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1.  Integrated molecular portrait of non-small cell lung cancers 
BMC Medical Genomics  2013;6:53.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a leading cause of cancer deaths, represents a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, mostly comprising squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (AC) and large-cell carcinoma (LCC). The objectives of this study were to utilize integrated genomic data including copy-number alteration, mRNA, microRNA expression and candidate-gene full sequencing data to characterize the molecular distinctions between AC and SCC.
Comparative genomic hybridization followed by mutational analysis, gene expression and miRNA microarray profiling were performed on 123 paired tumor and non-tumor tissue samples from patients with NSCLC.
At DNA, mRNA and miRNA levels we could identify molecular markers that discriminated significantly between the various histopathological entities of NSCLC. We identified 34 genomic clusters using aCGH data; several genes exhibited a different profile of aberrations between AC and SCC, including PIK3CA, SOX2, THPO, TP63, PDGFB genes. Gene expression profiling analysis identified SPP1, CTHRC1and GREM1 as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of the cancer, and SPINK1 and BMP7 to distinguish between AC and SCC in small biopsies or in blood samples. Using integrated genomics approach we found in recurrently altered regions a list of three potential driver genes, MRPS22, NDRG1 and RNF7, which were consistently over-expressed in amplified regions, had wide-spread correlation with an average of ~800 genes throughout the genome and highly associated with histological types. Using a network enrichment analysis, the targets of these potential drivers were seen to be involved in DNA replication, cell cycle, mismatch repair, p53 signalling pathway and other lung cancer related signalling pathways, and many immunological pathways. Furthermore, we also identified one potential driver miRNA hsa-miR-944.
Integrated molecular characterization of AC and SCC helped identify clinically relevant markers and potential drivers, which are recurrent and stable changes at DNA level that have functional implications at RNA level and have strong association with histological subtypes.
PMCID: PMC4222074  PMID: 24299561
NSCLC; AC; SCC; LCC; Systems biology
2.  Genomic Aberrations in Lung Adenocarcinoma in Never Smokers 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(12):e15145.
Lung cancer in never smokers would rank as the seventh most common cause of cancer death worldwide.
Methods and Findings
We performed high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of lung adenocarcinoma in sixty never smokers and identified fourteen new minimal common regions (MCR) of gain or loss, of which five contained a single gene (MOCS2, NSUN3, KHDRBS2, SNTG1 and ST18). One larger MCR of gain contained NSD1. One focal amplification and nine gains contained FUS. NSD1 and FUS are oncogenes hitherto not known to be associated with lung cancer. FISH showed that the amplicon containing FUS was joined to the next telomeric amplicon at 16p11.2. FUS was over-expressed in 10 tumors with gain of 16p11.2 compared to 30 tumors without that gain. Other cancer genes present in aberrations included ARNT, BCL9, CDK4, CDKN2B, EGFR, ERBB2, MDM2, MDM4, MET, MYC and KRAS. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering with adjustment for false-discovery rate revealed clusters differing by the level and pattern of aberrations and displaying particular tumor characteristics. One cluster was strongly associated with gain of MYC. Another cluster was characterized by extensive losses containing tumor suppressor genes of which RB1 and WRN. Tumors in that cluster frequently harbored a central scar-like fibrosis. A third cluster was associated with gains on 7p and 7q, containing ETV1 and BRAF, and displayed the highest rate of EGFR mutations. SNP array analysis validated copy-number aberrations and revealed that RB1 and WRN were altered by recurrent copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity.
The present study has uncovered new aberrations containing cancer genes. The oncogene FUS is a candidate gene in the 16p region that is frequently gained in never smokers. Multiple genetic pathways defined by gains of MYC, deletions of RB1 and WRN or gains on 7p and 7q are involved in lung adenocarcinoma in never smokers.
PMCID: PMC2997777  PMID: 21151896
4.  100-liter transient transfection 
Cytotechnology  2002;38(1-3):15-21.
This is the first report of two successful 100 l scale transienttransfections in a standard stirred bioreactor. More than half a gram of a monoclonal antibody (IgG) were produced in less than 10 days using a technology called large-scale transient gene expression(LS-TGE). Suspension adapted HEK 293 EBNA SF cells were transfectedwithin a 150 l (nominal) bioreactor by a modified calcium phosphateco-precipitation method with more than 75 mg of plasmid DNA per run.A mixture of three different plasmids, one encoding for the heavychain of a human recombinant immunoglobulin, the other for the corresponding light chain and a third one for the green fluorescent protein (GFP, 2–4% of DNA in transfection cocktail)were co-transfected. The GFP vector was chosen to monitor transfection efficiency. Expression of GFP could be registered asearly as 20 h after DNA addition, using fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate that transient transfection can be done at the100 l scale, thus providing a new tool to produce hundreds of milligrams or even gram amounts of recombinant protein. Akey advantage of LS-TGE resides in its speed. In the presentedcases, the entire production process for the synthesis of halfa gram of a recombinant antibody, including DNA preparationand necessary expansion of cells prior to transfection, wasexecuted in less than a month. Having an established transfection/expression process allows to run productioncampaigns for any given protein, within one facility, with onesingle host cell line and therefore only one single seed train. Without any need to create and maintain stable cell lines, expression of new r-proteins is not only faster and more economical but also more flexible.
PMCID: PMC3449920  PMID: 19003082
bioreactor; calcium phosphate co-precipitation; GFP; HEK 293; human antibody; large-scale gene expression; transient transfection
5.  Calcium phosphate transfection optimization for serum-free suspension culture 
Cytotechnology  2001;35(3):175-180.
Aim of this study was to identify optimal conditions for suspension transfection in the absence of serum. Transfection parameters for suspension culture can be very different to ones in adherent cells. Most transfection protocols have been developed and optimizedfor adherent culture. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as reporter, FCS was eliminated from the transfection process by altering critical parameters and by substituting serum with albumin. Using standard phosphate and calcium concentrations for transfection in the absence of serum resulted in titers of only 1% of those observed in the presence of serum. A reduction of the calcium concentration from 250 mM to 100 mM, yielded a 25-fold increase in the expression of the recombinant protein compared to the serum-free standard conditions. Altering the phosphate concentration, 1.4 mM in the transfection buffer, did not improve the protein expression. Interestingly, reduction of DNA quantity by half to a concentration of 0.5 μg per milliliter of culture volume resulted in a two-fold increase of protein production. Addition of albumin to serum-free medium protected the cells against the toxicity of the calcium phosphate transfection particles (CaPi) yielding higher protein expression. All the experiments were executed in a shaken multi-well system, allowing high multiplicity parameter screening to speed up optimizations. The culture system is inexpensive, simple and efficient, minimizing costs for labor and consumables.
PMCID: PMC3449700  PMID: 22358856
calcium; coprecipitation; DNA; HEK293; phosphate; small-scale culture; suspensionculture; transfection; transient geneexpression

Results 1-5 (5)