to individual organs is differentially controlled, we have investigated whether central angiotensin receptor blockade decreases CSNA in HF. We simultaneously recorded CSNA and renal SNA (RSNA) in conscious normal sheep and in sheep with HF induced by rapid ventricular pacing (ejection fraction <40%). The effect of blockade of central angiotensin AT1R by intracerebroventricular infusion of losartan (1 mg/h for 5 hrs) on resting levels and baroreflex control of CSNA and RSNA was determined. In addition, the levels of angiotensin receptors in central autonomic nuclei were determined using autoradiography. Sheep in HF had a large increase in CSNA (43±2 to 88±3 bursts/100 heart beats, P<0.05) and heart rate, with no effect on RSNA. In HF, central infusion of losartan for 5 hours significantly reduced the baseline levels of CSNA (to 69±5 bursts/100 heart beats) and heart rate. Losartan had no effect in normal animals. In HF, angiotensin receptor levels were increased in the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus, but reduced in the area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarius. In summary, infusion of losartan reduced the elevated levels of CNSA in an ovine model of HF, indicating that central angiotensin receptors play a critical role in stimulating the increased sympathetic activity to the heart.
A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of arriving at a definitive etiologic diagnosis in goats with clinical signs referable to the spinal cord. Twenty-seven goats with a spinal cord lesion were identified. The most common lesion recognized, in 13 of 27 goats, was degenerative myelopathy. Eight goats with degenerative myelopathy were diagnosed with copper deficiency. Non-suppurative inflammation due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, necrosis due to parasite larvae migration, and neoplasia were each diagnosed 3 times. Based on these findings, it is recommended that, in addition to careful handling and histologic examination of the spinal cord, samples of other tissues, including the brain, liver, and serum, be collected for ancillary testing if warranted.
While nitrogen availability is known to limit primary production in large parts of the ocean, vitamin starvation amongst eukaryotic phytoplankton is becoming increasingly recognized as an oceanographically relevant phenomenon. Cobalamin (B12) and thiamine (B1) auxotrophy are widespread throughout eukaryotic phytoplankton, with over 50% of cultured isolates requiring B12 and 20% requiring B1. The frequency of vitamin auxotrophy in harmful algal bloom species is even higher. Instances of colimitation between nitrogen and B vitamins have been observed in marine environments, and interactions between these nutrients have been shown to impact phytoplankton species composition. This review surveys available data, including relevant gene expression patterns, to evaluate the potential for interactive effects of nitrogen and vitamin B12 and B1 starvation in eukaryotic phytoplankton. B12 plays essential roles in amino acid and one-carbon metabolism, while B1 is important for primary carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and likely useful as an anti-oxidant. Here we will focus on three potential metabolic interconnections between vitamin, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolism that may have ramifications for the role of vitamin and nitrogen scarcities in driving ocean productivity and species composition. These include: (1) B12, B1, and N starvation impacts on osmolyte and antioxidant production, (2) B12 and B1 starvation impacts on polyamine biosynthesis, and (3) influence of B12 and B1 starvation on the diatom urea cycle and amino acid recycling through impacts on the citric acid cycle. We evaluate evidence for these interconnections and identify oceanographic contexts in which each may impact rates of primary production and phytoplankton community composition. Major implications include that B12 and B1 deprivation may impair the ability of phytoplankton to recover from nitrogen starvation and that changes in vitamin and nitrogen availability may synergistically impact harmful algal bloom formation.
cobalamin; thiamine; S-adenosylmethionine; nitrogen; sulfur; urea cycle; microbial interactions; harmful algal blooms
Silicon plays important biological roles, but the mechanisms of cellular responses to silicon are poorly understood. We report the first analysis of cell cycle arrest and recovery from silicon starvation in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana using whole genome microarrays.
Three known responses to silicon were examined, 1) silicified cell wall synthesis, 2) recovery from silicon starvation, and 3) co-regulation with silicon transporter (SIT) genes. In terms of diatom cell wall formation, thus far only cell surface proteins and proteins tightly associated with silica have been characterized. Our analysis has identified new genes potentially involved in silica formation, and other genes potentially involved in signaling, trafficking, protein degradation, glycosylation and transport, which provides a larger-scale picture of the processes involved. During silicon starvation, an overrepresentation of transcription and translation related genes were up-regulated, indicating that T. pseudonana is poised to rapidly recover from silicon starvation and resume cell cycle progression upon silicon replenishment. This is in contrast to other types of limitation, and provides the first molecular data explaining the well-established environmental response of diatoms to grow as blooms and to out-compete other classes of microalgae for growth. Comparison of our data with a previous diatom cell cycle analysis indicates that assignment of the cell cycle specific stage of particular cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases should be re-evaluated. Finally, genes co-varying in expression with the SITs enabled identification of a new class of diatom-specific proteins containing a unique domain, and a putative silicon efflux protein.
Analysis of the T. pseudonana microarray data has provided a wealth of new genes to investigate previously uncharacterized cellular phenomenon related to silicon metabolism, silicon’s interaction with cellular components, and environmental responses to silicon.
Cell cycle; Cell wall; Diatom; Microarray; Silicon efflux; Silicon metabolism; Silicon transporter; Synchrony; Thalassiosira pseudonana; Transcriptomics
Metagenomic samples from oceans around the globe were used to examine the biogeography of the dominant marine heterotrophic bacterial clade, SAR11. Analysis uncovers evidence of adaptive radiation in response to environmental parameters, particularly temperature.
By generating 37 new Antarctic metagenomes and analysing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the SAR11 clade in a total of 128 surface marine metagenomes, we identified phylotype distributions that strongly correlated with temperature and latitude.By assembling SAR11 genomes from Antarctic metagenome data, we identified specific genes, biases in gene functions and signatures of positive selection in the genomes of the polar SAR11—genomic signatures of adaptive radiation.Our data demonstrate the importance of adaptive radiation in an organism's ability to proliferate throughout the world's oceans, and describe genomic traits characteristic of different phylotypes in specific marine biomes.These bacteria are important marine heterotrophs and have a fundamental role in oceanic nutrient cycling. These findings, therefore, have important implications for our ability to predict how changes in ocean temperature may affect bacterial ecology.
The ubiquitous SAR11 bacterial clade is the most abundant type of organism in the world's oceans, but the reasons for its success are not fully elucidated. We analysed 128 surface marine metagenomes, including 37 new Antarctic metagenomes. The large size of the data set enabled internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions to be obtained from the Southern polar region, enabling the first global characterization of the distribution of SAR11, from waters spanning temperatures −2 to 30°C. Our data show a stable co-occurrence of phylotypes within both ‘tropical' (>20°C) and ‘polar' (<10°C) biomes, highlighting ecological niche differentiation between major SAR11 subgroups. All phylotypes display transitions in abundance that are strongly correlated with temperature and latitude. By assembling SAR11 genomes from Antarctic metagenome data, we identified specific genes, biases in gene functions and signatures of positive selection in the genomes of the polar SAR11—genomic signatures of adaptive radiation. Our data demonstrate the importance of adaptive radiation in the organism's ability to proliferate throughout the world's oceans, and describe genomic traits characteristic of different phylotypes in specific marine biomes.
adaptive radiation; Antarctica; metagenome; Pelagibacter; phylotype distribution
We provide here a comparative genome analysis of ten strains within the Pseudomonas fluorescens group including seven new genomic sequences. These strains exhibit a diverse spectrum of traits involved in biological control and other multitrophic interactions with plants, microbes, and insects. Multilocus sequence analysis placed the strains in three sub-clades, which was reinforced by high levels of synteny, size of core genomes, and relatedness of orthologous genes between strains within a sub-clade. The heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens group was reflected in the large size of its pan-genome, which makes up approximately 54% of the pan-genome of the genus as a whole, and a core genome representing only 45–52% of the genome of any individual strain. We discovered genes for traits that were not known previously in the strains, including genes for the biosynthesis of the siderophores achromobactin and pseudomonine and the antibiotic 2-hexyl-5-propyl-alkylresorcinol; novel bacteriocins; type II, III, and VI secretion systems; and insect toxins. Certain gene clusters, such as those for two type III secretion systems, are present only in specific sub-clades, suggesting vertical inheritance. Almost all of the genes associated with multitrophic interactions map to genomic regions present in only a subset of the strains or unique to a specific strain. To explore the evolutionary origin of these genes, we mapped their distributions relative to the locations of mobile genetic elements and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) elements in each genome. The mobile genetic elements and many strain-specific genes fall into regions devoid of REP elements (i.e., REP deserts) and regions displaying atypical tri-nucleotide composition, possibly indicating relatively recent acquisition of these loci. Collectively, the results of this study highlight the enormous heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens group and the importance of the variable genome in tailoring individual strains to their specific lifestyles and functional repertoire.
We sequenced the genomes of seven strains of the Pseudomonas fluorescens group that colonize plant surfaces and function as biological control agents, protecting plants from disease. In this study, we demonstrated the genomic diversity of the group by comparing these strains to each other and to three other strains that were sequenced previously. Only about half of the genes in each strain are present in all of the other strains, and each strain has hundreds of unique genes that are not present in the other genomes. We mapped the genes that contribute to biological control in each genome and found that most of the biological control genes are in the variable regions of the genome, which are not shared by all of the other strains. This finding is consistent with our knowledge of the distinctive biology of each strain. Finally, we looked for new genes that are likely to confer antimicrobial traits needed to suppress plant pathogens, but have not been identified previously. In each genome, we discovered many of these new genes, which provide avenues for future discovery of new traits with the potential to manage plant diseases in agriculture or natural ecosystems.
Metagenomic data sets were generated from samples collected along a coastal to open ocean transect between Southern California Bight and California Current waters during a seasonal upwelling event, providing an opportunity to examine the impact of episodic pulses of cold nutrient-rich water into surface ocean microbial communities. The data set consists of ∼5.8 million predicted proteins across seven sites, from three different size classes: 0.1–0.8, 0.8–3.0 and 3.0–200.0 μm. Taxonomic and metabolic analyses suggest that sequences from the 0.1–0.8 μm size class correlated with their position along the upwelling mosaic. However, taxonomic profiles of bacteria from the larger size classes (0.8–200 μm) were less constrained by habitat and characterized by an increase in Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Flavobacteria and double-stranded DNA viral sequences. Functional annotation of transmembrane proteins indicate that sites comprised of organisms with small genomes have an enrichment of transporters with substrate specificities for amino acids, iron and cadmium, whereas organisms with larger genomes have a higher percentage of transporters for ammonium and potassium. Eukaryotic-type glutamine synthetase (GS) II proteins were identified and taxonomically classified as viral, most closely related to the GSII in Mimivirus, suggesting that marine Mimivirus-like particles may have played a role in the transfer of GSII gene functions. Additionally, a Planctomycete bloom was sampled from one upwelling site providing a rare opportunity to assess the genomic composition of a marine Planctomycete population. The significant correlations observed between genomic properties, community structure and nutrient availability provide insights into habitat-driven dynamics among oligotrophic versus upwelled marine waters adjoining each other spatially.
marine; metagenomics; upwelling; California Current
A recent study explores the genome content of uncultured unicellular marine eukaryotes and provides insights about interactions between uncultured eukaryotes and other biological entities.
Control of Johne’s disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, has been difficult because of a lack of an effective vaccine. To address this problem we used targeted gene disruption to develop candidate mutants with impaired capacity to survive ex vivo and in vivo to test as a vaccine. We selected relA and pknG, genes known to be important virulence factors in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, for initial studies. Deletion mutants were made in a wild type Map (K10) and its recombinant strain expressing the green fluorescent protein (K10-GFP). Comparison of survival in an ex vivo assay revealed deletion of either gene attenuated survival in monocyte-derived macrophages compared to survival of wild-type K10. In contrast, study in calves revealed survival in vivo was mainly affected by deletion of relA. Bacteria were detected in tissues from wild-type and the pknG mutant infected calves by bacterial culture and PCR at three months post infection. No bacteria were detected in tissues from calves infected with the relA mutant (P < 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis of the immune response to the wild-type K10-GFP and the mutant strains showed deletion of either gene did not affect their capacity to elicit a strong proliferative response to soluble antigen extract or live Map. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed genes encoding IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-22, T-bet, RORC, and granulysin were up-regulated in PBMC stimulated with live Map three months post infection compared to the response of PBMC pre-infection. A challenge study in kid goats showed deletion of pknG did not interfere with establishment of an infection. As in calves, deletion of relA attenuated survival in vivo. The mutant also elicited an immune response that limited colonization by challenge wild type Map. The findings show the relA mutant is a good candidate for development of a live attenuated vaccine for Johne’s disease.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis; Johne’s disease; paratuberculosis; Crohn’s disease; live vaccine
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. We developed a bovine ileal cannulation model to facilitate comparison of the immune response to Map and the mechanisms of pathogenesis in cattle and humans. Initial studies showed a T cannula could be maintained for up to a year in calves without inducing inflammation or adversely affecting intestinal function. Map introduced through the cannula established a persistent low level of infection without inflammation. Infection elicited an immune response to Map antigens detectable by flow cytometry. Further studies now show the cannulation model can be used with cows during the later stage of infection, affording access to the target tissue at all stages of infection. The studies also revealed no difference in infectivity or immunogenicity of isolates of Map obtained from cattle or humans with CD. Comparison of the immune response to Map during the early and late stages of infection using PCR, flow cytometry and QRT-PCR, showed the immune response early in the disease process is dominated by CD4 T cells. A CD8 response is delayed but comparable at later stages of infection. Genes for pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and the recently identified genes encoding IL-17 and IL-22 are up regulated in infected animals. These findings reveal that both human and bovine isolates of Map can establish infection and induce similar immune responses in a bovine model. They also reveal the cytokine responses elicited in cattle are similar to those implicated in CD pathogenesis.
Crohn's disease; Johne's disease; Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis; animal model; flow cytometry; cytokines
Exposure to Staphylococcus aureus has a variety of outcomes, from asymptomatic colonization to fatal infection. Strong evidence suggests that host genetics play an important role in susceptibility, but the specific host genetic factors involved are not known. The availability of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for inbred Mus musculus strains means that haplotype association mapping can be used to identify candidate susceptibility genes. We applied haplotype association mapping to Perlegen SNP data and kidney bacterial counts from Staphylococcus aureus-infected mice from 13 inbred strains and detected an associated block on chromosome 7. Strong experimental evidence supports the result: a separate study demonstrated the presence of a susceptibility locus on chromosome 7 using consomic mice. The associated block contains no genes, but lies within the gene cluster of the 26-member extended kallikrein gene family, whose members have well-recognized roles in the generation of antimicrobial peptides and the regulation of inflammation. Efficient mixed-model association (EMMA) testing of all SNPs with two alleles and located within the gene cluster boundaries finds two significant associations: one of the three polymorphisms defining the associated block and one in the gene closest to the block, Klk1b11. In addition, we find that 7 of the 26 kallikrein genes are differentially expressed between susceptible and resistant mice, including the Klk1b11 gene. These genes represent a promising set of candidate genes influencing susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus.
host genetic susceptibility; infectious disease; kallikrein gene family
Hypertension affects more than 1.5 billion people worldwide but the precise cause of elevated blood pressure (BP) cannot be determined in most affected individuals. Nonetheless, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) lowers BP in the majority of patients with hypertension. Despite its apparent role in hypertension pathogenesis, the key cellular targets of the RAS that control BP have not been clearly identified. Here we demonstrate that RAS actions in the epithelium of the proximal tubule have a critical and non-redundant role in determining the level of BP. Abrogation of AT1 angiotensin receptor signaling in the proximal tubule alone is sufficient to lower BP, despite intact vascular responses. Elimination of this pathway reduces proximal fluid reabsorption and alters expression of key sodium transporters, modifying pressure-natriuresis and providing substantial protection against hypertension. Thus, effectively targeting epithelial functions of the proximal tubule of the kidney should be a useful therapeutic strategy in hypertension.
The stratification score for a case-control study is the probability of disease modeled as a function of potential confounders. The authors show that the stratification score is a retrospective balancing score and thus plays a similar role in case-control studies as the propensity score plays in prospective studies. The authors further show how standardization using the stratification score can be used to compare the distributions of exposures that would be found among case and control participants if both groups had the same distribution of confounding covariables. The authors illustrate these results using data from a genome-wide association study, the GAIN (Genetic Association Information Network) study of schizophrenia among African Americans (2006–2008).
case-control studies; confounding factors (epidemiology); epidemiologic methods; genome-wide association study; propensity score; schizophrenia; standardization; stratification
Currently there is a great deal of interest in developing methods for testing the role that rare variation plays in disease development. Here we propose a weighted association test that accumulates genetic variation across a signaling pathway. We evaluate our approach by analyzing simulated phenotype data from an exome sequencing study of 697 unrelated individuals from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 (GAW17) data set. Although our weighted approach identifies several interesting pathways associated with phenotype Q1, so does an alternative unweighted accumulation approach. Such a result is not unexpected because there is no systematic relationship between the allele frequency of a variant and its effect on phenotype in the GAW17 simulation model.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) aim to genotype enough single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to effectively capture common genetic variants across the genome. Even though the number of SNPs genotyped in such studies can exceed a million, there is still interest in testing association with SNPs that were not genotyped in the study sample. Analyses of such untyped SNPs can assist in signal localization, permit cross-platform integration of samples from separate studies, and can improve power – especially for rarer SNPs. External information on a larger collection of SNPs from an appropriate reference panel, comprising both SNPs typed in the sample and the untyped SNPs we wish to test for association, is necessary for an untyped variant analysis to proceed. Linkage disequilibrium patterns observed in the reference panel are then used to infer the likely genotype at the untyped SNPs in the study sample. We propose here a novel statistical approach for testing untyped SNPs in case-control GWAS, based on an efficient score function derived from a prospective likelihood, that automatically accounts for the variability in the process of estimating the untyped variant. Computationally efficient methods of phasing can be used without affecting the validity of the test, and simple measures of haplotype sharing can be used to infer genotypes at the untyped SNPs, making our approach computationally much faster than existing approaches for untyped analysis. At the same time, we show, using simulated data, that our approach often has performance nearly equivalent to hidden Markov methods of untyped analysis. The software package ‘untyped’ is available to implement our approach.
Genotype imputation; Genome-wide association study; Efficient score; Case-control study
Diatoms and other chlorophyll-c containing, or chromalveolate, algae are among the most productive and diverse phytoplankton in the ocean. Evolutionarily, chlorophyll-c algae are linked through common, although not necessarily monophyletic, acquisition of plastid endosymbionts of red as well as most likely green algal origin. There is also strong evidence for a relatively high level of lineage-specific bacterial gene acquisition within chromalveolates. Therefore, analyses of gene content and derivation in chromalveolate taxa have indicated particularly diverse origins of their overall gene repertoire. As a single group of functionally related enzymes spanning two distinct gene families, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs) illustrate the influence on core biochemical pathways of specific evolutionary associations among diatoms and other chromalveolates with various plastid-bearing and bacterial endosymbionts. Protein localization and activity, gene expression, and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum contains five FBA genes with very little overall functional overlap. Three P. tricornutum FBAs, one class I and two class II, are plastid localized, and each appears to have a distinct evolutionary origin as well as function. Class I plastid FBA appears to have been acquired by chromalveolates from a red algal endosymbiont, whereas one copy of class II plastid FBA is likely to have originated from an ancient green algal endosymbiont. The other copy appears to be the result of a chromalveolate-specific gene duplication. Plastid FBA I and chromalveolate-specific class II plastid FBA are localized in the pyrenoid region of the chloroplast where they are associated with β-carbonic anhydrase, which is known to play a significant role in regulation of the diatom carbon concentrating mechanism. The two pyrenoid-associated FBAs are distinguished by contrasting gene expression profiles under nutrient limiting compared with optimal CO2 fixation conditions, suggestive of a distinct specialized function for each. Cytosolically localized FBAs in P. tricornutum likely play a role in glycolysis and cytoskeleton function and seem to have originated from the stramenopile host cell and from diatom-specific bacterial gene transfer, respectively.
carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM); carbon metabolism; carbonic anhydrase; diatom; fructose bisphosphate aldolase; pyrenoid
This study presents the first characterization of endogenous small RNAs in a diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana. Small RNAs act as transcriptional and translational regulators, controlling specific target genes involved in various cellular functions. Diatoms are unicellular photosynthetic organisms that play major roles in environmental processes, such as food webs and global carbon fixation. Small RNA cDNA libraries were constructed for exponentially growing T. pseudonana, and then subjected to highly parallel pyrosequencing (454) and sequencing-by-ligation (Applied Biosystems SOLiD). From the computational analysis of approximately 300,000 sequences in the 454 library and over 17 million sequences in the SOLiD libraries, there exists evidence of a core set of small RNA genes including: novel microRNAs, repeat-associated short interfering RNAs, and endogenous short interfering RNAs. The diatom genome contains elements similar to plant small RNA systems, such as the RNAi machinery, a high percentage of short interfering RNAs originating from protein-coding and repetitive regions of the genome, and putative binding sites of the small RNAs occurring primarily in the coding section of the predicted targets. The characterization of the small RNA transcriptome of T. pseudonana establishes the possibility of a wide range of gene regulatory mechanisms in diatoms.
Aging is believed to be among the most important contributors to atherosclerosis, through mechanisms that remain largely obscure. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) rise with aging and have been correlated with the incidence of myocardial infarction. We therefore sought to determine whether genetic variation in the TNF receptor-1 gene (TNFR1) contributes to aging-related atherosclerosis in humans and whether Tnfr1 expression aggravates aging-related atherosclerosis in mice. With 1330 subjects from a coronary angiography database, we performed a case–control association study of coronary artery disease (CAD) with 16 TNFR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two TNFR1 SNPs significantly associated with CAD in subjects >55 years old, and this association was supported by analysis of a set of 759 independent CAD cases. In multiple linear regression analysis, accounting for TNFR1 SNP rs4149573 significantly altered the relationship between aging and CAD index among 1811 subjects from the coronary angiography database. To confirm that TNFR1 contributes to aging-dependent atherosclerosis, we grafted carotid arteries from 18- and 2-month-old wild-type (WT) and Tnfr1−/− mice into congenic apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe−/−) mice and harvested grafts from 1 to 7 weeks post-operatively. Aged WT arteries developed accelerated atherosclerosis associated with enhanced TNFR1 expression, enhanced macrophage recruitment, reduced smooth muscle cell proliferation and collagen content, augmented apoptosis and plaque hemorrhage. In contrast, aged Tnfr1−/− arteries developed atherosclerosis that was indistinguishable from that in young Tnfr1−/− arteries and significantly less than that observed in aged WT arteries. We conclude that TNFR1 polymorphisms associate with aging-related CAD in humans, and TNFR1 contributes to aging-dependent atherosclerosis in mice.
Chromatin-modifying enzymes play a fundamental role in regulating chromatin structure so that DNA replication is spatially and temporally coordinated. For example, the lysine demethylase 4A/Jumonji domain-containing 2A (KDM4A/JMJD2A) is tightly regulated during the cell cycle. Overexpression of JMJD2A leads to altered replication timing and faster S phase progression. In this study, we demonstrate that degradation of JMJD2A is regulated by the proteasome. JMJD2A turnover is coordinated through the SKP1-Cul1-F-box ubiquitin ligase complex that contains cullin 1 and the F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 4 (FbxL4). This complex interacted with JMJD2A. Ubiquitin overexpression restored turnover and blocked the JMJD2A-dependent faster S phase progression in a cullin 1-dependent manner. Furthermore, increased ubiquitin levels decreased JMJD2A occupancy and BrdU incorporation at target sites. This study highlights a finely tuned mechanism for regulating histone demethylase levels and emphasizes the need to tightly regulate chromatin modifiers so that the cell cycle occurs properly.
Chromatin; DNA Replication; E3 Ubiquitin Ligase; Ubiquitin; Ubiquitination; Histone Demethylase; Histone Tri-demethylase; JMJD2A; Jmjc; KDM4A
Summary: Here we present Sequence Variant Analyzer (SVA), a software tool that assigns a predicted biological function to variants identified in next-generation sequencing studies and provides a browser to visualize the variants in their genomic contexts. SVA also provides for flexible interaction with software implementing variant association tests allowing users to consider both the bioinformatic annotation of identified variants and the strength of their associations with studied traits. We illustrate the annotation features of SVA using two simple examples of sequenced genomes that harbor Mendelian mutations.
Availability and implementation: Freely available on the web at http://www.svaproject.org.
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Increased sympathetic tone in obstructive sleep apnoea results from recurrent episodes of systemic hypoxia and hypercapnia and might be an important contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we re-evaluated the role of a specific population of sympathoexcitatory catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata in the control of sympathetic vasomotor tone, arterial blood pressure, and hypercapnia-evoked sympathetic and cardiovascular responses.
Methods and results
In anaesthetized rats in vivo and perfused rat working heart brainstem preparations in situ, C1 neurones were acutely silenced by application of the insect peptide allatostatin following cell-specific targeting with a lentiviral vector to express the inhibitory Drosophila allatostatin receptor. In anaesthetized rats with denervated peripheral chemoreceptors, acute inhibition of 50% of the C1 neuronal population resulted in ∼50% reduction in renal sympathetic nerve activity and a profound fall in arterial blood pressure (by ∼25 mmHg). However, under these conditions systemic hypercapnia still evoked vigorous sympathetic activation and the slopes of the CO2-evoked sympathoexcitatory and cardiovascular responses were not affected by inhibition of C1 neurones. Inhibition of C1 neurones in situ resulted in a reversible fall in perfusion pressure and the amplitude of respiratory-related bursts of thoracic sympathetic nerve activity.
These data confirm a fundamental physiological role of medullary catecholaminergic C1 neurones in maintaining resting sympathetic vasomotor tone and arterial blood pressure. However, C1 neurones do not appear to mediate sympathoexcitation evoked by central actions of CO2.
Sympathetic; Arterial blood pressure; Obstructive sleep apnoea; Hypercapnia; Lentivirus
Three cases of penetrating metallic foreign bodies causing peritonitis in horses are reported. These cases were presented with varying clinical complaints and duration of clinical signs. Entry of foreign bodies into the abdominal cavity through the skin and body wall is reported for the first time.
Sarcoids are the most common tumor of the equine skin but only 1 study describing the epidemiology of sarcoids in Canadian horses has been published. The records of 5 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in western Canada were searched to identify submissions of sarcoids from horses. The submission records and diagnostic reports of 802 separate submissions of equine sarcoids were reviewed for age, breed, and gender of the horse and the number, location, and clinical type of sarcoid. From these records, the 307 submissions to laboratories in Saskatchewan were compared to a reference group to test for breed and gender predisposition. Based on clinical history and lesion descriptions, 5 clinical types of sarcoids were identified. Horses of various ages and 23 equine breeds were affected; donkeys were over-represented. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from a stratified subset of 96 of the different clinical types; BPV2 was present in 60 of 74 (81%) for which a PCR product was obtained. Unlike other areas in the world, in western Canada, equine sarcoids are most commonly associated with BPV type 2.