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1.  A New Approach for Scatter Removal and Attenuation Compensation from SPECT/CT Images 
Objective(s): In SPECT, the sinogram contains scatter and lack of attenuated counts that degrade the reconstructed image quality and quantity. Many techniques for attenuation and scatter correction have been proposed. An acceptable method of correction is to incorporate effects into an iterative statistical reconstruction. Here, we propose new Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (MLEM) formula to correct scattering and attenuating photons during reconstruction.
Materials and Methods: In this work, scatters are estimated through Klein-Nishina formula in all iterations and CT images are used for accurate attenuation correction. Reconstructed images resulted from different MLEM reconstruction formula have been compared considering profile agreement, contrast, mean square error, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and computational time.
Results: The proposed formula has a good profile agreement, increased contrast, signal-to-noise (SNR) & contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), computational time and decreased mean square error (MSE) compared with uncorrected images and/or images from conventional formula.
Conclusion: In conclusion, by applying the proposed formula we were able to correct attenuation and scatter via MLEM and improve the image quality, which is a necessary step for both qualitative and quantitative SPECT images.
PMCID: PMC3909630  PMID: 24494071
Attenuation correction; MLEM; Scatter correction; SPECT
2.  Microvascular obstruction after successful fibrinolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Comparison of reteplase vs reteplase+abciximab: A cardiovascular magnetic resonance study 
Heart International  2006;2(1):54.
Background.
About one third of patients with TIMI 3 after reperfusion have evidence of microvascular obstruction (MO) which represents an independent predictor of myocardial wall rupture. This explains all efforts made to prevent MO. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be particularly useful in detecting MO. The aim of this study was to evaluate with MRI if different fibrinolytic regimens in acute myocardial infarction display different effects on left ventricle (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF), as well as on myocardial infarct size (MIsz) and MO.
Methods.
Twenty male patients, mean age 58 years, affected by acute myocardial infarction, ten anterior and ten inferior, were treated with: full dose reteplase in ten, and half dose reteplase plus full dose abciximab (R+Abcx) in the other ten patients. In the fourth day after hospital admission, MRI STIR T2 images were used to quantify MIsz, while 2dflash cineloops were used after the injection of gadolinium, to quantify LV volumes, EF and to detect MO.
Results.
LV EF was higher in R+Abcx 51±10 than in reteplase 41±8. MIsz was similar in both treatment groups: however a close relationship was present between MIsz and EF in the reteplase group indicating that the greater the MIsz the lower the EF. In R+Abcx this relationship was no longer present, suggesting a protective effect of the drug on microcirculation. In fact extensive MO was present in 25% of all cases, 80% of which in the reteplase group while only 20% in R+Abcx.
Conclusion.
R+Abcx prevents MO: compared to traditional fibrinolytic therapy it allows better LV function and most likely improved long term survival.
doi:10.4081/hi.2006.54
PMCID: PMC3184656  PMID: 21977252
Magnetic resonance; Myocardial infarction; Microvascular obstruction
3.  Use of segmented CT transmission map to avoid metal artifacts in PET images by a PET-CT device 
Background: Attenuation correction is generally used to PET images to achieve count rate values independent from tissue densities. The goal of this study was to provide a qualitative comparison of attenuation corrected PET images produced by a PET-CT device (CT, 120 kV, 40 mAs, FOV 600 mm) with and without segmentation of transmission data (ACseg+ and ACseg-respectively). Methods: The reconstructed images were compared to attenuation corrected images obtained with a high-energy transmission source (Cs-137 – 662 keV).
Thirty oncologic patients were studied using CT and 137Cs for attenuation correction. All image data were acquired using the Gemini PET-CT scanner (Philips Medical Systems). It is an open PET-CT system that consists of the MX8000 multislice CT and the Allegro PET scanner arranged in a separable configuration. Images with ACseg+ and ACseg- were analyzed simultaneously in coronal, sagittal and transaxial planes. Two nuclear medicine physicians reviewed the image sets. Results: The image quality in the area of metal implants was better with ACseg+ than ACseg-, without metal induced artifacts generally observed in CT corrected images. Further the images with ACseg+ were qualitatively comparable to those obtained with 137Cs attenuation correction. Conclusions: In case of metal implants, PET studies corrected by CT should preferably use the ACseg+ method to avoid the image artifacts.
doi:10.1186/1471-2385-5-3
PMCID: PMC1164418  PMID: 15953395
4.  Comparison of Technetium-99m-MIBI imaging with MRI for detection of spine involvement in patients with multiple myeloma 
Background
Recently, radiopharmaceutical scanning with Tc-99m-MIBI was reported to depict areas with active bone disease in multiple myeloma (MM) with both high sensitivity and specificity. This observation was explained by the uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI by neoplastic cells. The present investigation evaluates whether Tc-99m-MIBI imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perform equally well in detecting myelomatous bone marrow lesions.
Methods
In 21 patients with MM, MRIs of the vertebral region TH12 to S1 and whole body scans with Tc-99m-MIBI were done.
Results
Tc-99m-MIBI scanning missed bone marrow infiltration in 43 of 87 vertebrae (50.5%) in which MRI showed neoplastic bone marrow involvement. In patients with disease stage I+II, Tc-99m-MIBI scanning was negative in all of 24 vertebrae infiltrated according to MRI. In patients with disease stage III, Tc-99m-MIBI scanning detected 44 of 63 (70%) vertebrae involved by neoplastic disease.
Conclusion
Tc-99m-MIBI scanning underestimated the extent of myelomatous bone marrow infiltration in the spine, especially in patients with low disease stage.
doi:10.1186/1471-2385-3-2
PMCID: PMC317308  PMID: 14670090
7.  Assessment of diffuse Lewy body disease by 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) 
Background
Lewy body disease is, after Alzheimer's disease, the second most common cause of senile degenerative dementia with progressive cognitive deterioration, fluctuation of cognitive and motoric functions and psychotic symptoms. It is characterized histologically by the occurrence of Lewy bodies in allocortical, neocortical and subcortical structures. The aim of this study was to measure the cortical glucose metabolism using FDG PET (2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose position emission tomography) compared to normal subjects.
Patients and Methods
Five patients (5 m, mean age 75 y) with clinically suspected diffuse Lewy body disease (DLB) were studied with FDG PET. PET studies of the head were performed with a Siemens ECAT-ART PET-scanner with attenuation correction using 137-Cs point sources.
Results
We found the same distribution pattern of diffuse glucose hypometabolism in the entire cortical region with relative sparing of the primary sensory-motor cortex in all the patients. The few cases reported in the literature so far describe findings similar to ours.
Conclusion
The pattern of diffuse glucose hypometabolism in the entire cortex including the occipital region seems to be a typical feature of DLB that is distinctive from dementia of Alzheimer's disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2385-3-1
PMCID: PMC151666  PMID: 12625839
Dementia; FDG PET; Lewy body disease

Results 1-9 (9)