Background: The ICAM-1 +469 A/G polymorphism has been implicated in susceptibility to cancer, but the results were inconclusive. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between the ICAM-1 +469 A/G polymorphism and cancer risk. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase to identify studies that evaluated the association between the ICAM-1 +469 A/G polymorphism and cancer risk. Data were extracted and statistical analysis was performed by using the software Revman 5.1 and STATA 12.0. Results: A total of 14 studies involving 9375 subjects were included. The results suggested that ICAM-1 +469 A/G polymorphism had no associated with cancer risk (OR=0.91, 95% CI: 0.76-1.08, P=0.27 for GG+AG vs. AA). Subgroup analysis by cancer type indicated the there was no associated between this polymorphism and breast cancer (OR=0.91, 95% CI: 0.72-1.15, P=0.43 for GG+AG vs. AA), but it was associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer (OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.41-0.85, P=0.005 for GG+AG vs. AA). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity revealed a decreased risk of cancer among Caucasians (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.78-0.99, P=0.03 for GG+AG vs. AA). Conclusion: The evidence from current meta-analysis doesn’t support the ICAM-1 +469 A/G polymorphism as a risk factor for cancer. Further studies are needed to validate these findings.
Cancer; ICAM-1; polymorphism; meta-analysis
IL-22 and IL-17A are implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, the role of IL-22+ and IL-17A+ CD4+ T cells in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is not fully understood. This study investigates serum IL-22 and IL-17A levels and determines the frequency of circulating IL-22+ CD4+ T cells in HT patients to understand their roles in the pathogenesis of HT.
The levels of serum IL-22, IL-17A and IFN-γ and the frequency of circulating IL-22+CD4+ and IL-17A+CD4+ T cells in 17 HT patients and 17 healthy controls (HC) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry. The levels of serum free triiodothyronine (FT4), free thyroxine (FT3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay.
The percentages of circulating IL-22+CD4+ and IL-17+CD4+ T cells (p<0.0001, p<0.0001) and the levels of serum IL-22, IL-17A and IFN-γ (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, p = 0.0210) in the HT patients were significantly higher than that in the HC. The percentages of IL-22+CD4+ T cells were positively correlated with Th17 cells (r = 0.8815, p<0.0001) and IL-17A+IL-22+CD4+ T cells (r = 0.8914, p<0.0001), but were negatively correlated with Th1 cells (r = −0.6110, p<0.0092) in the HT patients. The percentages of Th22 cells, Th17 cells and IL-17A+IL-22+CD4+ T cells were negatively correlated with the levels of serum TSH in the HT patients (r = −0.8402, p<0.0001; r = −0.8589, p<0.0001; r = −0.8289 p<0.0001, respectively).
A higher frequency of circulating IL-22+CD4+ and IL-17A+CD4+ T cells may be associated with the development of HT in Chinese patients.
From November 2011 to January 2012, a number of clustering cases of HCV infection were reported in Zijin County, Heyuan City, Guangdong, China. Most patients in the clustering cases suspected that they could be infected due to inappropriate medical care in the clinic located at the Xiangshui road. However, the molecular epidemiology of the clustering cases remains unknown.
The residents, living at Xiangshui Road, with HCV antibody positive reported from 2011 and 2012 were recruited. A survey of the HCV infected individuals from the clustering cases was conducted. Each participant underwent a questionnaire defining demographic characteristics and health care history. HCV serological test and viral load test were performed to confirm the infection status. Molecular phylogenetic analysis and Bayesian coalescence analysis were conducted to further confirm the HCV subtype distribution and to reconstruct the associated demographic history and time-scaled phylogeny among the clustering cases.
The molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that only two HCV subtypes, 2a and 6a, were found among the clustering cases. There was no close HCV subtype evolutionary relation was observed among patients from the same family. The 6a cluster showed higher viral loads than the 2a cluster. In addition, the Bayesian skyline plot analysis showed that both the HCV 2a and 6a subtype infections among the Heyuan cases experienced an “expansion-diminishment-expansion” featured dissemination. The 2a clustering infection occurred in 2004, and the 6a clustering cases originated in 2006.
The molecular epidemiological characters imply that the inappropriate medical practices were possibly associated with the clustering HCV cases in Heyuan City during 2011, 2012. Latent HCV subtypes 2a and 6a infection may cause the prevalence and become a new public health issue in Guangdong, China.
To qualitatively classify and compare types of iris insertion among American Caucasians, American Chinese, and mainland Chinese.
Prospective multicenter cross-sectional study. Sex- and age-matched Caucasian, American Chinese, and mainland Chinese cohorts were enrolled. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) images of the anterior chamber were acquired. Qualitative classification of iris insertion into basal, middle, and apical categories was performed. Proportions of each type of insertion were compared among racial groups. Multivariate logistic regression was carried out adjusting for potential confounders.
Data from 117, 129, and 112 subjects were available for American Caucasian, American Chinese, and mainland Chinese subjects, respectively. The most common type of iris insertion in the superior quadrant was basal insertion in both ethnic Chinese and Caucasians. In the inferior, nasal, and temporal quadrants, Chinese showed significantly higher proportions of nonbasal insertion (P = 0.048, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively). After adjusting for confounders, nonbasal insertion was significantly associated with Chinese ethnicity in nasal and temporal quadrants (nasal, OR: 3.1, temporal, OR: 4.8). Increasing proportions of nonbasal insertion were found with advancing age in both Chinese and Caucasians.
Chinese have significantly higher proportions of nonbasal iris insertion in the nasal and temporal quadrants when compared with Caucasians, even after adjusting for ASOCT-measured anterior segment biometry and iris characteristics. Longitudinal studies in patients who have PAC/PACG are needed to fully elucidate the relationship between iris insertion and angle closure development.
Chinese have significantly higher proportions of nonbasal iris insertions in the inferior, nasal, and temporal quadrants when compared to Caucasians, after adjusting for ASOCT measured anterior chamber biometry and iris profile.
UBM; interethnic comparison; iris insertion; angle closure; PACG
Ellagic acid (EA) present in many fruits and nuts serves as antiproliferation, anti-inflammatory, and antitumorigenic properties. However, the effect of EA on preadipocytes adipogenesis and its mechanism(s) have not been elucidated. The present study was designed to examine the effect of EA on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and underlying mechanism(s) of action involved. Data show that EA administration decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets. The inhibition was diminished when the addition of EA was delayed to days 2–4 of differentiation. Clonal expansion was reduced in the presence of EA. FACS analysis showed that EA blocked the cell cycle at the G1/S transition. EdU incorporation also confirmed that EA refrained cell from entering S phase. Our data also revealed that the differentiation-induced protein expression of Cyclin A and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) were impaired by EA. Differentiation-dependent expression and DNA-binding ability of C/EBPα were also inhibited by EA. Alterations in cell cycle-associated proteins may be important with respect to the antiadipogenic action of EA. In conclusion, EA is capable of inhibiting adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly through reduction of Cyclin A protein expression and Rb phosphorylation. With the blocking of G1/S phase transition, EA suppresses terminal differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Objectives: To explore a method of surface electrocardiogram for assessing cardiac dysfunction in patients with old myocardial infarction. Methods: 1000 patients with old myocardial infarction in Anzhen hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The planar QRS-T angle was calculated automatically according to QRS-wave and T-wave vectors by the electrocardiogram machine. Results: Among these 1000 patients, 822 (82.2%) were male and 178 (17.8%) were female, the mean age was 59.3±10.5 years (34~89 years). The average planar QRS-T angle was 88.5±50.6°. The planar QRS-T angle and LVEF was negative correlation (r=-0.406, p<0.01), the lower the LVEF, the better the relationship with planar QRS-T angle. QRS-T angle>90° had optimal sensitivity and specificity (76%, 74%) in diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction. Conclusion: The planar QRS-T angle and LVEF of patients with old myocardial infarction is negative correlation, the larger the planar QRS-T angle, the lower the LVEF. The planar QRS-T angle may be an easier and more feasible index for assessing cardiac dysfunction in patients with old myocardial infarction.
Planar QRS-T angle; old myocardial infarction; cardiac dysfunction
Somatic mutation of the tumor suppressor gene LKB1 occurs frequently in lung cancer where it causes tumor progression and metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms remain mainly unknown. Here, we show that the oncogene NEDD9 is an important downstream mediator of lung cancer progression evoked by LKB1 loss. In de novo mouse models, RNAi-mediated silencing of Nedd9 inhibited lung tumor progression, whereas ectopic NEDD9 expression accelerated this process. Mechanistically, LKB1 negatively regulated NEDD9 transcription by promoting cytosolic translocation of CRTC1 from the nucleus. Notably, ectopic expression of either NEDD9 or CRTC1 partially reversed the inhibitory function of LKB1 on metastasis of lung cancer cells. In clinical specimens, elevated expression of NEDD9 was associated with malignant progression and metastasis. Collectively, our results decipher the mechanism through which LKB1 deficiency promotes lung cancer progression and metastasis, and provide a mechanistic rationale for therapeutic attack of these processes.
In the title compound, C16H10O8·H2O, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 71.59 (8)°. The COOH groups make dihedral angles of 10.3 (2), 30.8 (2), 11.3 (2) and 42.3 (2)° with their attached rings. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components forming a three-dimensional supramolecular network.
Background: To explore an optimal management of perioperative anticoagulation for patients with long-term warfarin therapy after valve replacement during the perioperative of pacemaker implantation. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients undergoing pacemaker implantation who received long-term warfarin therapy after valve replacements at our hospital. They were divided into 3 groups: discontinued group, bridging group and continued group. We analyzed the relationship between different anticoagulation methods during the peri-procedure period and hemorrhage and embolism events. Results: 132 patients were enrolled. There was no significant difference concerning the mean age, sex, concomitant diseases, atrial fibrillation and whether performed pacemaker replacement among 3 groups. The incidence of hematomas was irrespective of the perioperative anticoagulation strategy used (P = 0.125). A strategy involving bridging anticoagulation with therapeutic-dose heparin was associated with an incidence of wound errhysis (P = 0.008). There was no thromboembolism event in these three groups. Conclusion: The results showed that there was no significant difference in hematoma rate among continued group, discontinued group, and bridging group, but there was much more wound errhysis in the bridging group. Also, the study shows that if warfarin is continued, it will not increase the risk of bleeding when the International Normalized Ratio (INR) is around 1.7 during the procedure.
Cardiology; pacemaker; anticoagulation; valve replacement; hematomas; thromboembolism
The present study reports a human case of cutaneous gnathostomiasis with recurrent migratory nodule and persistent eosinophilia in China. A 52-year-old woman from Henan Province, central China, presented with recurrent migratory reddish swelling and subcutaneous nodule in the left upper arm and on the back for 3 months. Blood examination showed eosinophila (21.2%), and anti-sparganum antibodies were positive. Skin biopsy of the lesion and histopathological examinations revealed dermal infiltrates of eosinophils but did not show any parasites. Thus, the patient was first diagnosed as sparganosis; however, new migratory swellings occurred after treatment with praziquantel for 3 days. On further inquiring, she recalled having eaten undercooked eels and specific antibodies to the larvae of Gnathostoma spinigerum were detected. The patient was definitely diagnosed as cutaneous gnathostomiasis caused by Gnathostoma sp. and treated with albendazole (1,000 mg/day) for 15 days, and the subsequent papule and blister developed after the treatment. After 1 month, laboratory findings indicated a reduced eosinophil count (3.3%). At her final follow-up 18 months later, the patient had no further symptoms and anti-Gnathostoma antibodies became negative. Conclusively, the present study is the first report on a human case of cutaneous gnathostomiasis in Henan Province, China, based on the past history (eating undercooked eels), clinical manifestations (migratory subcutaneous nodule and persistent eosinophilia), and a serological finding (positive for specific anti-Gnathostoma antibodies).
Gnathostoma spinigerum; gnathostomiasis; migratory subcutaneous nodule; serodiagnosis; albendazole; China
We report a method to promote photoluminescence emission in graphene materials by enhancing carrier scattering instead of directly modifying band structure in multilayer reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanospheres. We intentionally curl graphene layers to form nanospheres by reducing graphene oxide with spherical polymer templates to manipulate the carrier scattering. These nanospheres produce hot-carrier luminescence with more than ten-fold improvement of emission efficiency as compared to planar nanosheets. With increasing excitation power, hot-carrier luminescence from nanospheres exhibits abnormal spectral redshift with dynamic feature associated to the strengthened electron-phonon coupling. These experimental results can be well understood by considering the screened Coulomb interactions. With increasing carrier density, the reduced screening effect promotes carrier scattering which enhances hot-carrier emission from such multilayer rGO nanospheres. This carrier-scattering scenario is further confirmed by pump-probe measurements.
Primary restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common sensory-motor disorder that is characterized by an irresistible urge to move the limbs and unpleasant sensations in the legs, which affects 1.9%–4.6% adults. Pramipexole, a potent dopamine D2/3 agonist, is recommended as “effective” in the short-term and “possibly effective” in the long-term treatment of primary RLS in the European guidelines on management of RLS. In this meta-analysis, we summarized the efficacy and tolerability of pramipexole in treatment for primary RLS. Results of this meta-analysis showed a favorable effect of pramipexole versus placebo on RLS symptoms (mean change on International RLS Study Group Rating Scale [IRLS] score: mean difference [MD] = −5.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −7.79 to −4.41, P < 0.00001) and sleep quality (pooled standard mean difference [SMD] = −0.48, 95% CI: −0.61 to −0.35, P < 0.00001). Nausea (relative risk [RR] = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.82 to 3.95, P < 0.001) and fatigue (RR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.14 to 2.93, P = 0.013) were the most common adverse events, but, by and large, pramipexole was well-tolerated in patients with primary RLS. Nevertheless, long-term studies and more evidence of head-to-head comparisons of pramipexole with other dopamine agonists, anticonvulsants, and levodopa are needed.
restless legs syndrome; pramipexole; meta-analysis
T-helper (Th) 22 and Th17 cells are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, their roles in the pathogenesis of Graves’disease (GD) are unclear. This study is aimed at examining the frequency of peripheral blood Th22, Th17, and Th1 cells and the levels of plasma IL-22, IL-17, and IFN-γ in patients with GD. A total of 27 patients with new onset GD and 27 gender- and age-matched healthy controls (HC) were examined for the frequency of peripheral blood Th22, Th17, and IFN-γ cells by flow cytometry. The concentrations of plasma IL-22, IL-17, and IFN-γ were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of serum TSHR antibodies (A-TSHR), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were examined by radioimmunoassay and chemiluminescent assay, respectively. The levels of serum TSAb were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In comparison with those in the HC, significantly elevated percentages of Th22 and Th17 cells, but not Th1 cells, and increased levels of plasma IL-22 and IL-17, but not IFN-γ, were detected in GD patients (P<0.0001, for both). The percentages of both Th22 and Th17 cells and the levels of plasma IL-22 and IL-17 were correlated positively with the levels of serum TSAb in GD patients (r = 0.7944, P<0.0001; r = 0.8110, P<0.0001; r = 0.7101, p<0.0001; r = 0.7407, p<0.0001, respectively). Th22 and Th17 cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of GD.
Two dimension (2D) layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has emerged as a promising candidate for the anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, 2D MoSx (2 ≤ x ≤ 3) nanosheet-coated 1D multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) nanocomposites with hierarchical architecture were synthesized via a high-throughput solvent thermal method under low temperature at 200°C. The unique hierarchical nanostructures with MWNTs backbone and nanosheets of MoSx have significantly promoted the electrode performance in LIBs. Every single MoSx nanosheet interconnect to MWNTs centers with maximized exposed electrochemical active sites, which significantly enhance ion diffusion efficiency and accommodate volume expansion during the electrochemical reaction. A remarkably high specific capacity (i.e., > 1000 mAh/g) was achieved at the current density of 50 mA g−1, which is much higher than theoretical numbers for either MWNTs or MoS2 along (~372 and ~670 mAh/g, respectively). We anticipate 2D nanosheets/1D MWNTs nanocomposites will be promising materials in new generation practical LIBs.
Ophiostoma piceae is a wood-staining fungus that grows in the sapwood of conifer logs and lumber. We sequenced its genome and analyzed its transcriptomes under a range of growth conditions. A comparison with the genome and transcriptomes of the mountain pine beetle-associated pathogen Grosmannia clavigera highlights differences between a pathogen that colonizes and kills living pine trees and a saprophyte that colonizes wood and the inner bark of dead trees.
We assembled a 33 Mbp genome in 45 scaffolds, and predicted approximately 8,884 genes. The genome size and gene content were similar to those of other ascomycetes. Despite having similar ecological niches, O. piceae and G. clavigera showed no large-scale synteny. We identified O. piceae genes involved in the biosynthesis of melanin, which causes wood discoloration and reduces the commercial value of wood products. We also identified genes and pathways involved in growth on simple carbon sources and in sapwood, O. piceae’s natural substrate. Like the pathogen, the saprophyte is able to tolerate terpenes, which are a major class of pine tree defense compounds; unlike the pathogen, it cannot utilize monoterpenes as a carbon source.
This work makes available the second annotated genome of a softwood ophiostomatoid fungus, and suggests that O. piceae’s tolerance to terpenes may be due in part to these chemicals being removed from the cells by an ABC transporter that is highly induced by terpenes. The data generated will provide the research community with resources for work on host-vector-fungus interactions for wood-inhabiting, beetle-associated saprophytes and pathogens.
Ophiostoma piceae; Genome; Transcriptome; Wood-staining fungus; Saprobe
Cardiac injury is a common pathological change frequently accompanied by diabetes mellitus. Recently, some evidence indicated that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) expressed in the cardiac tissue. However, the functional role of CaSR in diabetic cardiac injury remains unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between CaSR activation and diabetes-induced cardiac injury. Diabetic model was successfully established by administration of streptozotocin (STZ) in vivo, and cardiomyocyte injury was simulated by 25.5 mM glucose in vitro. Apoptotic rate, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and p38 were examined. We demonstrated a significant increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) as well as decrease in maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise and fall (±dp/dtmax), and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was also observed by TUNEL staining. In vitro, 25.5 mM glucose-induced apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Further results showed that 25.5 mM glucose significantly increased [Ca2+]i, up-regulated the expression of Bax, P-ERK and P-JNK, and suppressed Bcl-2 expression. However, the above deleterious changes were further confirmed when co-treatment with CaSR agonist GdCl3 (300 µM). But the effects of GdCl3 were attenuated by 10 µM NPS-2390, a specific CaSR inhibitor. When CaSR was silence by siRNA transfection, the effects of high glucose were inhibited. These results suggest that CaSR activation could lead to the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in diabetic cardiac injury through the induction of calcium overload, the activation of the mitochondrial, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.
Sexual reproduction in fungi is regulated by the mating-type (MAT) locus where recombination is suppressed. We investigated the evolution of MAT loci in eight fungal species belonging to Grosmannia and Ophiostoma (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) that include conifer pathogens and beetle symbionts. The MAT1-2 idiomorph/allele was identified from the assembled and annotated Grosmannia clavigera genome, and the MAT locus is flanked by genes coding for cytoskeleton protein (SLA) and DNA lyase. The synteny of these genes is conserved and consistent with other members in Ascomycota. Using sequences from SLA and flanking regions, we characterized the MAT1-1 idiomorph from other isolates of G. clavigera and performed dotplot analysis between the two idiomorphs. Unexpectedly, the MAT1-2 idiomorph contains a truncated MAT1-1-1 gene upstream of the MAT1-2-1 gene that bears the high-mobility-group domain. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is similar to its homologous copy in the MAT1-1 idiomorph in the opposite mating-type isolate, except that positive selection is acting on the truncated gene and the alpha(α)-box that encodes the transcription factor has been deleted. The MAT idiomorphs sharing identical gene organization were present in seven additional species in the Ophiostomatales, suggesting that the presence of truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is a general pattern in this order. We propose that an ancient unequal recombination event resulted in the ancestral MAT1-1-1 gene integrated into the MAT1-2 idiomorph and surviving as the truncated MAT1-1-1 genes. The α-box domain of MAT1-1-1 gene, located at the same MAT locus adjacent to the MAT1-2-1 gene, could have been removed by deletion after recombination due to mating signal interference. Our data confirmed a 1:1 MAT/sex ratio in two pathogen populations, and showed that all members of the Ophiostomatales studied here including those that were previously deemed asexual have the potential to reproduce sexually. This ability can potentially increase genetic variability and can enhance fitness in new, ecological niches.
heterothallism; homothallism; mating system evolution; outcrossing; selfing
Xylanase is an important component of hemicellulase enzyme system. Since it plays an important role in the hydrolysis of hemicellulose into xylooligosaccharides (XOs), high thermostable xylanase has been the focus of much recent attention as powerful enzyme as well as in the field of biomass utilization.
A xylanase gene (xyn10A) with 3,474 bp was cloned from the extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga thermarum that encodes a protein containing 1,158 amino acid residues. Based on amino acid sequence homology, hydrophobic cluster and three dimensional structure analyses, it was attested that the xylanase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 10 with five carbohydrate binding domains. When the xylanase gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), the specific enzyme activity of xylanase produced by the recombinant strain was up to 145.8 U mg-1. The xylanase was optimally active at 95°C, pH 7.0. In addition, it exhibited high thermostability over broad range of pH 4.0-8.5 and temperature 55-90°C upon the addition of 5 mM Ca2+. Confirmed by Ion Chromatography System (ICS) analysis, the end products of the hydrolysis of beechwood xylan were xylose, xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose and xylohexaose.
The xylanase from T. thermarum is one of the hyperthermophilic xylanases that exhibits high thermostability, and thus, is a suitable candidate for generating XOs from cellulosic materials such as agricultural and forestry residues for the uses as prebiotics and precursors for further preparation of furfural and other chemicals.
Xylanase; Xylan; Thermostability; Beechwood; Oat spelt; Birchwood
Salmonella are important human and animal pathogens. Though highly related, the Salmonella lineages may be strictly adapted to different hosts or cause different diseases, from mild local illness like gastroenteritis to fatal systemic infections like typhoid. Therefore, rapid and accurate identification of Salmonella is essential for timely and correct diagnosis of Salmonella infections. The current identification methods such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing are expensive and time consuming. Additionally, these methods often do not have sufficient distinguishing resolution among the Salmonella lineages.
We compared 27 completely sequenced Salmonella genomes to identify possible genomic features that could be used for differentiation of individual lineages. We concatenated 2372 core genes in each of the 27 genomes and constructed a neighbor-joining tree. On the tree, strains of each serotype were clustered tightly together and different serotypes were unambiguously separated with clear genetic distances, demonstrating systematic genomic divergence among the Salmonella lineages. We made detailed comparisons among the 27 genomes and identified distinct sets of genomic differences, including nucleotide variations and genomic islands (GIs), among the Salmonella lineages. Two core genes STM4261 and entF together could unambiguously distinguish all Salmonella lineages compared in this study. Additionally, strains of a lineage have a common set of GIs and closely related lineages have similar sets of GIs.
Salmonella lineages have accumulated distinct sets of mutations and laterally acquired DNA (e.g., GIs) in evolution. Two genes entF and STM4261 have diverged sufficiently among the Salmonella lineages to be used for their differentiation. Further investigation of the distinct sets of mutations and GIs will lead to novel insights into genomic evolution of Salmonella and greatly facilitate the elucidation of pathogeneses of Salmonella infections.
The current study sought to assess the role of paraaortic lymphadenectomy (LNE) in females with endometrial cancer. A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer of stage IA to II preoperatively, between 2009 and 2011 was conducted. Patients were included who had suffered from endometrial cancer without preoperative adjuvant therapy and who underwent hysterectomy plus systematic pelvic LNE and paraaortic LNE by laparoscopy or laparotomy. A total of 54 patients who underwent surgery for preoperative endometrial cancer were selected. All patients underwent LNE. The incidences of pelvic and paraaortic lymph node metastases were 11.1% (6/54) and 7.4% (4/54), with a total positive lymph node rate of 14.8% (8/54). In addition, among the 8 positive cases, 5 patients underwent laparotomy and 3 underwent laparoscopy; 3 cases were classified as stage I and 5 as stage II preoperatively. Of these, 7 patients were identified with pathology-related risk factors, including low differentiation or clear cell adenocarcinoma postoperatively. Discordance of pathological differentiation between the pre- and postoperative stages reached 57.1% (4/7). The results revealed the high occurrence of positive lymph nodes in endometrial cancer which demonstrate the importance of systematic LNE. Additonally, no severe complications were caused by LNE besides lymph cysts. In summary, it is neccesary to perform LNE, particularly the removal of the paraaortic lymph node, in patients with endometrial cancers in order to improve postoperative therapy. Laparoscopy has similar surgical effects as laparotomy, but has a number of advantages.
lymphadenectomy; endometrial cancer; paraaortic
To elucidate the phytohormonal basis of the feedback regulation of leaf senescence
induced by potassium (K) deficiency in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.),
two cultivars contrasting in sensitivity to K deficiency were self- and reciprocally
grafted hypocotyl-to-hypocotyl, using standard grafting (one scion grafted onto one
rootstock), Y grafting (two scions grafted onto one rootstock), and inverted Y grafting
(one scion grafted onto two rootstocks) at the seedling stage. K deficiency (0.03mM for
standard and Y grafting, and 0.01mM for inverted Y grafting) increased the root abscisic
acid (ABA) concentration by 1.6- to 3.1-fold and xylem ABA delivery rates by 1.8- to
4.6-fold. The K deficiency also decreased the delivery rates of xylem cytokinins [CKs;
including the zeatin riboside (ZR) and isopentenyl adenosine (iPA) type] by 29–65%
and leaf CK concentration by 16–57%. The leaf ABA concentration and xylem ABA
deliveries were consistently greater in CCRI41 (more sensitive to K deficiency) than in
SCRC22 (less sensitive to K deficiency) scions under K deficiency, and ZR- and iPA-type
levels were consistently lower in the former than in the latter, irrespective of rootstock
cultivar or grafting type, indicating that cotton shoot influences the levels of ABA and
CKs in leaves and xylem sap. Because the scions had little influence on phytohormone
levels in the roots (rootstocks) of all three types of grafts and rootstock xylem sap
(collected below the graft union) of Y and inverted Y grafts, it appears that the site for
basipetal feedback signal(s) involved in the regulation of xylem phytohormones is the
hypocotyl of cotton seedlings. Also, the target of this feedback signal(s) is more likely
to be the changes in xylem phytohormones within tissues of the hypocotyl rather than the
export of phytohormones from the roots.
Abscisic acid; cotton; cytokinins; feedback regulation; potassium deficiency
High-affinity nitrite influx into mycelia of Aspergillus nidulans has been characterized by use of 13NO2−, giving average Km and Vmax values of 48 ± 8 μM and 228 ± 49 nmol mg−1 dry weight (DW) h−1, respectively. Kinetic analysis of a plot that included an additional large number of low-concentration fluxes gave an excellent monophasic fit (r2 = 0.96), with no indication of sigmoidal kinetics. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) models of AnNitA are presented, and the possible roles of conserved asparagine residues N122 (transmembrane domain 3 ]Tm 3]), N173 (Tm 4), N214 (Tm 5), and N246 (Tm 6) are discussed.
In the rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, many researchers have discovered that metal oxide nanoparticles have very useful pharmacological effects. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) can selectively induce apoptosis and suppress the proliferation of tumor cells, showing great potential as a clinical cancer therapy. Treatment with CONPs caused a G1/G0 cell cycle arrest in tumor cells. Furthermore, CONPs enclosed in vesicles entered, or were taken up by mitochondria, which damaged their membranes, thereby inducing apoptosis. CONPs can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and initiate lipid peroxidation of the liposomal membrane, thereby regulating many signaling pathways and influencing the vital movements of cells. Our results demonstrate that CONPs have selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, and indicate that CONPs might be a potential nanomedicine for cancer therapy.
nanomedicine; selective cytotoxicity; apoptosis; cell cycle arrest; mitochondrion-targeted nanomaterials