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1.  Societal and individual burden of illness among fibromyalgia patients in France: Association between disease severity and OMERACT core domains 
Background
Patients with fibromyalgia (FM) report widespread pain, fatigue, and other functional limitations. This study aimed to provide an assessment of the burden of illness associated with FM in France and its association with disease severity and core domains as defined by Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) for FM.
Methods
This cross-sectional, observational study recruited patients with a prior diagnosis of FM from 18 community-based physician offices in France. Patients completed questions about FM impact (Fibromyalgia-Impact Questionnaire [FIQ]), core symptoms (defined by OMERACT), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), current overall health status (rated on a scale from 0 to 100), productivity, treatment satisfaction, and out-of-pocket expenses related to FM. Site staff recorded patients' treatment and health resource use based on medical record review. Costs were extrapolated from 4-week patient-reported data and 3-month clinical case report form data and calculated in 2008 Euros using a societal perspective. Tests of significance used the Kruskal-Wallis test or Fisher's Exact test where P < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results
Eighty-eight patients (mean 55.2 y; female:male 74:14) were recruited. The majority of patients (84.1%) were prescribed medications for FM. Patients mainly described medications as a little/not at all effective (40.0%) or somewhat effective (52.9%). Current Overall Health rating was 52.9 (± 17.8) and FIQ total score was 54.8 (± 17.3). FIQ total score was used to define FM severity, and 17 patients scored 0- < 39 (mild FM), 33 patients 39- < 59 (moderate FM), and 38 scored 59-100 (severe FM). As FM severity level worsened, patients had poorer overall health status and perceived their prescription medications to be less effective. Average cost/FM patient was higher for severe (€10,087) vs. moderate (€6,633) or mild FM (€5,473); however, the difference was not significant.
Conclusions
In a sample of 88 patients with FM from France, we found that FM poses a substantial economic and human burden on patients and society. FM severity level was significantly associated with patients' health status and core symptom domains.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-22
PMCID: PMC3305591  PMID: 22340435
Burden of illness; Fibromyalgia; France; Quality of life; Healthcare costs; Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT)
2.  Simplifying Fibromyalgia Assessment: The VASFIQ Brief Symptom Scale 
Objectives:
We tested the ability of the VASFIQ, a seven-item scale composed of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) visual analog scales (VASs), to quantify fibromyalgia global disease severity and identify fibromyalgia patients with significant symptoms of fatigue, poor sleep, depression or anxiety.
Methods:
Spearman rank correlations were used to compare global VASFIQ, FIQ and Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) scores and individual FIQ VAS scores with full-length, validated questionnaire scores for fatigue (Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue—Global Fatigue Index [MAF-GFI]), poor sleep (Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Problems Index [SPI]) and depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]). Patient scores used in the analyses were derived from 2229 patients enrolled in three pregabalin fibromyalgia trials. Receiver operating characteristic analyses determined VASFIQ cutoff scores identifying patients with clinically significant symptom levels using full-length, validated symptom questionnaires to define cases.
Results:
Global VASFIQ and FIQ scores correlated highly at baseline and study endpoints (ρ = 0.94 and 0.97, respectively; both p<0.0001). Change in global VASFIQ and FIQ scores correlated similarly to PGIC scores at study endpoints (ρ = 0.58 and 0.61, respectively; both p<0.0001). Individual FIQ VAS scores correlated with corresponding full-length symptom questionnaire scores at baseline and study endpoints (VASfatigue with MAF-GFI, ρ = 0.64 and 0.76; VASsleep with SPI, ρ = 0.50 and 0.67; VASdepression with HADS-D, ρ = 0.43 and 0.62; VASanxiety with HADS-A, ρ = 0.47 and 0.67, respectively; p <0.0001 for all). Patients with significant symptoms of fatigue were identified by VASfatigue >7.5, poor sleep by VASsleep >7.9, depression by VASdepression >5.8 and anxiety by VASanxiety >6.0. VASFIQ global scores ≥31.4 and ≥45.0 identified patients with moderate and severe global fibromyalgia symptoms, respectively.
Conclusions:
The VASFIQ scale accurately quantifies global fibromyalgia severity and identifies patients with significant symptoms of fatigue, poor sleep, depression or anxiety with brevity, enabling rapid patient assessment and informing treatment decisions in busy clinics.
doi:10.1177/1759720X11416863
PMCID: PMC3383533  PMID: 22870480
anxiety; depression; fatigue; fibromyalgia; pain; poor sleep; screening; symptoms
3.  The comparative burden of mild, moderate and severe Fibromyalgia: results from a cross-sectional survey in the United States 
Background
Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic, widespread pain, fatigue, and other symptoms; yet few studies have comprehensively assessed its humanistic burden. This observational study evaluates the impact of FM severity on patients' symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and productivity in the United States.
Methods
203 FM subjects were recruited from 20 physician offices. Subjects completed a questionnaire including the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF), Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS-SS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and questions about demographics, pain and other symptoms, HRQoL and productivity. FIQ total scores were used to define FM severity, with 0- < 39, 39- < 59, and 59-100, representing mild, moderate, and severe FM, respectively. Sites recorded subjects' clinical characteristics and FM treatment on case report forms using medical records. Summary statistics were calculated for continuous variables and frequency distributions for categorical variables. Differences across FM severity groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis or Chi-square tests. Statistical significance was evaluated at the 0.05 level.
Results
Mean (SD) age was 47.9 (10.9); 95% were female. Most (92%) were prescribed medication for FM; 24% and 66% reported moderate and severe FM, respectively. Mean (SD) scores were: 6.3 (2.1) for pain intensity; 0.35 (0.35) for EQ-5D; 30.7 (14.2) for MAF; 57.5 (18.4) for MOS-SS Sleep Problems Index; 10.2 (4.8) for HADS anxiety and 9.4 (4.4) for HADS depression. Subjects with worse FM severity reported significantly increased pain severity, HRQoL, fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety and depression (p < 0.001). Overall, 50% of subjects reported some disruption in their employment due to FM; this differed across severity levels (p < 0.001). Employed subjects missed a mean (SD) of 1.8 (3.9) workdays during the past 4 weeks; this also differed across severity levels (p = 0.03).
Conclusions
FM imposes a substantial humanistic burden on patients in the United States, and leads to substantial productivity loss, despite treatment. This burden is higher among subjects with worse FM severity.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-9-71
PMCID: PMC3179696  PMID: 21859448
Fibromyalgia; Quality of Life; Patient Outcomes Assessment; Burden of Illness; Health Resources
4.  Relationships between changes in pain severity and other patient-reported outcomes: an analysis in patients with posttraumatic peripheral neuropathic pain 
Background
The objective of this study is to use the pain numeric rating scale (NRS) to evaluate associations between change in pain severity and changes in sleep, function, and mood assessed via patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with posttraumatic pain.
Methods
This is a secondary analysis of a clinical trial evaluating pregabalin in patients with posttraumatic peripheral neuropathic pain (N = 254). Regression models were used to determine associations between changes in pain (0-10 NRS) as the predictor and scores on the following PRO measures as the outcome: Pain Interference Index; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety and depression subscales; Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale 9-item Sleep Problems Index and Sleep Disturbance subscale; and Daily Sleep Interference Scale (0-10 NRS).
Results
Change in pain severity showed clear, direct relationships with changes in function, anxiety, depression, and sleep PROs, all of which were statistically significant (P <.001). Results from subgroup analyses (≥30% or ≥50% pain responders, pregabalin or placebo treatment, age ≤ 51 years or > 51 years) tended to be consistent with results from the overall sample.
Conclusions
Overall, a direct relationship exists between pain and various aspects of patient's well-being and functioning, which can provide a quantitative assessment of how improvements in pain may be expected to relate to other patient outcomes. (http://ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier number NCT00292188; EudraCT #2005-003048-78).
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-9-17
PMCID: PMC3072302  PMID: 21439051
5.  Clinical risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis 
BMC Ophthalmology  2010;10:31.
Background
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in Western countries. Numerous risk factors have been reported but the evidence and strength of association is variable. We aimed to identify those risk factors with strong levels of evidence which could be easily assessed by physicians or ophthalmologists to implement preventive interventions or address current behaviours.
Methods
A systematic review identified 18 prospective and cross-sectional studies and 6 case control studies involving 113,780 persons with 17,236 cases of late AMD that included an estimate of the association between late AMD and at least one of 16 pre-selected risk factors. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were conducted for each factor to combine odds ratio (OR) and/or relative risk (RR) outcomes across studies by study design. Overall raw point estimates of each risk factor and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.
Results
Increasing age, current cigarette smoking, previous cataract surgery, and a family history of AMD showed strong and consistent associations with late AMD. Risk factors with moderate and consistent associations were higher body mass index, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and higher plasma fibrinogen. Risk factors with weaker and inconsistent associations were gender, ethnicity, diabetes, iris colour, history of cerebrovascular disease, and serum total and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Conclusions
Smoking, previous cataract surgery and a family history of AMD are consistent risk factors for AMD. Cardiovascular risk factors are also associated with AMD. Knowledge of these risk factors that may be easily assessed by physicians and general ophthalmologists may assist in identification and appropriate referral of persons at risk of AMD.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-10-31
PMCID: PMC3009619  PMID: 21144031
6.  Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of pregabalin in older patients with neuropathic pain: results from a pooled analysis of 11 clinical studies 
BMC Family Practice  2010;11:85.
Background
Older patients are typically underrepresented in clinical trials of medications for chronic pain. A post hoc analysis of multiple clinical studies of pregabalin in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) or postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in older patients.
Methods
Data from 11 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies of pregabalin in patients with DPN or PHN were pooled. Efficacy outcomes included change in Daily Pain Rating Scale score, ≥30% and ≥50% responders, and endpoint pain score ≤3. Safety was based on adverse events (AEs). Primary efficacy was analyzed by analysis of covariance with terms for treatment, age category, protocol, baseline pain, and treatment-by-age category interaction.
Results
2516 patients (white, n = 2344 [93.2%]; men, n = 1347 [53.5%]; PHN, n = 1003 [39.9%]; pregabalin, n = 1595) were included in the analysis. Patients were grouped by age: 18 to 64 years (n = 1236), 65 to 74 years (n = 766), and ≥75 years (n = 514). Baseline mean pain and sleep interference scores were comparable across treatment and age groups. Significant improvements in endpoint mean pain were observed for all pregabalin dosages versus placebo in all age groups (p ≤ 0.0009), except for the lowest dosage (150 mg/day) in the youngest age group. Clinically meaningful pain relief, defined as ≥30% and ≥50% pain response, was observed in all age groups. The most common AEs were dizziness, somnolence, peripheral edema, asthenia, dry mouth, weight gain, and infections. The relative risks for these AEs increased with pregabalin dose, but did not appear related to older age or type of neuropathic pain.
Conclusions
Pregabalin (150-600 mg/day) significantly reduced pain in older patients (age ≥65 years) with neuropathic pain and improvements in pain were comparable to those observed in younger patients. Titration of pregabalin to the lowest effective dose should allow for effective pain relief while minimizing AEs in older patients with neuropathic pain. Given the common use of polypharmacy in older patients, the absence of known drug-drug interactions makes pregabalin an important treatment option for older patients with pain of neuropathic origin.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-11-85
PMCID: PMC2988717  PMID: 21054853
7.  Burden of anemia in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in French secondary care 
BMC Geriatrics  2010;10:59.
Background
Arthritic disorders can be the cause of hospitalizations, especially among individuals 60 years and older. The objective of this study is to investigate associations between health care resource utilization in arthritis patients with and without concomitant anemia in a secondary care setting in France.
Methods
This retrospective cohort study utilized data on secondary care activity in 2001 from the Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d'Information database. Two cohorts were defined using ICD-10 codes: patients with an arthritis diagnosis with a concomitant diagnosis of anemia; and arthritis patients without anemia. Health care resource utilization for both populations was analyzed separately in public and private hospitals. Study outcomes were compared between the cohorts using standard bivariate and multivariable methods.
Results
There were 300,865 hospitalizations for patients with arthritis only, and 2,744 for those with concomitant anemia. Over 70% of patients with concomitant anemia were in public hospitals, compared with 53.5% of arthritis-only patients. Arthritis patients without anemia were younger than those with concomitant anemia (mean age 66.7 vs 74.6, public hospitals; 67.1 vs 72.2, private hospitals). Patients with concomitant anemia/arthritis only had a mean length of stay of 11.91 (SD 14.07)/8.04 (SD 9.93) days in public hospitals, and 10.68 (SD 10.16)/9.83 (SD 7.76) days in private hospitals. After adjusting for confounders, the mean (95% CI) additional length of stay for arthritis patients with concomitant anemia, compared with those with arthritis only, was 1.56 (1.14-1.98) days in public and 0.69 (0.22-1.16) days in private hospitals. Costs per hospitalization were €;480 (227-734) greater for arthritis patients with anemia in public hospitals, and €;30 (-113-52) less in private hospitals, than for arthritis-only patients.
Conclusions
Arthritis patients with concomitant anemia have a longer length of stay, undergo more procedures, and have higher hospitalization costs than nonanemic arthritis patients in public hospitals in France. In private hospitals, concomitant anemia was associated with modest increases in length of stay and number of procedures; however, this did not translate into higher costs. Such evidence of anemia-related health care utilization and costs can be considered as a proxy for the clinical significance of anemia.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-10-59
PMCID: PMC2939543  PMID: 20796267
8.  Identification of symptom and functional domains that fibromyalgia patients would like to see improved: a cluster analysis 
Background
The purpose of this study was to determine whether some of the clinical features of fibromyalgia (FM) that patients would like to see improved aggregate into definable clusters.
Methods
Seven hundred and eighty-eight patients with clinically confirmed FM and baseline pain ≥40 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale ranked 5 FM clinical features that the subjects would most like to see improved after treatment (one for each priority quintile) from a list of 20 developed during focus groups. For each subject, clinical features were transformed into vectors with rankings assigned values 1-5 (lowest to highest ranking). Logistic analysis was used to create a distance matrix and hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to identify cluster structure. The frequency of cluster selection was determined, and cluster importance was ranked using cluster scores derived from rankings of the clinical features. Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize and conceptualize cluster relationships.
Results
Six clinical features clusters were identified and named based on their key characteristics. In order of selection frequency, the clusters were Pain (90%; 4 clinical features), Fatigue (89%; 4 clinical features), Domestic (42%; 4 clinical features), Impairment (29%; 3 functions), Affective (21%; 3 clinical features), and Social (9%; 2 functional). The "Pain Cluster" was ranked of greatest importance by 54% of subjects, followed by Fatigue, which was given the highest ranking by 28% of subjects. Multidimensional scaling mapped these clusters to two dimensions: Status (bounded by Physical and Emotional domains), and Setting (bounded by Individual and Group interactions).
Conclusion
Common clinical features of FM could be grouped into 6 clusters (Pain, Fatigue, Domestic, Impairment, Affective, and Social) based on patient perception of relevance to treatment. Furthermore, these 6 clusters could be charted in the 2 dimensions of Status and Setting, thus providing a unique perspective for interpretation of FM symptomatology.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-134
PMCID: PMC2908076  PMID: 20584327
9.  Toward characterization and definition of fibromyalgia severity 
Background
There are no standard criteria for defining or assessing severity of fibromyalgia (FM) as a condition as fibromyalgia is associated with multiple symptom domains. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether patient self-reported severity of FM is associated with severity of pain and sleep interference and the presence of core co-morbidities.
Methods
We recruited individuals ≥ 18 years of age with a clinician-confirmed diagnosis of FM ≥ 3 months and a current pain rating >2 on a 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS). Patients completed a questionnaire by mail in which they self-rated their FM severity (very mild, mild, moderate, and severe), their current pain severity and extent of sleep interference (NRS; mild, 0-3; moderate, 4-6, severe, 7-10), and provided information (yes/no) on the presence of core comorbidities (symptoms of depression, anxiety, sleep problems, back pain, neck pain) and medication use for FM. The core symptoms of FM were stratified to assist with patient characterization. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to explore the relationship between self-reported FM severity and continuous variables (pain severity and sleep interference), and Mantel-Haenszel chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the trend in the proportions of patients reporting use of medications and core symptoms of FM by severity of FM. To complement patient-reported FM severity and to understand physicians' perspectives, a survey was performed among 28 physician specialists (rheumatology, neurology, anesthesiology/pain management, family practice, internal medicine, and psychiatry) to determine what they assessed when evaluating FM severity in clinical practice.
Results
The population (N = 129) of FM patients was predominantly female (89.1%), with a mean age of 49.4 ± 11.0 years, and 81.4% reported duration ≥ 2 years. Self-reported FM severity was moderate/severe in 86.0% of patients; mean current pain score was 6.40 ± 2.19 (moderate), and mean sleep interference score was 7.28 ± 2.23 (severe). Greater FM severity was significantly associated with higher levels of current pain and sleep interference (p < 0.0001), the proportion of patients reporting FM medication use (p = 0.0001), and the presence of core comorbidities (p < 0.05). Pain, functional disability, and fatigue severity were ranked as the top three criteria by the highest proportion of physicians when evaluating FM severity.
Conclusion
With higher self-reported FM severity, patients have greater pain and sleep interference as well as increased frequency of core comorbidities. Further investigation into understanding FM severity is warranted.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-66
PMCID: PMC2858098  PMID: 20377879
10.  Joint Assessment of Intended and Unintended Effects of Medications: An Example Using Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitors for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2010;2009:540431.
Objective. To estimate the net health benefits of pegaptanib and ranibizumab by considering the impact of visual acuity and unintended effects (cardiovascular and hemorrhagic events) on quality-of-life among persons with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Methods. We designed a probabilistic decision-analytic model using published data. It employed 17 visual health states and three for unintended effects. We calculated incremental net health benefits by subtracting the harms of each medication from the benefit using the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results. In a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 75-year olds with new-onset bilateral age-related macular degeneration followed for ten years, the mean QALYs per patient is 3.7 for usual care, 4.2 for pegaptanib, and 4.3 for ranibizumab. Net benefits decline with increasing baseline rates of unintended effects. Interpretation. Net health benefits present a quantitative, potentially useful tool to assist patients and ophthalmologists in balancing the benefits and harms of interventions for age-related macular degeneration.
doi:10.1155/2009/540431
PMCID: PMC2836847  PMID: 20339464
11.  Newly diagnosed exudative age-related macular degeneration treated with pegaptanib sodium monotherapy in US community-based practices: medical chart review study 
BMC Ophthalmology  2010;10:2.
Background
Studies have shown that early detection and treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NV-AMD) can delay vision loss and blindness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy/safety of intravitreal pegaptanib sodium monotherapy in treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed NV-AMD and to gain insight into characteristics of lesions treated in community-based practices.
Methods
From seven private US practices, charts were retrospectively reviewed on 73 subjects with previously untreated subfoveal choroidal NV-AMD treated with their first dose of pegaptanib monotherapy on/after 4/1/2005 through 6/5/2006, receiving ≥4 treatments at 6-week intervals over 21 weeks. Primary endpoint: mean visual acuity (VA) change from baseline to month 6.
Results
75% of lesions were occult, and 82% were subfoveal. From baseline to month 6, mean VA change was -0.68 lines; 58% and 16% gained ≥0 and ≥3 lines of VA, and 70% were responders (<3 lines lost). In 35 subjects with early disease, 80% were responders with a mean gain of 0.46 lines.
Conclusion
Pegaptanib is effective in real-world patients with treatment-naïve NV-AMD in uncontrolled community-based retina practices.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-10-2
PMCID: PMC2836307  PMID: 20144224
12.  Evaluation of the impact of fibromyalgia on patients' sleep and the content validity of two sleep scales 
Background
Disturbed sleep is commonly reported in fibromyalgia (FM). Both the Sleep Quality Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS-Sleep) have demonstrated positive psychometric properties in patients with FM. However, these assessments were developed prior to the current recommendation to include patient input during the concept elicitation or item generation phases. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of FM on participants, including their sleep, and to test the content validity of these two sleep measures in FM patients.
Methods
Qualitative interviews were conducted in Raleigh, North Carolina and Detroit, Michigan with 20 adults who reported a physician diagnosis of FM. Sixteen participants were female, 13 were white, and the average age was 50 years. Two researchers conducted all interviews using a structured guide.
Results
Participants consistently reported that FM had a debilitating impact on their lives and their sleep, particularly getting to sleep and staying asleep. Participants responded positively to the Sleep Quality NRS as an assessment of their sleep. The majority of participants stated that they would not change the response numbering or wording of the item's anchors. Participants also responded positively to the 24-hour recall period of the Sleep Quality NRS. Participants found the 12-item MOS-Sleep to be appropriate and relevant; 19 participants indicated the measure captured all of their sleep-related symptoms. However, areas for potential modification were identified, such as the need to separate the item regarding awakening short of breath and awakening with a headache into two separate questions. Participants also questioned the relevance of the snoring and awakening short of breath items to FM. Half of participants expressed a preference for a daily rather than a weekly recall period.
Conclusion
This study demonstrates the significant impact that FM has on patients' lives, particularly sleep. While patients with FM were not part of the development of the generic sleep assessments that were evaluated, this study provides evidence of their content validity, supporting their use in FM studies. Modifications to the MOS-Sleep may improve the psychometric properties and relevance to patients with FM.
doi:10.1186/1477-7525-7-64
PMCID: PMC2717926  PMID: 19591683
13.  Mortality associated with gastrointestinal bleeding events: Comparing short-term clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized for upper GI bleeding and acute myocardial infarction in a US managed care setting 
Objectives:
To compare the short-term mortality rates of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding to those of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by estimating the 30-, 60-, and 90-day mortality among hospitalized patients.
Methods:
United States national health plan claims data (1999–2003) were used to identify patients hospitalized with a GI bleeding event. Patients were propensity-matched to AMI patients with no evidence of GI bleed from the same US health plan.
Results:
12,437 upper GI-bleed patients and 22,847 AMI patients were identified. Propensity score matching yielded 6,923 matched pairs. Matched cohorts were found to have a similar Charlson Comorbidity Index score and to be similar on nearly all utilization and cost measures (excepting emergency room costs). A comparison of outcomes among the matched cohorts found that AMI patients had higher rates of 30-day mortality (4.35% vs 2.54%; p < 0.0001) and rehospitalization (2.56% vs 1.79%; p = 0.002), while GI bleed patients were more likely to have a repeat procedure (72.38% vs 44.95%; p < 0.001) following their initial hospitalization. The majority of the difference in overall 30-day mortality between GI bleed and AMI patients was accounted for by mortality during the initial hospitalization (1.91% vs 3.58%).
Conclusions:
GI bleeding events result in significant mortality similar to that of an AMI after adjusting for the initial hospitalization.
PMCID: PMC3108636  PMID: 21694823
gastrointestinal; bleeding; mortality; acute myocardial infarction; claims analysis

Results 1-13 (13)