To assess the association of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) with radiological evidence of head injury (the Abbreviated Injury Scale for the head region, AIS-HR) in young children hospitalized with traumatic head injury (THI), and the predictive value of GCS and AIS-HR scores for long-term impairment.
Our study involved a 10-year retrospective review of a database encompassing all patients admitted to Starship Children’s Hospital (Auckland, New Zealand, 2000–2010) with THI.
We studied 619 children aged <5 years at the time of THI, with long-term outcome data available for 161 subjects. Both GCS and AIS-HR scores were predictive of length of intensive care unit and hospital stay (all p<0.001). GCS was correlated with AIS-HR (ρ=-0.46; p<0.001), although mild GCS scores (13–15) commonly under-estimated the severity of radiological injury: 42% of children with mild GCS scores had serious–critical THI (AIS-HR 3–5). Increasingly severe GCS or AIS-HR scores were both associated with a greater likelihood of long-term impairment (neurological disability, residual problems, and educational support). However, long-term impairment was also relatively common in children with mild GCS scores paired with structural THI more severe than a simple linear skull fracture.
Severe GCS scores will identify most cases of severe radiological injury in early childhood, and are good predictors of poor long-term outcome. However, young children admitted to hospital with structural THI and mild GCS scores have an appreciable risk of long-term disability, and also warrant long-term follow-up.
Preterm birth is associated with abnormalities in growth, body composition, and metabolism during childhood, but adult data are scarce and none exist for their offspring. We therefore aimed to examine body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in adults born preterm and their children.
A cohort of 52 adults (aged 35.7 years, 54% female, 31 born preterm) and their term-born children (n=61, aged 8.0 years, 54% female, 60% from a preterm parent) were studied. Auxology and body composition (whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured, and fasting blood samples taken for metabolic and hormonal assessments.
Adults born preterm had greater abdominal adiposity, displaying more truncal fat (p=0.006) and higher android to gynoid fat ratio (p=0.004). Although women born preterm and at term were of similar weight and BMI, men born preterm (n=8) were on average 20 kg heavier (p=0.010) and of greater BMI (34.2 vs 28.4 kg/m2; p=0.021) than men born at term (n=16). Adults born preterm also displayed a less favourable lipid profile, including lower HDL-C concentrations (p=0.007) and greater total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio (p=0.047). Children of parents born preterm tended to have more body fat than the children of parents born at term (21.3 vs 17.6%; p=0.055). Even after adjustment for mean parental BMI, children of parents born preterm had altered fat distribution, with more truncal fat (p=0.048) and greater android to gynoid fat ratio (p=0.009).
Adults born preterm, particularly men, have markedly increased fat mass and altered fat distribution. A similar increase in abdominal adiposity was observed in the term born offspring of parents born preterm, indicating that adverse outcomes associated with preterm birth may extend to the next generation.
Knowledge about tumour gene mutation status is essential for the treatment of increasing numbers of cancer patients, and testing quality has a major impact on treatment response and cost. In 2012, 4,629 tests for BRAF p.V600 were performed in France, in patients with melanomas.
Two batches of unstained melanoma sections were sent, in May and November 2012, to the 46 laboratories supported by the French National Institute of Cancer (INCa). An external quality assessment (EQA) evaluated mutation status, response times and compliance with INCa recommendations.
All the French laboratories involved in testing participated in the EQA. Fourteen different methods were used to detect BRAF mutations, most consisting of combinations of in-house techniques. False responses were noted in 25/520 cases (4.8%), 11 of which concerned confusion between p.V600E and p.V600K. Thus, 2.7% of responses would have led to inappropriate treatment. Within six months, mean response times decreased from 22 to 12 days (P<0.001), and the percentage of samples evaluated by a pathologist for tumour cell content increased, from 75.2% to 96.9% (P<0.001).
Despite the use of non-certified methods, the false response rate was low. Nationwide EQA can improve the quality of molecular pathology tests on tumours.
To determine whether adolescents with type 1 diabetes have left ventricular functional changes at rest and during acute exercise and whether these changes are affected by metabolic control and diabetes duration.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The study evaluated 53 adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 22 control adolescents. Baseline data included peak exercise capacity and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Left ventricular functional parameters were obtained at rest and during acute exercise using magnetic resonance imaging.
Compared with nondiabetic control subjects, adolescents with type 1 diabetes had lower exercise capacity (44.7 ± 09 vs. 48.5 ± 1.4 mL/kg fat-free mass [FFM]/min; P < 0.05). Stroke volume was reduced in the diabetes group at rest (1.86 ± 0.04 vs. 2.05 ± 0.07 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.02) and during acute exercise (1.89 ± 0.04 vs. 2.17 ± 0.06 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.01). Diabetic adolescents also had reduced end-diastolic volume at rest (2.94 ± 0.06 vs. 3.26 ± 0.09 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.01) and during acute exercise (2.78 ± 0.05 vs. 3.09 ± 0.08 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.01). End-systolic volume was lower in the diabetic group at rest (1.08 ± 0.03 vs. 1.21 ± 0.04 mL/kg FFM; P = 0.01) but not during acute exercise. Exercise capacity and resting and exercise stroke volumes were correlated with glycemic control but not with diabetes duration.
Adolescents with type 1 diabetes have reduced exercise capacity and display alterations in cardiac function compared with nondiabetic control subjects, associated with reduced stroke volume during exercise.
We aimed to evaluate insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in adults born preterm and their children. Subjects were adults born both preterm and at term, with their children aged 5–10 years born at term. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were assessed using hyperglycemic clamps in adults and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests using Bergman minimal model in children. In total, 52 adults aged 34–38 years participated (31 born preterm, mean gestational age 33.3 weeks). Adults born preterm were less insulin sensitive than those born at term (19.0 ± 2.5 vs. 36.3 ± 5.2 mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1mU ⋅ L; P < 0.05) with compensatory increased first-phase insulin secretion (56.1 ± 8.5 vs. 25.3 ± 3.7 mU/L; P < 0.001) but similar disposition index indicating appropriate insulin secretion. These differences were independent of sex and remained when subjects born <32 weeks' gestation were excluded from analyses. In total, 61 children were studied (37 of preterm parents, mean age 7.9 ± 0.3 years). Children of parents born preterm had similar insulin sensitivity to children of parents born at term, but a correlation between parental and offspring insulin sensitivity was noted only among children of parents born preterm. In conclusion, adults born preterm have insulin resistance in midadulthood, but this was not associated with insulin resistance in their children.
Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) are imaging modalities used for diagnostic work-up of non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage. The aim of our study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of MRA, DSA and CTA in the first year after the bleed.
A decision model was used to calculate costs and benefits (in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) that accrued to cohorts of 1,000 patients. Costs and characteristics of diagnostic tests, therapy, patients’ quality of life and associated costs were respected. The diagnostic strategy with highest QALYs and lowest costs was considered most cost-effective.
DSA was the most effective diagnostic option, yielding on average 0.6039 QALYs (95 % CI, 0.5761–0.6327) per patient, followed by CTA 0.5983 QALYs (95 % CI, 0.5704–0.6278) and MRA 0.5947 QALYs (95 % CI, 0.5674–0.6237). Cost was lowest for DSA (39,808 €; 95 % CI, 37,182–42,663), followed by CTA (40,748 €; 95 % CI, 37,937–43,831) and MRA (41,814 €; 95 % CI, 38,730–45,146). A strategy of CTA followed by DSA if CTA was negative or coiling deemed not feasible, was as effective as DSA alone at average costs of 39,767€ (95 % CI, 36,903–42,402).
A combined strategy of CTA and DSA was found to be the most cost-effective diagnostic approach.
• We defined a standard model for cost-effectiveness analysis in diagnostic imaging.
• Comparing total 1-year health costs and benefits, CTA is superior to MRA.
• A strategy of combining CTA and DSA was found to be the most cost-effective diagnostic approach.
Intracranial aneurysm; Cost effectiveness; Digital subtraction angiography; Magnetic resonance angiography; Computed tomography angiography
There are no data on the metabolic consequences of post-term birth (≥42 weeks gestation). We hypothesized that post-term birth would adversely affect insulin sensitivity, as well as other metabolic parameters and body composition in childhood.
77 healthy pre-pubertal children, born appropriate-for-gestational-age were studied in Auckland, New Zealand: 36 born post-term (18 boys) and 41 (27 boys) born at term (38–40 weeks gestation). Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity measured using intravenous glucose tolerance tests and Bergman’s minimal model. Other assessments included fasting hormone concentrations and lipid profiles, body composition from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and inflammatory markers.
Insulin sensitivity was 34% lower in post-term than in term children (7.7 vs. 11.6 x10-4·min-1·(mU/l); p<0.0001). There was a compensatory increase in acute insulin response among post-term children (418 vs 304 mU/l; p=0.037), who also displayed lower glucose effectiveness than those born at term (2.25 vs 3.11 x10-2·min-1; p=0.047). Post-term children not only had more body fat (p=0.014) and less fat-free mass (p=0.014), but also had increased central adiposity with more truncal fat (p=0.017) and greater android to gynoid fat ratio (p=0.007) compared to term controls. Further, post-term children displayed other markers of the metabolic syndrome: lower normal nocturnal systolic blood pressure dipping (p=0.027), lower adiponectin concentrations (p=0.005), as well as higher leptin (p=0.008) and uric acid (p=0.033) concentrations. Post-term boys (but not girls) also displayed a less favourable lipid profile, with higher total cholesterol (p=0.018) and LDL-C (p=0.006) concentrations, and total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio (p=0.048).
Post-term children have reduced insulin sensitivity and display a number of early markers of the metabolic syndrome. These findings could have important implications for the management of prolonged pregnancies. Future studies need to examine potential impacts later in life, as well as possible underlying mechanisms.
An increasing portion of biomedical research relies on the use of biobanks and databases. Sharing of such resources is essential for optimizing knowledge production. A major obstacle for sharing bioresources is the lack of recognition for the efforts involved in establishing, maintaining and sharing them, due to, in particular, the absence of adequate tools. Increasing demands on biobanks and databases to improve access should be complemented with efforts of end-users to recognize and acknowledge these resources. An appropriate set of tools must be developed and implemented to measure this impact.
To address this issue we propose to measure the use in research of such bioresources as a value of their impact, leading to create an indicator: Bioresource Research Impact Factor (BRIF). Key elements to be assessed are: defining obstacles to sharing samples and data, choosing adequate identifier for bioresources, identifying and weighing parameters to be considered in the metrics, analyzing the role of journal guidelines and policies for resource citing and referencing, assessing policies for resource access and sharing and their influence on bioresource use. This work allows us to propose a framework and foundations for the operational development of BRIF that still requires input from stakeholders within the biomedical community.
Data sharing; Bioresource; Biobank; Identifier; Metrics; Traceability; Impact factor; Biology; Science policy; Open data
Marine omega-3 rich oils are used by more than a third of American adults for a wide range of purported benefits including prevention of cardiovascular disease. These oils are highly prone to oxidation to lipid peroxides and other secondary oxidation products. Oxidized oils may have altered biological activity making them ineffective or harmful, though there is also evidence that some beneficial effects of marine oils could be mediated through lipid peroxides. To date, human clinical trials have not reported the oxidative status of the trial oil. This makes it impossible to understand the importance of oxidation to efficacy or harm. However, animal studies show that oxidized lipid products can cause harm. Oxidation of trial oils may be responsible for the conflicting omega-3 trial literature, including the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The oxidative state of an oil can be simply determined by the peroxide value and anisidine value assays. We recommend that all clinical trials investigating omega-3 harms or benefits report the results of these assays; this will enable better understanding of the benefits and harms of omega-3 and the clinical importance of oxidized supplements.
A previous cross-sectional study showed an association of migraine with a higher prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–measured ischemic lesions in the brain.
To determine whether women or men with migraine (with and without aura) have a higher incidence of brain lesions 9 years after initial MRI, whether migraine frequency was associated with progression of brain lesions, and whether progression of brain lesions was associated with cognitive decline.
Design, Setting, and Participants
In a follow-up of the 2000 Cerebral Abnormalities in Migraine, an Epidemiological Risk Analysis cohort, a prospective populationbased observational study of Dutch participants with migraine and an age- and sexmatched control group, 203 of the 295 baseline participants in the migraine group and 83 of 140 in the control group underwent MRI scan in 2009 to identify progression of MRI-measured brain lesions. Comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, and educational level. The participants in the migraine group were a mean 57 years (range, 43–72 years), and 71% were women. Those in the control group were a mean 55 years (range, 44–71 years), and 69% were women.
Main Outcome Measures
Progression of MRI-measured cerebral deep white matter hyperintensities, infratentorial hyperintensities, and posterior circulation territory infarctlike lesions. Change in cognition was also measured.
Of the 145 women in the migraine group, 112 (77%) vs 33 of 55 women (60%) in the control group had progression of deep white matter hyperintensities (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95%CI, 1.0–4.1; P=.04). There were no significant associations of migraine with progression of infratentorial hyperintensities: 21 participants (15%) in themigraine group and 1 of 57 participants (2%) in the control group showed progression (adjusted OR, 7.7; 95% CI, 1.0–59.5; P=.05) or new posterior circulation territory infarctlike lesions: 10 of 203 participants (5%) in the migraine group but none of 83 in the control group (P=.07). There was no association of number or frequency of migraine headaches with progression of lesions. There was no significant association of high vs nonhigh deep white matter hyperintensity load with change in cognitive scores ( 3.7 in the migraine group vs 1.4 in the control group; 95% CI, 4.4 to 0.2; adjusted P=.07).
In a community-based cohort followed up after 9 years, women with migraine had a higher incidence of deep white matter hyperintensities but did not have significantly higher progression of other MRI-measured brain changes. There was no association of migraine with progression of any MRI-measured brain lesions in men.
Rolandic epilepsy, a childhood epilepsy associated with language impairments, was investigated for language-related cortical abnormalities.
Twenty-four children with rolandic epilepsy and 24 controls (age 8–14 years) were recruited and underwent the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals test. Structural MRI was performed at 3 T (voxel size 1 × 1 × 1 mm3) for fully automated quantitative assessment of cortical thickness. Regression analysis was used to test for differences between patients and controls and to assess the effect of age and language indices on cortical thickness.
For patients the core language score (mean ± SD: 92 ± 18) was lower than for controls (106 ± 11, p = 0.0026) and below the norm of 100 ± 15 (p = 0.047). Patients showed specific impairments in receptive language index (87 ± 19, p = 0.002) and language content index (87 ± 18, p = 0.0016). Cortical thickness was reduced in patients (p < 0.05, multiple-comparisons corrected) in left perisylvian regions. Furthermore, extensive cortical thinning with age was found in predominantly left-lateralized frontal, centro-parietal and temporal regions. No associations were found between cortical thickness and language indices in the regions of aberrant cortex.
The cortical abnormalities described represent subtle but significant pathomorphology in this critical phase of brain development (8–14 years) and suggest that rolandic epilepsy should not be considered merely a benign condition. Future studies employing longitudinal designs are prompted for further investigations into cerebral abnormalities in RE and associations with cognitive impairment and development.
•Children with RE exhibit aberrant cortex in left perisylvian language regions.•Cortical abnormalities comprise reduced cortical thickness.•Extensive regions of earlier onset of cortical thinning were also observed.•Cortical development may provide an important new subject of research in RE.
Cortical thickness (quantitative); Benign rolandic epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes; Developmental trajectory; Language impairment
Maternal age at childbirth continues to increase worldwide. We aimed to assess whether increasing maternal age is associated with changes in childhood height, body composition, and metabolism.
277 healthy pre-pubertal children, born 37–41 weeks gestation were studied. Assessments included: height and weight corrected for parental measurements, DEXA-derived body composition, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and hormonal profiles. Subjects were separated according to maternal age at childbirth: <30, 30–35, and >35 years.
Our cohort consisted of 126 girls and 151 boys, aged 7.4±2.2 years (range 3–10); maternal age at childbirth was 33.3±4.7 years (range 19–44). Children of mothers aged >35 and 30–35 years at childbirth were taller than children of mothers aged <30 years by 0.26 (p = 0.002) and 0.23 (p = 0.042) SDS, respectively. There was a reduction in childhood BMISDS with increasing maternal age at childbirth, and children of mothers aged >35 years at childbirth were 0.61 SDS slimmer than those of mothers <30 years (p = 0.049). Children of mothers aged 30–35 (p = 0.022) and >35 (p = 0.036) years at childbirth had abdominal adiposity reduced by 10% and 13%, respectively, compared to those in the <30 group. Children of mothers aged 30–35 years at childbirth displayed a 19% increase in IGF-I concentrations compared to offspring in <30 group (p = 0.042). Conversely, IGF-II concentrations were lower among the children born to mothers aged 30–35 (6.5%; p = 0.004) and >35 (8.1%; p = 0.005) compared to those of mothers aged <30 years. Girls of mothers aged 30–35 years at childbirth also displayed improved HOMA-IR insulin sensitivity (p = 0.010) compared to girls born to mothers aged <30 years.
Increasing maternal age at childbirth is associated with a more favourable phenotype (taller stature and reduced abdominal fat) in their children, as well as improved insulin sensitivity in girls.
Olive plant leaves (Olea europaea L.) have been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat diabetes, but there are very limited data examining the effects of olive polyphenols on glucose homeostasis in humans.
To assess the effects of supplementation with olive leaf polyphenols (51.1 mg oleuropein, 9.7 mg hydroxytyrosol per day) on insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged overweight men.
Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in New Zealand. 46 participants (aged 46.4±5.5 years and BMI 28.0±2.0 kg/m2) were randomized to receive capsules with olive leaf extract (OLE) or placebo for 12 weeks, crossing over to other treatment after a 6-week washout. Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity (Matsuda method). Secondary outcomes included glucose and insulin profiles, cytokines, lipid profile, body composition, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, and carotid intima-media thickness.
Treatment evaluations were based on the intention-to-treat principle. All participants took >96% of prescribed capsules. OLE supplementation was associated with a 15% improvement in insulin sensitivity (p = 0.024) compared to placebo. There was also a 28% improvement in pancreatic β-cell responsiveness (p = 0.013). OLE supplementation also led to increased fasting interleukin-6 (p = 0.014), IGFBP-1 (p = 0.024), and IGFBP-2 (p = 0.015) concentrations. There were however, no effects on interleukin-8, TNF-α, ultra-sensitive CRP, lipid profile, ambulatory blood pressure, body composition, carotid intima-media thickness, or liver function.
Supplementation with olive leaf polyphenols for 12 weeks significantly improved insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell secretory capacity in overweight middle-aged men at risk of developing the metabolic syndrome.
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #336317.
Over the last years, evidence has accumulated that rolandic epilepsy (RE) is associated with serious cognitive comorbidities, including language impairment. However, the cerebral mechanism through which epileptiform activity in the rolandic (sensorimotor) areas may affect the language system is unknown. To investigate this, the connectivity between rolandic areas and regions involved in language processing is studied using functional MRI (fMRI).
Materials and methods
fMRI data was acquired from 22 children with rolandic epilepsy and 22 age-matched controls (age range: 8–14 years), both at rest and using word-generation and reading tasks. Activation map analysis revealed no group differences (FWE-corrected, p < 0.05) and was therefore used to define regions of interest for pooled (patients and controls combined) language activation. Independent component analysis with dual regression was used to identify the sensorimotor resting-state network in all subjects. The associated functional connectivity maps were compared between groups at the regions of interest for language activation identified from the task data. In addition, neuropsychological language testing (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, 4th edition) was performed.
Functional connectivity with the sensorimotor network was reduced in patients compared to controls (p = 0.011) in the left inferior frontal gyrus, i.e. Broca's area as identified by the word-generation task. No aberrant functional connectivity values were found in the other regions of interest, nor were any associations found between functional connectivity and language performance. Neuropsychological testing confirmed language impairment in patients relative to controls (reductions in core language score, p = 0.03; language content index, p = 0.01; receptive language index, p = 0.005).
Reduced functional connectivity was demonstrated between the sensorimotor network and the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area) in children with RE, which might link epileptiform activity/seizures originating from the sensorimotor cortex to language impairment, and is in line with the identified neuropsychological profile of anterior language dysfunction.
► Using fMRI, it was demonstrated that the motor and language system are integrated. ► In rolandic epilepsy, functionally connectivity with the rolandic network is locally decreased. ► These findings provide an physiological explanation of language impairment in RE.
RE, rolandic epilepsy; ICA, independent component analysis; Rolandic epilepsy; Language impairment; Resting-state fMRI; Independent component analysis; Resting-state networks; Sensorimotor/rolandic network
The diagnosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) at an early stage, as well as better prediction of outcome remains clinically challenging due to the lack of specific and robust non-invasive markers. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), particularly those found in the bloodstream, has opened up new perspectives for tumor diagnosis and prognosis. The aim of our study was to determine whether expression profiles of specific miRNAs in plasma could accurately discriminate between NSCLC patients and controls, and whether they are able to predict the prognosis of resectable NSCLC patients. We therefore evaluated a series of seventeen NSCLC-related miRNAs by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR in plasma from 52 patients with I-IIIA stages NSCLC, 10 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 20-age, sex and smoking status-matched healthy individuals. We identified an eleven-plasma miRNA panel that could distinguish NSCLC patients from healthy subjects (AUC = 0.879). A six-plasma miRNA panel was able to discriminate between NSCLC patients and COPD patients (AUC = 0.944). Furthermore, we identified a three-miRNA plasma signature (high miR-155-5p, high miR-223-3p, and low miR-126-3p) that significantly associated with a higher risk for progression in adenocarcinoma patients. In addition, a three-miRNA plasma panel (high miR-20a-5p, low miR-152-3p, and low miR-199a-5p) significantly predicted survival of squamous cell carcinoma patients. In conclusion, we identified two plasma miRNA expression profiles that may be useful for predicting the outcome of patients with resectable NSCLC.
Working memory is a temporary storage system under attentional control. It is believed to play a central role in online processing of complex cognitive information and may also play a role in social cognition and interpersonal interactions. Adolescents with a disorder on the autism spectrum display problems in precisely these domains. Social impairments, communication difficulties, and repetitive interests and activities are core domains of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and executive function problems are often seen throughout the spectrum. As the main cognitive theories of ASD, including the theory of mind deficit hypotheses, weak central coherence account, and the executive dysfunction theory, still fail to explain the broad spectrum of symptoms, a new perspective on the etiology of ASD is needed. Deficits in working memory are central to many theories of psychopathology, and are generally linked to frontal-lobe dysfunction. This article will review neuropsychological and (functional) brain imaging studies on working memory in adolescents with ASD. Although still disputed, it is concluded that within the working memory system specific problems of spatial working memory are often seen in adolescents with ASD. These problems increase when information is more complex and greater demands on working memory are made. Neuroimaging studies indicate a more global working memory processing or connectivity deficiency, rather than a focused deficit in the prefrontal cortex. More research is needed to relate these working memory difficulties and neuroimaging results in ASD to the behavioral difficulties as seen in individuals with a disorder on the autism spectrum.
Working memory; Adolescents; Autism; Neuropsychology; Neuroimaging
Invading bacteria are recognized, captured and killed by a specialized form of autophagy, called xenophagy. Recently, defects in xenophagy in Crohn’s disease (CD) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human chronic inflammatory diseases of uncertain etiology of the gastrointestinal tract. We show here that pathogenic adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) isolated from CD patients are able to adhere and invade neutrophils, which represent the first line of defense against bacteria. Of particular interest, AIEC infection of neutrophil-like PLB-985 cells blocked autophagy at the autolysosomal step, which allowed intracellular survival of bacteria and exacerbated interleukin-8 (IL-8) production. Interestingly, this block in autophagy correlated with the induction of autophagic cell death. Likewise, stimulation of autophagy by nutrient starvation or rapamycin treatment reduced intracellular AIEC survival and IL-8 production. Finally, treatment with an inhibitor of autophagy decreased cell death of AIEC-infected neutrophil-like PLB-985 cells. In conclusion, excessive autophagy in AIEC infection triggered cell death of neutrophils.
This usability test investigated the overall preference and usability of the novel NovoTwist® insulin pen needle versus conventional screw-thread needles, when used with Next Generation FlexPen®, in children and adolescents with diabetes.
This was an open-label, randomized, crossover usability test in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes who administered insulin with an insulin pen. Test needles were NovoTwist and the participant’s current screw-thread needle (or NovoFine® needle). Following instruction, participants attached the needle to Next Generation FlexPen, made an injection into a foam cushion, and detached the needle. This procedure was conducted three times with both needles in a random order. Responses to 13 questions on user experience with each needle (including overall preference, ease of attachment/detachment of needle/cap, handling, learning, confidence in attachment, and convenience of use) were subsequently recorded on a six-point rating scale (1 = very difficult; 6 = very easy).
Fifteen children aged ≥6 to ≤12 years and 15 adolescents aged ≥13 to ≤17 years participated in the test. A significantly higher proportion of children and adolescents (77%) indicated that they would prefer to use NovoTwist compared with screw-thread needles (p = .005). NovoTwist was preferred by most children and adolescents for overall ease of use (77%; p = .005), for ease of attachment (87%; p < .001) and detachment (83%; p < .001), and as the most appropriate needle to handle for daily injections (73%; p = .016). The mean rating for confidence in correct needle attachment was not significantly different between the two needle types. Seven out of eight parents of children who required assistance for their daily insulin injections stated that they would be “very likely” to allow their child to attach NovoTwist.
These factors may promote confidence in this needle, and thus in self-injecting, among younger patients and their parents.
attachment; diabetes; ease of use; insulin pens; NovoTwist
It is noteworthy that bacterial or viral infections, and the resulting chronic inflammation, have been shown to predispose individuals to certain types of cancer. Remarkably, these microbes upregulated some transcription factors involved in the regulation of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition, referred herein as EMT. EMT is a cellular process that consists in the conversion of epithelial cell phenotype to a mesenchymal phenotype. Under physiological conditions EMT is clearly important for embryogenesis, organ development, wound repair and tissue remodeling. However, EMT may also be activated under pathologic conditions, more particularly in carcinogenesis and metastatic progression. In this review, we make a parallel between microbes- and growth factors-induced transcription factors. A unifying EMT model then emerges that may help in understanding the development of microbial pathogenesis and in defining new potential future therapeutic strategy in treating diseases linked to infections.
E. coli; H. pylori; E-cadherin; pathogens; tumor
The reproducibility of tractography is important to determine its sensitivity to pathological abnormalities. The reproducibility of tract morphology has not yet been systematically studied and the recently developed tractography contrast Tract Density Imaging (TDI) has not yet been assessed at the tract specific level.
Materials and Methods
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and probabilistic constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography are performed twice in 9 healthy subjects. Tractography is based on common space seed and target regions and performed for several major white matter tracts. Tractograms are converted to tract segmentations and inter-session reproducibility of tract morphology is assessed using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) are calculated of the following tract metrics: fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), volume, and TDI. Analyses are performed both for proximal (deep white matter) and extended (including subcortical white matter) tract segmentations.
Proximal DSC values were 0.70–0.92. DSC values were 5–10% lower in extended compared to proximal segmentations. COV/ICC values of FA, ADC, volume and TDI were 1–4%/0.65–0.94, 2–4%/0.62–0.94, 3–22%/0.53–0.96 and 8–31%/0.48–0.70, respectively, with the lower COV and higher ICC values found in the proximal segmentations.
For all investigated metrics, reproducibility depended on the segmented tract. FA and ADC had relatively low COV and relatively high ICC, indicating clinical potential. Volume had higher COV but its moderate to high ICC values in most tracts still suggest subject-differentiating power. Tract TDI had high COV and relatively low ICC, which reflects unfavorable reproducibility.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important tool for cardiac research, and it is frequently used for resting cardiac assessments. However, research into non-pharmacological stress cardiac evaluation is limited.
We aimed to design a portable and relatively inexpensive MRI cycle ergometer capable of continuously measuring pedalling workload while patients exercise to maintain target heart rates.
We constructed and tested an MRI-compatible cycle ergometer for a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Resting and sub-maximal exercise images (at 110 beats per minute) were successfully obtained in 8 healthy adults.
The MRI-compatible cycle ergometer constructed by our research group enabled cardiac assessments at fixed heart rates, while continuously recording power output by directly measuring pedal force and crank rotation.
Cycle ergometer; Left ventricular function; Magnetic resonance imaging
We aimed to evaluate the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children <15 years of age (yr) in the Auckland region (New Zealand) over 20 years (1990–2009).
We performed a retrospective review of all patients <15 yr diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, from an unselected complete regional cohort.
There were 884 new cases of type 1 diabetes, and age at diagnosis rose from 7.6 yr in 1990/1 to 8.9 yr in 2008/9 (r2 = 0.31, p = 0.009). There was a progressive increase in type 1 diabetes incidence among children <15 yr (p<0.0001), reaching 22.5 per 100,000 in 2009. However, the rise in incidence did not occur evenly among age groups, being 2.5-fold higher in older children (10–14 yr) than in the youngest group (0–4 yr). The incidence of new cases of type 1 diabetes was highest in New Zealand Europeans throughout the study period in all age groups (p<0.0001), but the rate of increase was similar in New Zealand Europeans and Non-Europeans. Type 1 diabetes incidence and average annual increase were similar in both sexes. There was no change in BMI SDS shortly after diagnosis, and no association between BMI SDS and age at diagnosis.
There has been a steady increase in type 1 diabetes incidence among children <15 yr in Auckland over 20 years. Contrary to other studies, age at diagnosis has increased and the greatest rise in incidence occurred in children 10–14 yr. There was little change in BMI SDS in this population, providing no support for the ‘accelerator hypothesis’.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may lead to severe long-term health consequences. In a longitudinal study, we aimed to identify factors present at diagnosis and 6 months later that were associated with glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at 24 months after T1DM diagnosis, so that diabetic children at risk of poor glycaemic control may be identified.
229 children <15 years of age diagnosed with T1DM in the Auckland region were studied. Data collected at diagnosis were: age, sex, weight, height, ethnicity, family living arrangement, socio-economic status (SES), T1DM antibody titre, venous pH and bicarbonate. At 6 and 24 months after diagnosis we collected data on weight, height, HbA1c level, and insulin dose.
Factors at diagnosis that were associated with higher HbA1c levels at 6 months: female sex (p<0.05), lower SES (p<0.01), non-European ethnicity (p<0.01) and younger age (p<0.05). At 24 months, higher HbA1c was associated with lower SES (p<0.001), Pacific Island ethnicity (p<0.001), not living with both biological parents (p<0.05), and greater BMI SDS (p<0.05). A regression equation to predict HbA1c at 24 months was consequently developed.
Deterioration in glycaemic control shortly after diagnosis in diabetic children is particularly marked in Pacific Island children and in those not living with both biological parents. Clinicians need to be aware of factors associated with poor glycaemic control beyond the remission phase, so that more effective measures can be implemented shortly after diagnosis to prevent deterioration in diabetes control.
We aimed to establish the ideal injection techniques using 5-mm needles to reliably inject insulin into the subcutaneous fat in both children and adults and to quantify the associated pain and leakage of the test medium.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 259 subjects (122 children/adolescents and 137 adults) were injected with sterile air corresponding to 20 IU insulin (200 μl) with 32-G 5-mm needles at 90° or 45°, in the abdomen and thigh, and with or without a pinched skin fold. Injection depth was assessed via ultrasonography. Subjects rated pain on a visual analog scale. Test medium injections into the abdomen and thigh (0.2–0.6 ml) were also administered to assess injection leakage.
Among children, 5.5% of injections were intramuscular (IM) and 0.5% were intradermal, while in adults, the incidence was 1.3 and 0.6%, respectively. The frequency of IM injections was greater in boys and negligible among adult women. Subcutaneous fat thickness was the primary predictor of the likelihood of IM injections (P < 0.001). A third of all patients reported experiencing no pain during insulin injection, with children/adolescents experiencing considerably more discomfort than adults. Some leakage of medium was observed, but was unrelated to injection volume and was generally minimal.
5-mm needles are reliably inserted into subcutaneous fat in both adults and children. These needles were associated with reduced pain and minimal leakage. We recommend an angled injection with a pinched skin fold for children, while in adults, the technique should be left to patient preference.
Methods of classification using transcriptome analysis for case-by-case tumor diagnosis could be limited by tumor heterogeneity and masked information in the gene expression profiles, especially as the number of tumors is small. We propose a new strategy, EMts_2PCA, based on: 1) The identification of a gene expression signature with a great potential for discriminating subgroups of tumors (EMts stage), which includes: a) a learning step, based on an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, to select sets of candidate genes whose expressions discriminate two subgroups, b) a training step to select from the sets of candidate genes those with the highest potential to classify training tumors, c) the compilation of genes selected during the training step, and standardization of their levels of expression to finalize the signature. 2) The predictive classification of independent prospective tumors, according to the two subgroups of interest, by the definition of a validation space based on a two-step principal component analysis (2PCA). The present method was evaluated by classifying three series of tumors and its robustness, in terms of tumor clustering and prediction, was further compared with that of three classification methods (Gene expression bar code, Top-scoring pair(s) and a PCA-based method). Results showed that EMts_2PCA was very efficient in tumor classification and prediction, with scores always better that those obtained by the most common methods of tumor clustering. Specifically, EMts_2PCA permitted identification of highly discriminating molecular signatures to differentiate post-Chernobyl thyroid or post-radiotherapy breast tumors from their sporadic counterparts that were previously unsuccessfully classified or classified with errors.