Polymersomes are self-assembled shells of amphiphilic block copolymers that are currently being developed by many groups for fundamental insights into the nature of self-assembled states as well as for a variety of potential applications. While recent reviews have highlighted distinctive properties – particularly stability – that are strongly influenced by both copolymer type and polymer molecular weight, here we first review some of the more recent developments in computational molecular dynamics (MD) schemes that lend insight into assembly. We then review polymersome loading, in vivo stealthiness, degradation-based disassembly for controlled release, and even tumor-shrinkage in vivo. Comparisons of polymersomes with viral capsids are shown to encompass and inspire many aspects of current designs.
liposomes; amphiphile; block copolymers; nanoparticles; controlled release
Nanoparticle shape can improve drug delivery, based in part on recent findings that flexible, worm-like nanocarriers (Worms) increase the amount of drug delivered to tumors and shrink the tumors more effectively than spherical micelles (Spheres). Here, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to build a rational coarse grain (rCG) model that helps clarify shape-dependent effects in delivery of the widely used anticancer drug Taxol by block copolymer micelles. Potentials for rCG-MD were developed to examine the partitioning of this hydrophobic-aromatic drug into Worms and Spheres that self-assemble in water from poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(caprolactone) (PEG-PCL), a weakly segregating amphiphile. PCL is a biodegradable, hydrophobic polymer widely used in biomaterials and accurately modeled here. Thermodynamic integration of the force to pull a single Taxol molecule from the micelles into solvent shows that twice as much drug loads into Worms than Spheres, fully consistent with experiments. Diffusivity of drug in the hydrated PEG corona is surprisingly slow compared to that in the core, indicative of strong but transient drug-polymer interactions. The distinctly distended corona of the Worms enhances such interactions and reflects the same balance of molecular forces that underlie an experimentally-validated phase diagram for simulated Spheres, Worms, and Bilayers. Moreover, with realistic drug loadings in micro-second simulations, Taxol is seen to draw PEG chains into the PCL core, dispersing the drug while localizing it near the interface—thus providing a molecular explanation for a measurable burst release of drug as well as the enhanced delivery seen with Worms.
To evaluate the pharmacogenetic relationship between genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and response to treatment with ranibizumab (Lucentis) or bevacizumab (Avastin) for neovascular AMD.
834 (73%) of 1149 patients participating in the Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials (CATT) were recruited through 43 CATT clinical centers.
Each patient was genotyped for SNPs rs1061170 (CFH), rs10490924 (ARMS2), rs11200638 (HTRA1), and rs2230199 (C3), using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays.
Main Outcomes Measures
Genotypic frequencies were compared to clinical measures of response to therapy at one year including mean visual acuity (VA), mean change in VA, ≥15 letter increase, retinal thickness, mean change in total foveal thickness, presence of fluid on OCT, presence of leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA), mean change in lesion size and mean number of injections administered. Differences in response by genotype were evaluated with tests of linear trend calculated from logistic regression models for categorical outcomes and linear regression models for continuous outcomes. To adjust for multiple comparisons, p≤0.01 was considered statistically significant.
No statistically significant differences in response by genotype were identified for any of the clinical measures studied. Specifically, there were no high-risk alleles that predicted final VA or change in VA, the degree of anatomical response (fluid on OCT or FA, retinal thickness, change in total foveal thickness, change in lesion size) or the number of injections. Furthermore, a stepwise analysis failed to show a significant epistatic interaction among the variants analyzed; i.e., response did not vary by the number of risk alleles present. The lack of association was similar whether patients were treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab or whether they received monthly or pro re nata (PRN) dosing.
Although specific alleles for CFH, ARMS2, HTRA1 and C3 may predict the development of AMD, they did not predict response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy.
Cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels are tetramers formed by CNGA3 and CNGB3 subunits; CNGA3 subunits function as homotetrameric channels but CNGB3 exhibits channel function only when co-expressed with CNGA3. An aspartatic acid (Asp) to asparagine (Asn) missense mutation at position 262 in the canine CNGB3 (D262N) subunit results in loss of cone function (daylight blindness), suggesting an important role for this aspartic acid residue in channel biogenesis and/or function. Asp 262 is located in a conserved region of the second transmembrane segment containing three Asp residues designated the Tri-Asp motif. This motif is conserved in all CNG channels. Here we examine mutations in canine CNGA3 homomeric channels using a combination of experimental and computational approaches. Mutations of these conserved Asp residues result in the absence of nucleotide-activated currents in heterologous expression. A fluorescent tag on CNGA3 shows mislocalization of mutant channels. Co-expressing CNGB3 Tri-Asp mutants with wild type CNGA3 results in some functional channels, however, their electrophysiological characterization matches the properties of homomeric CNGA3 channels. This failure to record heteromeric currents suggests that Asp/Asn mutations affect heteromeric subunit assembly. A homology model of S1–S6 of the CNGA3 channel was generated and relaxed in a membrane using molecular dynamics simulations. The model predicts that the Tri-Asp motif is involved in non-specific salt bridge pairings with positive residues of S3/S4. We propose that the D262N mutation in dogs with CNGB3-day blindness results in the loss of these inter-helical interactions altering the electrostatic equilibrium within in the S1–S4 bundle. Because residues analogous to Tri-Asp in the voltage-gated Shaker potassium channel family were implicated in monomer folding, we hypothesize that destabilizing these electrostatic interactions impairs the monomer folding state in D262N mutant CNG channels during biogenesis.
Channel gating and proton conductance of the influenza A virus M2 channel result from complex pH-dependent interactions involving the pore-lining residues His37, Trp41, and Asp44. Protons diffusing from the outside of the virus protonate His37, which opens the Trp41 gate and allows one or more protons to move into the virus interior. The Trp41 gate gives rise to a strong asymmetry in the conductance, favoring rapid proton flux only when the outside is at acid pH. Here, we show that the proton currents recorded for mutants of Asp44, including D44N found in the A/FPV/Rostock/34 strain, lose this asymmetry. Moreover, NMR and MD simulations show that the mutations induce a conformational change similar to that induced by protonation of His37 at low pH, and decrease the structural stability of the hydrophobic seal associated with the Trp41 gate. Thus, Asp44 is able to determine two important properties of the M2 proton channel.
We report the solution NMR structure of a designed dimetal-binding protein, di-Zn(II) DFsc, along with a secondary refinement step employing molecular dynamics techniques. Calculation of the initial NMR structural ensemble by standard methods led to distortions in the metal-ligand geometries at the active site. Unrestrained molecular dynamics using a non-bonded force field for the metal shell, followed by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical dynamics of DFsc, were used to relax local frustrations at the dimetal site that were apparent in the initial NMR structure and provide a more realistic description of the structure. The MD model is consistent with NMR restraints, and in good agreement with the structural and functional properties expected for DF proteins. This work demonstrates that NMR structures of metalloproteins can be further refined using classical and first-principles molecular dynamics methods in the presence of explicit solvent to provide otherwise unavailable insight into the geometry of the metal center.
Computational methods and experimental data are used to provide structural models for NaChBac, the homo-tetrameric voltage-gated sodium channel from the bacterium Bacillus halodurans, with a closed and partially open pore domain. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on membrane-bound homo-tetrameric NaChBac structures, each comprising six helical transmembrane segments (labeled S1 through S6), reveal that the shape of the lumen, which is defined by the bundle of four alpha-helical S6 segments, is modulated by hinge bending motions around the S6 glycine residues. Mutation of these glycine residues into proline and alanine affects, respectively, the structure and conformational flexibility of the S6 bundle. In the closed channel conformation, a cluster of stacked phenylalanine residues from the four S6 helices hinders diffusion of water molecules and Na+ ions. Activation of the voltage sensor domains causes destabilization of the aforementioned cluster of phenylalanines, leading to a more open structure. The conformational change involving the phenylalanine cluster promotes a kink in S6, suggesting that channel gating likely results from the combined action of hinge-bending motions of the S6 bundle and concerted reorientation of the aromatic phenylalanine side-chains.
To investigate genetic determinants of macular pigment optical density in women from the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.
1585 of 2005 CAREDS participants had macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measured noninvasively using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry and blood samples genotyped for 440 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 candidate genes related to absorption, transport, binding, and cleavage of carotenoids directly, or via lipid transport. SNPs were individually tested for associations with MPOD using least-squares linear regression.
Twenty-one SNPs from 11 genes were associated with MPOD (P ≤ 0.05) after adjusting for dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin. This includes variants in or near genes related to zeaxanthin binding in the macula (GSTP1), carotenoid cleavage (BCMO1), cholesterol transport or uptake (SCARB1, ABCA1, ABCG5, and LIPC), long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status (ELOVL2, FADS1, and FADS2), and various maculopathies (ALDH3A2 and RPE65). The strongest association was for rs11645428 near BCMO1 (βA = 0.029, P = 2.2 × 10−4). Conditional modeling within genes and further adjustment for other predictors of MPOD, including waist circumference, diabetes, and dietary intake of fiber, resulted in 13 SNPs from 10 genes maintaining independent association with MPOD. Variation in these single gene polymorphisms accounted for 5% of the variability in MPOD (P = 3.5 × 10−11).
Our results support that MPOD is a multi-factorial phenotype associated with variation in genes related to carotenoid transport, uptake, and metabolism, independent of known dietary and health influences on MPOD.
In 1585 postmenopausal women of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study sample, common genetic variants in or near genes involved in carotenoid transport, uptake, and metabolism were associated with density of lutein and zeaxanthin in the macula, independent of other known predictors, including dietary intake of carotenoids.
Despite the clinical ubiquity of anesthesia, the molecular basis of anesthetic action is poorly understood. Amongst the many molecular targets proposed to contribute to anesthetic effects, the voltage gated sodium channels (VGSCs) should also be considered relevant, as they have been shown to be sensitive to all general anesthetics tested thus far. However, binding sites for VGSCs have not been identified. Moreover, the mechanism of inhibition is still largely unknown. The recently reported atomic structures of several members of the bacterial VGSC family offer the opportunity to shed light on the mechanism of action of anesthetics on these important ion channels. To this end, we have performed a molecular dynamics “flooding” simulation on a membrane-bound structural model of the archetypal bacterial VGSC, NaChBac in a closed pore conformation. This computation allowed us to identify binding sites and access pathways for the commonly used volatile general anesthetic, isoflurane. Three sites have been characterized with binding affinities in a physiologically relevant range. Interestingly, one of the most favorable sites is in the pore of the channel, suggesting that the binding sites of local and general anesthetics may overlap. Surprisingly, even though the activation gate of the channel is closed, and therefore the pore and the aqueous compartment at the intracellular side are disconnected, we observe binding of isoflurane in the central cavity. Several sampled association and dissociation events in the central cavity provide consistent support to the hypothesis that the “fenestrations” present in the membrane-embedded region of the channel act as the long-hypothesized hydrophobic drug access pathway.
The molecular mechanisms mediating the pharmacologically induced state of general anesthesia are, in general, poorly understood. Modulation of voltage gated sodium channels is thought to play a major role in anesthesia, as several members of this class of channels show a significant response to general anesthetics. However, the detailed mechanism of inhibition or potentiation of these channels is completely unknown. Recently, the structures of several members of the bacterial family became available, thereby offering the opportunity to shed light on some of these issues. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations on one of these bacterial voltage gated sodium channels, NaChBac, to identify binding sites and access pathways for the volatile general anesthetic isoflurane. We found that isoflurane, at physiologically relevant concentrations, binds the channel at three distinct sites. One site is in the pore of the channel, suggesting that isoflurane may hinder the permeant sodium ions. Surprisingly, we found that this binding site is accessible to the drug even when the pore and the aqueous compartment at the intracellular side are disconnected. In our simulations, the “fenestrations” present in the membrane-embedded region of the channel act as the long-hypothesized hydrophobic drug access pathway.
Developing an understanding of the mechanism of voltage-gated ion channels in molecular terms requires knowledge of the structure of the active and resting conformations. Although the active-state conformation is known from x-ray structures, an atomic resolution structure of a voltage-dependent ion channel in the resting state is not currently available. This has motivated various efforts at using computational modeling methods and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to provide the missing information. A comparison of recent computational results reveals an emerging consensus on voltage-dependent gating from computational modeling and MD simulations. This progress is highlighted in the broad context of preexisting work about voltage-gated channels.
The relentless growth in computational power has seen increasing applications of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to the study of membrane proteins in realistic membrane environments, which include explicit membrane lipids, water and ions. The concomitant increasing availability of membrane protein structures for ion channels, and transporters -- to name just two examples -- has stimulated many of these MD studies. In the case of voltage-gated cation channels (VGCCs) recent computational works have focused on ion-conduction and gating mechanisms, along with their regulation by agonist/antagonist ligands. The information garnered from these computational studies is largely inaccessible to experiment and is crucial for understanding the interplay between the structure and function as well as providing new directions for experiments. This article highlights recent advances in probing the structure and function of potassium channels and offers a perspective on the challenges likely to arise in making analogous progress in characterizing sodium channels.
Ion Channels; Ionic Conduction; Gating; S4 helix; Regulation; Molecular Dynamics Simulations; Structure and Function
Variation in the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has been reported to be associated with longevity in humans. The authors assessed the allelic distribution of APOE isoforms ε2, ε3, and ε4 among 10,623 participants from 15 case-control and cohort studies of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in populations of European ancestry (study dates ranged from 1990 to 2009). The authors included only the 10,623 control subjects from these studies who were classified as having no evidence of AMD, since variation within the APOE gene has previously been associated with AMD. In an analysis stratified by study center, gender, and smoking status, there was a decreasing frequency of the APOE ε4 isoform with increasing age (χ2 for trend = 14.9 (1 df); P = 0.0001), with a concomitant increase in the ε3 isoform (χ2 for trend = 11.3 (1 df); P = 0.001). The association with age was strongest in ε4 homozygotes; the frequency of ε4 homozygosity decreased from 2.7% for participants aged 60 years or less to 0.8% for those over age 85 years, while the proportion of participants with the ε3/ε4 genotype decreased from 26.8% to 17.5% across the same age range. Gender had no significant effect on the isoform frequencies. This study provides strong support for an association of the APOE gene with human longevity.
aged; apolipoprotein E2; apolipoprotein E3; apolipoprotein E4; apolipoproteins E; longevity; meta-analysis; multicenter study
Modified DNA bases are widespread in biology. 5-Methylcytosine (mC) is a predominant epigenetic marker in higher eukaryotes involved in gene regulation, development, aging, cancer, and disease. Recently, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) was identified in mammalian brain tissue and stem cells. However, most of the currently available assays cannot distinguish mC from hmC in DNA fragments. We investigate here the physical properties of DNA with modified cytosines, in efforts to develop a physical tool that distinguishes mC from hmC in DNA fragments. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that polar cytosine modifications affect internal base pair dynamics, while experimental evidence suggest a correlation between the modified cytosine’s polarity, DNA flexibility, and duplex stability. Based on these physical differences, solid-state nanopores can rapidly discriminate among DNA fragments with mC or hmC modification by sampling a few hundred molecules in the solution. Further, the relative proportion of hmC in the sample can be determined from the electronic signature of the intact DNA fragment.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the developed world. We conducted a genome-wide association study in a series of families enriched for AMD and completed a meta-analysis of this new data with results from reanalysis of an existing study of a late-stage case/control cohort. We tested the top findings for replication in 1 896 cases and 1 866 controls and identified two novel genetic protective factors for AMD. In addition to the CFH (p=2.3×10−64) and ARMS2 (p=1.2×10−60) loci, we observed a protective effect at rs429608, an intronic SNP in SKIV2L (p=5.3×10−15), a gene near the C2/BF locus, that indicates the protective effect may be mediated by variants other than the C2/BF variants previously studied. Haplotype analysis at this locus identified three protective haplotypes defined by the rs429608 protective allele. We also identified a new potentially protective effect at rs2679798 in MYRIP (p=2.9×10−4), a gene involved in retinal pigment epithelium melanosome trafficking. Interestingly, MYRIP was initially identified in the family-based scan and was confirmed in the case-control set. From these efforts, we report the identification of two novel protective factors for AMD and confirm the previously known associations at CFH, ARMS2 and C3.
macular degeneration; association testing; melanosome trafficking
Although general anesthetics are known to modulate the activity of ligand-gated ion channels in the Cys-loop superfamily, there is at present neither consensus on the underlying mechanisms, nor predictive models of this modulation. Viable models need to offer quantitative assessment of the relative importance of several identified anesthetic binding sites. However, to date, precise affinity data for individual sites has been challenging to obtain by biophysical means. Here, the likely role of pore block inhibition by the general anesthetics isoflurane and propofol of the prokaryotic pentameric channel GLIC is investigated by molecular simulations. Microscopic affinities are calculated for both single and double occupancy binding of isoflurane and propofol to the GLIC pore. Computations are carried out for an open-pore conformation in which the pore is restrained to crystallographic radius, and a closed-pore conformation that results from unrestrained molecular dynamics equilibration of the structure. The GLIC pore is predicted to be blocked at the micromolar concentrations for which inhibition by isofluorane and propofol is observed experimentally. Calculated affinities suggest that pore block by propofol occurs at signifcantly lower concentrations than those for which inhibition is observed: we argue that this discrepancy may result from binding of propofol to an allosteric site recently identified by X-ray crystallography, which may cause a competing gain-of-function effect. Affinities of isoflurane and propofol to the allosteric site are also calculated, and shown to be 3 mM for isoflurane and for propofol; both anesthetics have a lower affinity for the allosteric site than for the unoccupied pore.
Although general anesthesia is performed every day on thousands of people, its detailed microscopic mechanisms are not known. What is known is that general anesthetic drugs modulate the activity of ion channels in the central nervous system. These channels are proteins that open in response to binding of neurotransmitter molecules, creating an electric current through the cell membrane and thus propagating nerve impulses between cells. One possible mechanism for ion channel inhibition by anesthetics is that the drugs bind inside the pore of the channels, blocking ion current. Here we investigate such a pore block mechanism by computing the strength of the drugs' interaction with the pore – and hence the likelihood of binding, in the case of GLIC, a bacterial channel protein. The results, obtained from numerical simulations of atomic models of GLIC, indicate that the anesthetics isoflurane and propofol have a tendency to bind in the pore that is strong enough to explain blocking of the channel, even at low concentration of the drugs.
Since their discovery in the 1950s, the structure and function of voltage-gated cation channels (VGCC) has been largely understood thanks to results stemming from electrophysiology, pharmacology, spectroscopy, and structural biology. Over the past decade, computational methods such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have also contributed, providing molecular level information that can be tested against experimental results, thereby allowing the validation of the models and protocols. Importantly, MD can shed light on elements of VGCC function that cannot be easily accessed through “classical” experiments. Here, we review the results of recent MD simulations addressing key questions that pertain to the function and modulation of the VGCC’s voltage-sensor domain (VSD) highlighting: (1) the movement of the S4-helix basic residues during channel activation, articulating how the electrical driving force acts upon them; (2) the nature of the VSD intermediate states on transitioning between open and closed states of the VGCC; and (3) the molecular level effects on the VSD arising from mutations of specific S4 positively charged residues involved in certain genetic diseases.
Kv1.2; gating charges; VSD intermediate states; molecular models; channelopathies; mutations; omega currents
Influenza A virus M2 (A/M2) forms a homotetrameric proton selective channel in the viral membrane. It has been the drug targets of antiviral drugs such as amantadine and rimantadine. However, most of the current virulent influenza A viruses carry drug resistant mutations alongside the drug binding site, such as S31N, V27A, and L26F etc., each of which might be dominant in a given flu season. Among these mutations, the V27A mutation was prevalent among transmissible viruses under drug selection pressure. Until now, V27A has not been successfully targeted by small molecule inhibitors, despite years of extensive medicinal chemistry research efforts and high throughput screening. Guided by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of drug binding and the influence of drug binding on the dynamics of A/M2 from earlier experimental studies, we designed a series of potent spirane amine inhibitors targeting not only WT, but also both A/M2-27A and L26F mutants with IC50s similar to that seen for amantadine's inhibition of the WT channel. The potencies of these inhibitors were further demonstrated in experimental binding and plaque reduction assays. These results demonstrate the power of MD simulations to probe the mechanism of drug binding as well as the ability to guide design of inhibitors of targets that had previously appeared to be undruggable.
We present the results of coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation using a charge free model that is able to capture different regions of the morphological phase diagram of charged diblock copolymers. Specifically, we were able to reproduce many phases of the poly(acrylic acid)-(1,4)-poly-butadiene (PAA-PBA) diblock copolymer, Ca+2 and water systems as a function of pH and calcium concentration with short range LJ type potentials. The morphologies observed range from bilayers to cylinders to spherical micelles. Such polyanionic/cationic amphiphiles in water typically present multiple challenges for molecular simulations, particularly due to the many charge interactions which are long ranged and computationally costly. Further, it is precisely these interactions that are thought to modulate large amphiphile assemblies of interest such as lipid rafts. However, our model is able to reproduce different morphologies due to pH and with or without the addition of Ca2+ as well as the lateral phase segregation and the domain registration observed in neutral and charged diblock copolymer mixtures. The results suggest that the overall effect of charges is a local structural rearrangement that renormalizes the steric repulsion between the headgroups. This simple model which is devoid of charges is able to reproduce the complex phase diagram and can be used to investigate collective phenomena in these charged systems such as domain formation and registration or co-localization of lipid rafts across bilayer leaflets.
The M2 protein of influenza A virus performs the crucial function of transporting protons to the interior of virions enclosed in the endosome. Adamantane drugs, amantadine (AMN) and rimantidine (RMN), block the proton conduction in some strains, and have been used for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza A infections. The structures of the transmembrane (TM) region of M2 that have been solved in micelles using NMR (residues 23-60) [Schnell and Chou (2008)] and by X-ray crystallography (residues 22-46) [Stouffer et al. (2008)] suggest different drug binding sites: external and internal for RMN and AMN, respectively. We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the nature of the binding site and binding mode of adamantane drugs on the membrane-bound tetrameric M2-TM peptide bundles using as initial conformations the low-pH AMN-bound crystal structure, a high-pH model derived from the drug-free crystal structure, and the high-pH NMR structure. The MD simulations indicate that under both low-and high-pH conditions, AMN is stable inside the tetrameric bundle, spanning the region between residues Val27 to Gly34. At low pH the polar group of AMN is oriented toward the His37 gate while under high-pH conditions its orientation exhibits large fluctuations. The present MD simulations also suggest that AMN and RMN molecules do not show strong affinity to the external binding sites.
molecular dynamics; simulations; amantadine; adamantine; transmembrane; ion channel
The tetrameric M2 protein bundle of the influenza A virus is the proton channel responsible for the acidification of the viral interior, a key step in the infection cycle. Selective proton transport is achieved by successive protonation of the conserved histidine amino acids at position 37. A recent X-ray structure of the tetrameric transmembrane (TM) domain of the protein (residues 22–46) resolved several water clusters in the channel lumen, which suggest possible proton pathways to the His37 residues. To explore this hypothesis, we have carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a proton traveling towards the His37 side chains using MD with classical and quantum force fields. Diffusion through the first half of the channel to the “entry” water cluster near His37 may be hampered by significant kinetic barriers due to electrostatic repulsion. However, once in the entry cluster, a proton can move to one of the acceptor His37 in a nearly barrierless fashion, as evidenced both by MD simulations and a scan of the potential energy surface (PES). Water molecules of the entry cluster, although confined in the M2 pore and restricted in their motions, can conduct protons with a rate very similar to that of bulk water.
Ribonuclease H (RNase H) belongs to the nucleotidyl-transferase (NT) superfamily and hydrolyzes the phosphodiester linkage on the RNA strand of a DNA/RNA hybrid duplex. Due to its activity in HIV reverse transcription, it represents a promising target for anti-HIV drug design. While crystallographic data have located two ions in the catalytic site, there is ongoing debate concerning just how many metal ions bound at the active site are optimal for catalysis. Indeed, experiments have shown a dependency of the catalytic activity on the Mg2+ concentration. Moreover, in RNase H the glutamate residue E188 has been shown to be essential for full enzymatic activation regardless of the Mg2+ concentration. The catalytic center is known to contain two Mg2+ ions (Nowotny et al.) and E188 is not one of the primary metal ligands. Herein, classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are employed to study the metal-ligand coordination in RNase H at different concentration of Mg2+. Importantly, the presence of a third Mg2+ ion, bound to the second-shell ligand E188, is persistent feature of the MD simulations. Free energy calculations have identified two distinct conformations depending on the concentration of Mg2+. At standard concentration, a third Mg2+ is found in the catalytic pocket but it does not perturb the optimal RNase H active conformation. However, at higher concentration, the third Mg2+ ion heavily perturbs the nucleophilic water and thereby influences the catalytic efficiency of RNase H. In addition, the E188A mutant shows no ability to engage additional Mg2+ ions nearby the catalytic pocket. This finding likely explains the decrease in catalytic activity of E188A, and also supports the key role of E188 in localizing the third Mg2+ ion at the active site. Glutamate residues are commonly found surrounding the metal center in the endonuclease family, which suggests that this structural motif may be an important feature to enhance catalytic activity. The present MD calculations support the hypothesis that the RNase H can accommodate three divalent metal ions in its catalytic pocket, and provide an in-depth understanding of their dynamic role for catalysis.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), akin to other common age-related diseases, has a complex pathogenesis and arises from the interplay of genes, environmental factors, and personal characteristics. The past decade has seen very significant strides towards identification of those precise genetic variants associated with disease. That genes encoding proteins of the (alternative) complement pathway (CFH, C2, CFB, C3, CFI) are major players in etiology came as a surprise to many but has already lead to the development of therapies entering human clinical trials. Other genes replicated in many populations ARMS2, APOE, variants near TIMP3, and genes involved in lipid metabolism have also been implicated in disease pathogenesis. The genes discovered to date can be estimated to account for approximately 50% of the genetic variance of AMD and have been discovered by candidate gene approaches, pathway analysis, and latterly genome-wide association studies. Next generation sequencing modalities and meta-analysis techniques are being employed with the aim of identifying the remaining rarer but, perhaps, individually more significant sequence variations, linked to disease status. Complementary studies have also begun to utilize this genetic information to develop clinically useful algorithms to predict AMD risk and evaluate pharmacogenetics. In this article, contemporary commentary is provided on rapidly progressing efforts to elucidate the genetic pathogenesis of AMD as the field stands at the end of the first decade of the 21st century.
genes; complex disease; susceptibility; AMD
Molecular Dynamics simulations with the CHARMM atomistic force field have been used to study monolayers of a series of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) at the water/air interface. Both the numbers of carbon atoms in the LAS alkyl tail (1 to 11), and the position of attachment of the benzene ring on the alkyl chain have been varied. Totally 36 LAS homologues and isomers have been investigated. The surface tensions of the systems and the average tilt angles of the LAS molecules are found to be related to both the length and the degree of branching of the alkyl tails, whereas the solubility and mobility are mostly determined by the tail length.
Computer simulation; surfactant; molecular dynamics; liquid-vacuum interface; LABS
To determine if genotype is associated with rate of growth of geographic atrophy (GA) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Prospective analysis of participants in a randomized controlled clinical trial.
114 eyes of 114 participants in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS).
Fundus photographs from AREDS participants with GA from whom a DNA specimen had been obtained and serial photographs had been taken over a minimum of 2 years were evaluated for progression as determined by change in cumulative area of GA. All fundus photographs were scanned, digitized, and centrally graded longitudinally for area of GA. The relationship of GA progression with previously identified genetic variants associated with AMD was assessed.
Main Outcome Measures
Genotype frequencies and change in cumulative area of GA.
The mean growth rate of geographic atrophy for the 114 eyes was 1.79 mm2/year (range= 0.17–4.76 mm2/year). No association between growth rate and genotype was present for variants in the CFH, C2, C3, APOE, and TLR3genes. For the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10490924 in LOC387715/ARMS2, there was a significant association of GA growth rate, both adjusted and unadjusted for initial lesion size, with the homozygous risk genotype as compared to the homozygous non-risk genotype (unadjusted p-value = 0.002; Bonferroni corrected p-value = 0.014) and for allelic association(Bonferroni corrected p-value = 0.011). Analyses of other measures of geographic atrophy progression (progression to central GA from extrafoveal GA and development of bilateral GA in those initially with unilateral GA) showed no statistically significant association between progression and the LOC387715/ARMS2/HTRA1 genotype.
GA growth rates calculated from digitized serial fundus photographs showed no association with variants in the CFH, C2, C3, APOE, and TLR3 genes. There was a nominally statistically significant association with the LOC387715/ARMS2/HTRA1 genotype, although this finding was not supported by analyses of secondary measures of GA progression. Replication in other populations would be needed to establish the existence of an association.
A new coarse-grained (CG) intermolecular force field is presented for a series of zwitterionic lipids. The model is an extension of our previous work on nonionic surfactants and is designed to reproduce experimental surface/interfacial properties as well as distribution functions from all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Using simple functional forms, the force field parameters are optimized for multiple lipid molecules, simultaneously. The resulting CG lipid bilayers have reasonable molecular areas, chain order parameters, and elastic properties. The computed surface pressure vs. area (π-A) curve for a DPPC monolayer demonstrates a significant improvement over the previous CG models. The DPPC monolayer has a longer persistence length than a PEG lipid monolayer, exhibiting a long-lived curved monolayer surface under negative tension. The bud ejected from an oversaturated DPPC monolayer has a large bicelle-like structure, which is different from the micellar bud formed from an oversaturated PEG lipid monolayer. We have successfully observed vesicle formation during CG-MD simulations, starting from an aggregate of DMPC molecules. Depending on the aggregate size, the lipid assembly spontaneously transforms into a closed vesicle or a bicelle. None of the various intermediate structures between these extremes seem to be stable. An attempt to observe fusion of two vesicles through the application of an external adhesion force was not successful. The present CG force field also supports stable multi-lamellar DMPC vesicles.
Coarse grain force field; lipid; vesicle; surface tension; monolayer; surface pressure