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1.  A randomized trial of the efficacy and safety of sequential intravenous/oral moxifloxacin monotherapy versus intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate for complicated skin and skin structure infections 
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy  2011;66(11):2632-2642.
The primary aim of the RELIEF study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two sequential intravenous (iv)/oral regimens: moxifloxacin iv/oral versus piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) iv followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC).
Patients and methods
The study had a prospective, randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, multicentre design. Patients ≥18 years were prospectively stratified according to complicated skin and skin structure infection (cSSSI) subtype/diagnosis (major abscess, diabetic foot infection, wound infection or infected ischaemic ulcer), surgical intervention and severity of illness. Diagnoses and disease severity were based on predetermined criteria, documented by repeated photographs, and confirmed by an independent data review committee. Patients were randomized to receive either 400 mg of moxifloxacin iv once daily followed by 400 mg of moxifloxacin orally once daily or 4.0/0.5 g of TZP iv thrice daily followed by 875/125 mg of AMC orally twice daily for 7–21 days. The primary efficacy variable was clinical response at test of cure (TOC) for the per-protocol (PP) population. Clinical efficacy was assessed by the data review committee based on repeated photographs and case descriptions. Clinical trials registry number: NCT 00402727.
A total of 813 patients were randomized. Clinical success rates at TOC were similar for moxifloxacin and TZP–AMC in the PP [320/361 (88.6%) versus 275/307 (89.6%), respectively; P = 0.758] and intent-to-treat (ITT) [350/426 (82.2%) versus 305/377 (80.9%), respectively; P = 0.632] populations. Thus, moxifloxacin was non-inferior to TZP–AMC. Bacteriological success rates were high in both treatment arms [moxifloxacin: 432/497 (86.9%) versus TZP–AMC: 370/429 (86.2%), microbiologically valid (MBV) population]. Moxifloxacin was non-inferior to TZP–AMC at TOC in both the MBV and the ITT populations. Both treatments were well tolerated.
Once-daily iv/oral moxifloxacin monotherapy was clinically and bacteriologically non-inferior to iv TZP thrice daily followed by oral AMC twice daily in patients with cSSSIs.
PMCID: PMC3191944  PMID: 21896561
β-lactams; randomized controlled trials; soft tissue infections; fluoroquinolones; sequential therapy
2.  Associations between the Genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Isolates and Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Bacteremic Patients ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(9):2890-2896.
We investigated associations between the genotypic and phenotypic features of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates and the clinical characteristics of bacteremic patients enrolled in a phase III trial of S. aureus bacteremia and endocarditis. Isolates underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR for 33 putative virulence genes, and screening for heteroresistant glycopeptide intermediate S. aureus (hGISA). A total of 230 isolates (141 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and 89 methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) were analyzed. North American and European S. aureus isolates differed in their genotypic characteristics. Overall, 26% of the MRSA bloodstream isolates were USA 300 strains. Patients with USA 300 MRSA bacteremia were more likely to be injection drug users (61% versus 15%; P < 0.001), to have right-sided endocarditis (39% versus 9%; P = 0.002), and to be cured of right-sided endocarditis (100% versus 33%; P = 0.01) than patients with non-USA 300 MRSA bacteremia. Patients with persistent bacteremia were less likely to be infected with Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl)-constitutive MRSA (19% versus 56%; P = 0.005). Although 7 of 89 MRSA isolates (8%) exhibited the hGISA phenotype, no association with persistent bacteremia, daptomycin resistance, or bacterial genotype was observed. This study suggests that the virulence gene profiles of S. aureus bloodstream isolates from North America and Europe differ significantly. In this study of bloodstream isolates collected as part of a multinational randomized clinical trial, USA 300 and pvl-constitutive MRSA strains were associated with better clinical outcomes.
PMCID: PMC2546778  PMID: 18596141
3.  Evaluation of Endocarditis Caused by Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Developing Nonsusceptibility to Daptomycin▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2007;46(1):220-224.
We examined sequential methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a patient with mitral valve endocarditis recovered during persistent bacteremia on standard therapy and relapse after treatment with daptomycin. An isolate obtained after 5 days of antimicrobial therapy, but before exposure to daptomycin, showed subtle physiological changes in response to daptomycin, with significant regrowth in the daptomycin killing assay compared to the treatment-naive strain. Once daptomycin was started, the population became more heterogeneous and tested as nonsusceptible. These organisms were examined in a simulated-vegetation in vitro pharmacodynamic model, which confirmed progressive decreases in killing with daptomycin concentrations that simulate those attained in humans with 6-mg/kg of body weight daily dosing. Early surgical intervention or combination therapy or both might have prevented the loss of daptomycin susceptibility.
PMCID: PMC2224245  PMID: 18003803
4.  Bactericidal Action of Daptomycin against Stationary-Phase and Nondividing Staphylococcus aureus Cells▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2007;51(12):4255-4260.
Most antibiotics with bactericidal activity require that the bacteria be actively dividing to produce rapid killing. However, in many infections, such as endocarditis, prosthetic joint infections, and infected embedded catheters, the bacteria divide slowly or not at all. Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic with a distinct mechanism of action that targets the cytoplasmic membrane of gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus. Daptomycin is rapidly bactericidal against exponentially growing bacteria (a 3-log reduction in 60 min). The objectives of this study were to determine if daptomycin is bactericidal against nondividing S. aureus and to quantify the extent of the bactericidal activity. In high-inoculum methicillin-sensitive S. aureus cultures in stationary phase (1010 CFU/ml), daptomycin displayed concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, requiring 32 μg/ml to achieve a 3-log reduction. In a study comparing several antibiotics at 100 μg/ml, daptomycin demonstrated faster bactericidal activity than nafcillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and vancomycin. In experiments where bacterial cell growth was halted by the metabolic inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone or erythromycin, daptomycin (10 μg/ml) achieved the bactericidal end point (a 3-log reduction) within 2 h. In contrast, ciprofloxacin (10 μg/ml) did not produce bactericidal activity. Daptomycin (2 μg/ml) remained bactericidal against cold-arrested S. aureus, which was protected from the actions of ciprofloxacin and nafcillin. The data presented here suggest that, in contrast to that of other classes of antibiotics, the bactericidal activity of daptomycin does not require cell division or active metabolism, most likely as a consequence of its direct action on the bacterial membrane.
PMCID: PMC2167999  PMID: 17923487
5.  Rapid Bactericidal Activity of Daptomycin against Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Peritonitis in Mice as Measured with Bioluminescent Bacteria▿  
The rising rates of antibiotic resistance accentuate the critical need for new antibiotics. Daptomycin is a new antibiotic with a unique mode of action and a rapid in vitro bactericidal effect against gram-positive organisms. This study examined the kinetics of daptomycin's bactericidal action against peritonitis caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in healthy and neutropenic mice and compared this activity with those of other commonly used antibiotics. CD-1 mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with lethal doses of MSSA (Xen-29) or MRSA (Xen-1), laboratory strains transformed with a plasmid containing the lux operon, which confers bioluminescence. One hour later, the animals were given a single dose of daptomycin at 50 mg/kg of body weight subcutaneously (s.c.), nafcillin at 100 mg/kg s.c., vancomycin at 100 mg/kg s.c., linezolid at 100 mg/kg via gavage (orally), or saline (10 ml/kg s.c.). The mice were anesthetized hourly, and photon emissions from living bioluminescent bacteria were imaged and quantified. The luminescence in saline-treated control mice either increased (neutropenic mice) or remained relatively unchanged (healthy mice). In contrast, by 2 to 3 h postdosing, daptomycin effected a 90% reduction of luminescence of MSSA or MRSA in both healthy and neutropenic mice. The activity of daptomycin against both MSSA and MRSA strains was superior to those of nafcillin, vancomycin, and linezolid. Against MSSA peritonitis, daptomycin showed greater and more rapid bactericidal activity than nafcillin or linezolid. Against MRSA peritonitis, daptomycin showed greater and more rapid bactericidal activity than vancomycin or linezolid. The rapid decrease in the luminescent signal in the daptomycin-treated neutropenic mice underscores the potency of this antibiotic against S. aureus in the immune-suppressed host.
PMCID: PMC1855546  PMID: 17307984
6.  Genetic Changes That Correlate with Reduced Susceptibility to Daptomycin in Staphylococcus aureus 
Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic with potent activity against gram-positive bacteria. Complete-genome comparisons of laboratory-derived Staphylococcus aureus with decreased susceptibility to daptomycin and their susceptible parent were used to identify genes that contribute to reduced susceptibility to daptomycin. Selective pressure of growth in sublethal concentrations of daptomycin resulted in the accumulation of mutations over time correlating with incremental decreases in susceptibility. Single point mutations resulting in amino acid substitutions occurred in three distinct proteins: MprF, a lysylphosphatidylglycerol synthetase; YycG, a histidine kinase; and RpoB and RpoC, the β and β′ subunits of RNA polymerase. Sequence analysis of mprF, yycF, yycG, rpoB, and rpoC in clinical isolates that showed treatment-emergent increases in daptomycin MICs revealed point mutations in mprF and a nucleotide insertion in yycG, suggesting a role for these genes in decreased susceptibility to daptomycin in the hospital setting.
PMCID: PMC1479123  PMID: 16723576
7.  Induction of Daptomycin Heterogeneous Susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus by Exposure to Vancomycin 
We studied vancomycin and daptomycin susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from patients exposed to vancomycin, glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus, and S. aureus passaged in vancomycin-containing medium. A correlation between vancomycin and daptomycin heteroresistance was noted in some strains, suggesting that exposure of S. aureus to vancomycin may affect susceptibility to daptomycin.
PMCID: PMC1426932  PMID: 16569891
8.  Analysis of Daptomycin Efficacy and Breakpoint Standards in a Murine Model of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Renal Infection 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2003;47(11):3561-3566.
Daptomycin efficacy against clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and a lab-derived daptomycin-resistant isolate of E. faecalis was investigated in a mouse model of renal infection. The daptomycin MICs against these enterococci ranged from 0.5 to 50 μg/ml. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the MICs of drugs against E. faecalis and E. faecium and the level of daptomycin exposure needed to evaluate the drug's efficacy. Correlating the required therapeutic exposures of mice with the exposures achieved clinically allowed us to project enterococcal breakpoint values. Mice pretreated with carrageenan were infected intravenously with 3 × 108 to 4 × 108 CFU of E. faecalis or E. faecium. Daptomycin (5 to 50 mg of drug/kg of body weight) or saline control was administered 4 h postinfection and continued once daily for 2 days (three total doses). On day 4, infected kidneys were harvested, homogenized, and dilution plated. Efficacy was defined as a ≥2-log10 (99%) reduction in bacterial burden in infected kidneys. At clinically relevant dosages and exposures (area under the curve, 400 to 600 μg · hr/ml), daptomycin demonstrated similar and marked efficacy against all clinical enterococcal isolates tested. Daptomycin achieved efficacy with comparable doses against both vancomycin-sensitive (MIC, ≤4 μg/ml) and -resistant enterococcal strains tested. Efficacy was also established against the lab-derived daptomycin-resistant E. faecalis isolate. In this murine renal infection model, clinically relevant exposures of daptomycin were effective against E. faecalis and E. faecium strains for which MICs were ≤8 μg/ml. These murine efficacy data for daptomycin, along with surveillance data and human pharmacokinetic exposures achieved, suggest a breakpoint concentration value of ≤8 μg/ml (susceptible) and ≥16 μg/ml (resistant) for daptomycin against E. faecium and E. faecalis.
PMCID: PMC253759  PMID: 14576118
9.  Efficacy of Daptomycin in Experimental Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is becoming increasingly prevalent as both a nosocomial and a community-acquired pathogen. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic now in phase III clinical trials, is rapidly bactericidal in vitro against a range of gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In this study, we compared the efficacy of daptomycin with that of vancomycin, each with or without rifampin, in a model of experimental aortic valve endocarditis due to MRSA. The infecting strain (MRSA strain 32) was susceptible to daptomycin (MIC = 1 μg/ml), vancomycin (MIC = 0.5 μg/ml), and rifampin (MIC = 0.5 μg/ml). Daptomycin was administered at 25 or 40 mg/kg q24h (q24h) by subcutaneous injection in an attempt to simulate human doses of 4 and 6 mg/kg q24h, respectively. Vancomycin was given at 150 mg/kg q24h by continuous intravenous infusion. Rifampin was given at 25 mg/kg by intramuscular injection q24h. Treatment was started 6 h postinoculation and continued for 4.5 days. Outcome was assessed by counting the residual viable bacteria in vegetations. The mean peak daptomycin levels in serum at 2 h after subcutaneous administration of 25 and 40 mg/kg were 64 and 91 μg/ml, respectively. Daptomycin was undetectable in serum at 24 h. The total exposure was comparable to that achieved clinically in humans receiving the drug. Bacterial counts (mean log10 number of CFU per gram ± the standard deviation) in untreated controls reached 10.6 ± 0.8. In treated rats, bacterial counts were as follows: vancomycin, 7.1 ± 2.5; daptomycin at 25 mg/kg, 5.5 ± 1.7; daptomycin at 40 mg/kg, 4.2 ± 1.5. The difference between daptomycin at 40 mg/kg and vancomycin at 150 mg/kg was statistically significant (P = 0.004). In the study of combination therapy, vegetation bacterial counts were as follows: daptomycin at 40 mg/kg, 4.6 ± 1.6; rifampin, 3.6 ± 1.3; vancomycin plus rifampin, 3.3 ± 1.1; daptomycin plus rifampin, 2.9 ± 0.8. The difference between daptomycin and daptomycin plus rifampin was statistically significant (P = 0.006). These results support the continued evaluation of daptomycin for serious MRSA infections, including infective endocarditis.
PMCID: PMC153308  PMID: 12709345
10.  Moxifloxacin versus amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in outpatient acute exacerbations of COPD: MAESTRAL results 
Bacterial infections causing acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) frequently require antibacterial treatment. More evidence is needed to guide antibiotic choice.
The Moxifloxacin in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis TriaL (MAESTRAL) was a multiregional, randomised, double-blind non-inferiority outpatient study. Patients were aged ≥60 yrs, with an Anthonisen type I exacerbation, a forced expiratory volume in 1 s <60% predicted and two or more exacerbations in the last year. Following stratification by steroid use patients received moxifloxacin 400 mg p.o. q.d. (5 days) or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 875/125 mg p.o. b.i.d. (7 days). The primary end-point was clinical failure 8 weeks post-therapy in the per protocol population.
Moxifloxacin was noninferior to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid at the primary end-point (111 (20.6%) out of 538, versus 114 (22.0%) out of 518, respectively; 95% CI -5.89–3.83%). In patients with confirmed bacterial AECOPD, moxifloxacin led to significantly lower clinical failure rates than amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (in the intent-to-treat with pathogens, 62 (19.0%) out of 327 versus 85 (25.4%) out of 335, respectively; p=0.016). Confirmed bacterial eradication at end of therapy was associated with higher clinical cure rates at 8 weeks post-therapy overall (p=0.0014) and for moxifloxacin (p=0.003). Patients treated with oral corticosteroids had more severe disease and higher failure rates.
The MAESTRAL study showed that moxifloxacin was as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of outpatients with AECOPD. Both therapies were well tolerated.
PMCID: PMC3393767  PMID: 22135277
Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; amoxicillin/clavulanic acid; antibiotic; clinical trial design; exacerbation; moxifloxacin

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