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1.  MicroRNA expression and clinical outcomes in patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy after complete resection of non-small cell lung carcinoma 
Cancer research  2010;70(21):8288-8298.
This study determined whether expression levels of a panel of biologically relevant microRNAs can be used as prognostic or predictive biomarkers in patients who participated in the International Adjuvant Lung Cancer Trial (IALT), the largest randomized study conducted to date of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with radically resected non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Expression of miR-21, miR-29b, miR-34a/b/c, miR-155 and let-7a was determined by quantitative real-time PCR in paraffin embedded formalin fixed tumor specimens from 639 IALT patients. Prognostic and predictive value of microRNA expression for survival were studied using a Cox model, which included every factor used in the stratified randomization, clinicopathological prognostic factors and other factors statistically related to microRNA expression. Investigation of the expression pattern of microRNAs in situ was performed. We also analyzed association of TP53 mutation status and miR-34a/b/c expression, EGFR and KRAS mutation status and miR-21 and Let-7a expression, respectively. Finally, association of p16 and miR-29b expression was assessed. Overall, no significant association was found between any of the tested microRNAs and survival, with the exception of miR-21 where a deleterious prognostic effect of lowered expression was suggested. Otherwise, no single or combinatorial microRNA expression profile predicted response to adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Together, our results indicate that the miRNA expression patterns examined were neither predictive nor prognostic in a large patient cohort of radically resected NSCLC randomized to receive adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy versus follow-up only.
PMCID: PMC2970724  PMID: 20978195
non–small cell lung cancer; adjuvant chemotherapy; randomized trial; biomarker; drug resistance; microRNA
2.  Dimethandrolone (7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone) and 11β-methyl-19-nortestosterone are not converted to aromatic A-ring products in the presence of recombinant human aromatase☆ 
Dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU: 7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone 17β-undecanoate) is a potent orally active androgen in development for hormonal therapy in men. Cleavage of the 17β-ester bond by esterases in vivo leads to liberation of the biologically active androgen, dimethandrolone (DMA), a 19-norandrogen. For hormone replacement in men, administration of C19 androgens such as testosterone (T) may lead to elevations in circulating levels of estrogens due to aromatization. As several reports have suggested that certain 19-norandrogens may serve as substrates for the aromatase enzyme and are converted to the corresponding aromatic A-ring products, it was important to investigate whether DMA, the related compound, 11β-methyl-19-nortestosterone (11β-MNT), also being tested for hormonal therapy in men, and other 19-norandrogens can be converted to aromatic A-ring products by human aromatase. The hypothetical aromatic A-ring product corresponding to each substrate was obtained by chemical synthesis. These estrogens bound with high affinity to purified recombinant human estrogen receptors (ER) α and β in competitive binding assays (IC50's: 5−12 × 10−9 M) and stimulated transcription of 3XERE-luciferase in T47Dco human breast cancer cells with a potency equal to or greater than that of estradiol (E2) (EC50's: 10−12 to 10−11 M). C19 androgens (T, 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-MT), androstenedione (AD), and 16α-hydroxyandrostenedione (16α-OHAD)), 19-norandrogens (DMA, 11β-MNT, 19-nortestosterone (19-NT), and 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT)) or the structurally similar 19-norprogestin, norethindrone (NET) were incubated at 50 μM with recombinant human aromatase for 10−180 min at 37 °C. The reactions were terminated by extraction with acetonitrile and centrifugation, and substrate and potential product were separated by HPLC. Retention times were monitored by UV absorption, and UV peaks were quantified using standard curves. Aromatization of the positive controls, T, AD, and 16α-OHAD was linear for 40−60 min, and conversion of T or AD was complete by 120 min. The nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, demonstrated concentration-dependent suppression of T aromatization. Under the same conditions, there was no detectable conversion of DMA, 11β-MNT, or NET to their respective hypothetical aromatic A-ring products during incubation times up to 180 min. Aromatization of MENT and 19-NT proceeded slowly and was limited. Collectively, these data support the notion that in the absence of the C19-methyl group, which is the site of attack by oxygen, aromatization of androgenic substrates proceeds slowly or not at all and that this reaction is impeded by the presence of a methyl group at the 11β position.
PMCID: PMC2575079  PMID: 18555683
Human aromatase; C19 androgens; 19-Norandrogens; Estrogen receptors; Transcription; Hormonal therapy for men

Results 1-2 (2)