Sexual reproduction in fungi is regulated by the mating-type (MAT) locus where recombination is suppressed. We investigated the evolution of MAT loci in eight fungal species belonging to Grosmannia and Ophiostoma (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) that include conifer pathogens and beetle symbionts. The MAT1-2 idiomorph/allele was identified from the assembled and annotated Grosmannia clavigera genome, and the MAT locus is flanked by genes coding for cytoskeleton protein (SLA) and DNA lyase. The synteny of these genes is conserved and consistent with other members in Ascomycota. Using sequences from SLA and flanking regions, we characterized the MAT1-1 idiomorph from other isolates of G. clavigera and performed dotplot analysis between the two idiomorphs. Unexpectedly, the MAT1-2 idiomorph contains a truncated MAT1-1-1 gene upstream of the MAT1-2-1 gene that bears the high-mobility-group domain. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is similar to its homologous copy in the MAT1-1 idiomorph in the opposite mating-type isolate, except that positive selection is acting on the truncated gene and the alpha(α)-box that encodes the transcription factor has been deleted. The MAT idiomorphs sharing identical gene organization were present in seven additional species in the Ophiostomatales, suggesting that the presence of truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is a general pattern in this order. We propose that an ancient unequal recombination event resulted in the ancestral MAT1-1-1 gene integrated into the MAT1-2 idiomorph and surviving as the truncated MAT1-1-1 genes. The α-box domain of MAT1-1-1 gene, located at the same MAT locus adjacent to the MAT1-2-1 gene, could have been removed by deletion after recombination due to mating signal interference. Our data confirmed a 1:1 MAT/sex ratio in two pathogen populations, and showed that all members of the Ophiostomatales studied here including those that were previously deemed asexual have the potential to reproduce sexually. This ability can potentially increase genetic variability and can enhance fitness in new, ecological niches.
heterothallism; homothallism; mating system evolution; outcrossing; selfing
Salmonella are important human and animal pathogens. Though highly related, the Salmonella lineages may be strictly adapted to different hosts or cause different diseases, from mild local illness like gastroenteritis to fatal systemic infections like typhoid. Therefore, rapid and accurate identification of Salmonella is essential for timely and correct diagnosis of Salmonella infections. The current identification methods such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing are expensive and time consuming. Additionally, these methods often do not have sufficient distinguishing resolution among the Salmonella lineages.
We compared 27 completely sequenced Salmonella genomes to identify possible genomic features that could be used for differentiation of individual lineages. We concatenated 2372 core genes in each of the 27 genomes and constructed a neighbor-joining tree. On the tree, strains of each serotype were clustered tightly together and different serotypes were unambiguously separated with clear genetic distances, demonstrating systematic genomic divergence among the Salmonella lineages. We made detailed comparisons among the 27 genomes and identified distinct sets of genomic differences, including nucleotide variations and genomic islands (GIs), among the Salmonella lineages. Two core genes STM4261 and entF together could unambiguously distinguish all Salmonella lineages compared in this study. Additionally, strains of a lineage have a common set of GIs and closely related lineages have similar sets of GIs.
Salmonella lineages have accumulated distinct sets of mutations and laterally acquired DNA (e.g., GIs) in evolution. Two genes entF and STM4261 have diverged sufficiently among the Salmonella lineages to be used for their differentiation. Further investigation of the distinct sets of mutations and GIs will lead to novel insights into genomic evolution of Salmonella and greatly facilitate the elucidation of pathogeneses of Salmonella infections.
Xylanase is an important component of hemicellulase enzyme system. Since it plays an important role in the hydrolysis of hemicellulose into xylooligosaccharides (XOs), high thermostable xylanase has been the focus of much recent attention as powerful enzyme as well as in the field of biomass utilization.
A xylanase gene (xyn10A) with 3,474 bp was cloned from the extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga thermarum that encodes a protein containing 1,158 amino acid residues. Based on amino acid sequence homology, hydrophobic cluster and three dimensional structure analyses, it was attested that the xylanase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 10 with five carbohydrate binding domains. When the xylanase gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), the specific enzyme activity of xylanase produced by the recombinant strain was up to 145.8 U mg-1. The xylanase was optimally active at 95°C, pH 7.0. In addition, it exhibited high thermostability over broad range of pH 4.0-8.5 and temperature 55-90°C upon the addition of 5 mM Ca2+. Confirmed by Ion Chromatography System (ICS) analysis, the end products of the hydrolysis of beechwood xylan were xylose, xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose and xylohexaose.
The xylanase from T. thermarum is one of the hyperthermophilic xylanases that exhibits high thermostability, and thus, is a suitable candidate for generating XOs from cellulosic materials such as agricultural and forestry residues for the uses as prebiotics and precursors for further preparation of furfural and other chemicals.
Xylanase; Xylan; Thermostability; Beechwood; Oat spelt; Birchwood
The current study sought to assess the role of paraaortic lymphadenectomy (LNE) in females with endometrial cancer. A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer of stage IA to II preoperatively, between 2009 and 2011 was conducted. Patients were included who had suffered from endometrial cancer without preoperative adjuvant therapy and who underwent hysterectomy plus systematic pelvic LNE and paraaortic LNE by laparoscopy or laparotomy. A total of 54 patients who underwent surgery for preoperative endometrial cancer were selected. All patients underwent LNE. The incidences of pelvic and paraaortic lymph node metastases were 11.1% (6/54) and 7.4% (4/54), with a total positive lymph node rate of 14.8% (8/54). In addition, among the 8 positive cases, 5 patients underwent laparotomy and 3 underwent laparoscopy; 3 cases were classified as stage I and 5 as stage II preoperatively. Of these, 7 patients were identified with pathology-related risk factors, including low differentiation or clear cell adenocarcinoma postoperatively. Discordance of pathological differentiation between the pre- and postoperative stages reached 57.1% (4/7). The results revealed the high occurrence of positive lymph nodes in endometrial cancer which demonstrate the importance of systematic LNE. Additonally, no severe complications were caused by LNE besides lymph cysts. In summary, it is neccesary to perform LNE, particularly the removal of the paraaortic lymph node, in patients with endometrial cancers in order to improve postoperative therapy. Laparoscopy has similar surgical effects as laparotomy, but has a number of advantages.
lymphadenectomy; endometrial cancer; paraaortic
To elucidate the phytohormonal basis of the feedback regulation of leaf senescence induced by potassium (K) deficiency in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), two cultivars contrasting in sensitivity to K deficiency were self- and reciprocally grafted hypocotyl-to-hypocotyl, using standard grafting (one scion grafted onto one rootstock), Y grafting (two scions grafted onto one rootstock), and inverted Y grafting (one scion grafted onto two rootstocks) at the seedling stage. K deficiency (0.03mM for standard and Y grafting, and 0.01mM for inverted Y grafting) increased the root abscisic acid (ABA) concentration by 1.6- to 3.1-fold and xylem ABA delivery rates by 1.8- to 4.6-fold. The K deficiency also decreased the delivery rates of xylem cytokinins [CKs; including the zeatin riboside (ZR) and isopentenyl adenosine (iPA) type] by 29–65% and leaf CK concentration by 16–57%. The leaf ABA concentration and xylem ABA deliveries were consistently greater in CCRI41 (more sensitive to K deficiency) than in SCRC22 (less sensitive to K deficiency) scions under K deficiency, and ZR- and iPA-type levels were consistently lower in the former than in the latter, irrespective of rootstock cultivar or grafting type, indicating that cotton shoot influences the levels of ABA and CKs in leaves and xylem sap. Because the scions had little influence on phytohormone levels in the roots (rootstocks) of all three types of grafts and rootstock xylem sap (collected below the graft union) of Y and inverted Y grafts, it appears that the site for basipetal feedback signal(s) involved in the regulation of xylem phytohormones is the hypocotyl of cotton seedlings. Also, the target of this feedback signal(s) is more likely to be the changes in xylem phytohormones within tissues of the hypocotyl rather than the export of phytohormones from the roots.
Abscisic acid; cotton; cytokinins; feedback regulation; potassium deficiency
High-affinity nitrite influx into mycelia of Aspergillus nidulans has been characterized by use of 13NO2−, giving average Km and Vmax values of 48 ± 8 μM and 228 ± 49 nmol mg−1 dry weight (DW) h−1, respectively. Kinetic analysis of a plot that included an additional large number of low-concentration fluxes gave an excellent monophasic fit (r2 = 0.96), with no indication of sigmoidal kinetics. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) models of AnNitA are presented, and the possible roles of conserved asparagine residues N122 (transmembrane domain 3 ]Tm 3]), N173 (Tm 4), N214 (Tm 5), and N246 (Tm 6) are discussed.
In the rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, many researchers have discovered that metal oxide nanoparticles have very useful pharmacological effects. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) can selectively induce apoptosis and suppress the proliferation of tumor cells, showing great potential as a clinical cancer therapy. Treatment with CONPs caused a G1/G0 cell cycle arrest in tumor cells. Furthermore, CONPs enclosed in vesicles entered, or were taken up by mitochondria, which damaged their membranes, thereby inducing apoptosis. CONPs can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and initiate lipid peroxidation of the liposomal membrane, thereby regulating many signaling pathways and influencing the vital movements of cells. Our results demonstrate that CONPs have selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, and indicate that CONPs might be a potential nanomedicine for cancer therapy.
nanomedicine; selective cytotoxicity; apoptosis; cell cycle arrest; mitochondrion-targeted nanomaterials
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease and a prevalent cause of visual impairment in developed countries. Many studies suggest that age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) is a second major susceptibility gene for AMD. At present, there is no functional information on this gene. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to detect the expression of ARMS2 in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and to investigate the effect of ARMS2 on the phagocytosis function of RPE cells.
Immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase PCR were used to demonstrate the presence and location of ARMS2 in ARPE-19 (human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, ATCC, catalog No.CRL-2302) cells. siRNA was used to knock down ARMS2 mRNA, and the effects of the knockdown on the phagocytosis function of the ARPE-19 cells were evaluated via Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS).
ARMS2 was present in ARPE-19 cells, localized in the cytosol of the perinuclear region. The expression of ARMS2 mRNA (messenger RNA) in ARPE-19 cells transfected with ARMS2-siRNA (small interfering RNA, 0.73±0.08) was decreased compared with normal cells (1.00±0.00) or with cells transfected with scrambled siRNA (0.95±0.13) (P<0.05). After incubation of RPE cells with a latex beads medium for 12, 18, or 24 hours, the fluorescence intensities were 38.04±1.02, 68.92±0.92, and 78.00±0.12 in the ARMS2-siRNA-transfected groups, respectively, and 77.98±5.43, 94.87±0.60, and 98.30±0.11 in the scrambled siRNA-transfected groups, respectively. The fluorescent intensities of the same time points in the two groups were compared using Student's t-test, and the p values were all less than 0.001 at the three different time points.
There is endogenous expression of ARMS2 in ARPE-19 cells. ARMS2 plays a role in the phagocytosis function of RPE cells, and this role may be one of the mechanisms that participates in the development of AMD.
age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2; age-related macular degeneration; retinal pigment epithelium; phagocytosis
Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a key member of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. It participates in pericellular proteolysis of extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules and is essential for many biological and pathological processes, such as tumor development, angiogenesis and metastasis. A ligand that specifically binds to MT1-MMP may facilitate the labeling of this molecule, allow imaging at the cellular and organism levels, and provide a means for targeted drug delivery specific to MT1-MMP. A non-substrate MT1-MMP binding peptide was identified by screening a Ph. D.™ - 12 phage display peptide library and conjugated with near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye Cy5.5 for tumor imaging. Peptide HWKHLHNTKTFL (denoted as MT1-AF7p) showed high MT1-MMP binding affinity. Computer modeling verified that MT1-AF7p binds to the MT-loop region of MT1-MMP and interacts with MT1-MMP through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. MDA-MB-435 xenografts with high MT1-MMP expression had significantly higher tumor accumulation and better tumor contrast than the low MT1-MMP expressing A549 xenografts after intravenous injection of Cy5.5-MT1-AF7p. A novel non-substrate affinity peptide MT1-AF7p was found for MT1-MMP high affinity and specificity. Using NIRF imaging, we have demonstrated specific targeting of MT1-AF7p to MT1-MMP-expressing tumors. Thus, MT1-AF7p is an important tool for noninvasive monitoring of MT1-MMP expression in tumors, and it shows great potential as an imaging agent for MT1-MMP – positive tumors.
matrix metalloproteinase; MT1-MMP (MMP-14); phage display peptide library; near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging
A fundamental property of cortical neurons is the capacity to exhibit adaptive changes or plasticity. Whether adaptive changes in cortical responses are accompanied by changes in synchrony between individual neurons and local population activity in sensory cortex is unclear. This issue is important as synchronized neural activity is hypothesized to play an important role in propagating information in neuronal circuits. Here we show that rapid adaptation (300 ms) to a stimulus of fixed orientation modulates the strength of oscillatory neuronal synchronization in macaque visual cortex (area V4) and influences the neurons’ ability to distinguish small changes in stimulus orientation. Specifically, rapid adaptation increases the synchronization of individual neuronal responses with local population activity in the gamma frequency band (30–80 Hz). In contrast to previous reports that gamma synchronization is associated with an increase in firing rates in V4, we found that the post-adaptation increase in gamma synchronization is associated with a decrease in neuronal responses. The increase in gamma-band synchronization after adaptation is functionally significant as it is correlated with an improvement in neuronal orientation discrimination performance. Thus, adaptive synchronization between the spiking activity of individual neurons and their local population can enhance temporally-insensitive, rate-based-coding schemes for sensory discrimination.
Determine cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16Ink4a) and polycomb ring finger oncogene (Bmi1) expression in corneal endothelium samples from different age groups and test whether the expression of p16INK4a and Bmi1 are associated with endothelial cellular senescence in human cornea.
Samples were selected from an eyebank of healthy human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs). Donor human corneas were divided into three age-groups: age ≤30 years, 30–50 years and ≥50 years. The expression of p16INK4a and Bmil were analyzed by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence.
Through real-time PCR, we detected less than threefold decreases in Bmi1 expression and greater than fivefold increases in p16INK4a expression associated with aging. Bmi1 expression was significantly down-regulated with increasing donor age. The number of p16INK4a-positive cells was significantly higher and the number of Bmi1-positive cells was significantly lower in older donors compared to the younger age groups. Our immunohistochemistry experiments showed that the expression of p16INK4a in older donors was stronger than that in younger donors and the expression of Bmi1 in older donors was weaker than that in younger donors. Results from both the immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR experiments confirmed increased expression of p16INK4a and decreased expression of Bmi1 with age in HCECs. Additionally, the results of immunofluorescence double-staining for p16INK4a and Bmi1 further validated the immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR results.
Our data are the first to demonstrate that high expression of p16INK4a and low expression of Bmi1 are associated with endothelial cellular senescence in human cornea. Our findings are not just for cornea transplantation but also for a better understanding of the cornea senescence and the process of aging in this sepcific human organ.
Inappropriate contact lens (CL) use and care often lead to corneal neovascularization (corneal NV). We used mouse eyes which wore CL as the animal model to assess the reason for corneal NV with CL wear. The similar and overlapping activity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the potent angiogenic hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) called for a study of the temporal relationship in the expression of these two autocoids. We determined the time dependent expression of HIF-1α and correlated it to that of VEGF expression in the mouse model of closed eye with CL wear.
Mouse eyes were fitted with CL followed by a silk suture tarsorrhaphy. The anterior surface was analyzed at 4, 7, and 10 days after tarsorrhaphy by slit lamp and corneal NV. HIF-1α and VEGF levels were measured by reverse transcription PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence with specific primers and antibodies. We used shRNA targeting HIF-1α to substantiate the link between HIF-1α, VEGF expression, and angiogenesis in the CL wear model.
Corneal NV scores increased in a time dependent manner in the model of closed eye CL induced hypoxic injury. Corneal epithelial HIF-1α and VEGF expression increased in a time dependent manner. The prolonged hypoxic state brought by closed eye CL wear induced a time dependent neovascular response which was significantly attenuated by HIF-1α specific shRNA but not by nonspecific shRNA. Both HIF-1α and VEGF levels were reduced significantly in corneal homogenates from eyes treated with the HIF-1α specific shRNA.
The present study documented the increased expression of HIF-1α in the corneal epithelium during CL wear. It also demonstrated the presence of VEGF in the corneal epithelium and its increased expression in this model. Altogether, the results of this study raised the possibility of interaction between HIF-1α and VEGF, in mediating the neovascularization response induced by the prolonged hypoxic state brought about by closed eye CL wear. The results strongly implicated corneal HIF-1α as a component of the inflammatory and neovascular cascade initiated by hypoxic and further suggested that HIF-1α was a proximal regulator of VEGF expression in this model.
T follicular helper (TFH) cells are a special subpopulation of T helper cells and can regulate humoral immune responses. This study examined whether the frequency of CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells could be associated with active immunity in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.
Methodology and Findings
The frequencies of peripheral blood CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells, inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS), and/or programmed death 1 (PD-1) positive CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells in immune-active (IA), immune-tolerant (IT) CHB, and healthy controls (HC) were characterized by flow cytometry analysis. The effect of adevofir dipivoxil treatment on the frequency of CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells, the concentrations of serum IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-21, ALT, AST, HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb and HBV loads in IA patients were determined. The potential association of the frequency of CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells with clinical measures was analyzed. In addition, the frequency of splenic and liver CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells in HBV-transgenic mice was examined. We found that the frequency of CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells in IA patients was significantly higher than that of IT patients and HC, and the percentages of CD4+CXCR5+ TFH in IA patients were positively correlated with AST. Furthermore, the percentages of ICOS+, PD-1+, and ICOS+PD-1+ in CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells in CHB patients were significantly higher than that of HC. Treatment with adefovir dipivoxil reduced the frequency of CD4+CXCR5+ TFH, PD-1+CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells and the concentrations of HBsAg and HBeAg, but increased the concentrations of HBsAb, HBeAb, IL-2 and IFN-γ in IA patients. Moreover, the frequency of splenic and liver CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells in HBV-transgenic mice was higher than that of wild-type controls.
These data indicate that CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells may participate in the HBV-related immune responses and that high frequency of CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells may be a biomarker for the evaluation of active immune stage of CHB patients.
To develop more potent small molecules with enhanced free radical scavenger properties, a series of N-substituted isatin derivatives was synthesized, and the cytoprotective effect on the apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by H2O2 was screened. All these compounds were found to be active, and N-ethyl isatin was found with the most potent activity of 69.7% protective effect on PC12 cells. Structure-activity relationship analyses showed the bioactivity of N-alkyl isatins decline as the increasing of the chain of the alkyl group, furthermore odd-even effect was found in the activity, which is interesting for further investigation.
Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) has been described as a novel adipokine, playing an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum levels of A-FABP and the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Chinese subjects.
Circulating A-FABP level was determined by ELISA in 341 Chinese subjects (221 men, 120 women) who underwent coronary angiography. A-FABP levels in patients with CAD were significantly higher compared with non-CAD subjects (P = 0.029 in men; P = 0.031 in women). Serum A-FABP increased significantly in multi-vessel diseased patients than in non-CAD subjects (P = 0.011 in men, P = 0.004 in women), and showed an independent correlation with coronary atherosclerosis index (standardized β = 0.173, P = 0.025). In multiple logistic regression analysis, serum A-FABP was an independent risk factor for CAD in women (OR = 5.637, 95%CI: 1.299-24.457, P = 0.021). In addition, amino terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was demonstrated to be positively and independently correlated with A-FABP (standardized β = 0.135, P = 0.027).
Serum A-FABP is closely associated with the presence and severity of CAD in Chinese women.
To determine the role of the integrin-FAK signaling pathway triggered by the adherence of F. solani to human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs).
After pretreatment with/without genistein, HCECs were incubated with F. solani spores at different times (0–24 h). Cell adhesion assays were performed by optical microscopy. Changes of the ultrastructure were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The expression of F-actin and Paxillin (PAX) were detected by immunofluorescence and western blotting to detect the expression of these key proteins with/without genistein treatment.
Cell adhesion assays showed that the number of adhered spores began to rise at 6 h after incubation and peaked at 8 h. SEM and TEM showed that the HCECs exhibited a marked morphological alteration induced by the attachment and entry of the spores. The expression of PAX increased, while the expression of F-actin decreased by stimulation with F. solani. The interaction of F. solani with HCECs causes actin rearrangement in HCECs. Genistein strongly inhibited FAK phosphorylation and the activation of the downstream protein (PAX). F. solani-induced enhancement of cell adhesion ability was inhibited along with the inhibition of FAK phosphorylation.
Our results suggest that the integrin-FAK signaling pathway is involved in the control of F. solani adhesion to HCECs and that the activation of focal adhesion kinase enhances the adhesion of human corneal epithelial cells to F. solani via the tyrosine-specific protein kinase signaling pathway.
In V1 of cats and monkeys, activity of neurons evoked by stimuli within the receptive field can be modulated by stimuli in the extra-receptive field (ERF). This modulating effect can be suppressive (S-ERF) or facilitatory (F-ERF) and plays different roles in visual information processing. Little is known about the cellular bases underlying the different types of ERF modulating effects. Here, we focus on the morphological differences between the S-ERF and F-ERF neurons. Single unit activities were recorded from V1 of the cat. The ERF properties of each neuron were assessed by area-response functions using sinusoidal grating stimuli. On completion of the functional tests, the cells were injected intracellularly with biocytin. The labeled cells were reconstructed and morphologically characterized in terms of the ERF modulation effects. We show that the vast majority of S-ERF neurons and F-ERF neurons are pyramidal cells and that the two types of cells clearly differ in the size of the soma, in complexity of dendrite branching, in spine size and density, and in the range of innervations of the axon collaterals. We propose that different pyramidal cell phenotypes reflect a high degree of specificity of neuronal connections associated with different types of spatial modulation.
Grosmannia clavigera is a bark beetle-vectored fungal pathogen of pines that causes wood discoloration and may kill trees by disrupting nutrient and water transport. Trees respond to attacks from beetles and associated fungi by releasing terpenoid and phenolic defense compounds. It is unclear which genes are important for G. clavigera's ability to overcome antifungal pine terpenoids and phenolics.
We constructed seven cDNA libraries from eight G. clavigera isolates grown under various culture conditions, and Sanger sequenced the 5' and 3' ends of 25,000 cDNA clones, resulting in 44,288 high quality ESTs. The assembled dataset of unique transcripts (unigenes) consists of 6,265 contigs and 2,459 singletons that mapped to 6,467 locations on the G. clavigera reference genome, representing ~70% of the predicted G. clavigera genes. Although only 54% of the unigenes matched characterized proteins at the NCBI database, this dataset extensively covers major metabolic pathways, cellular processes, and genes necessary for response to environmental stimuli and genetic information processing. Furthermore, we identified genes expressed in spores prior to germination, and genes involved in response to treatment with lodgepole pine phloem extract (LPPE).
We provide a comprehensively annotated EST dataset for G. clavigera that represents a rich resource for gene characterization in this and other ophiostomatoid fungi. Genes expressed in response to LPPE treatment are indicative of fungal oxidative stress response. We identified two clusters of potentially functionally related genes responsive to LPPE treatment. Furthermore, we report a simple method for identifying contig misassemblies in de novo assembled EST collections caused by gene overlap on the genome.
Conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 CLA) and trans-11 vaccenic acid (VA) are found naturally in ruminant-derived foods. CLA has been shown to have numerous potential health related effects and has been extensively investigated. More recently, we have shown that VA has lipid-lowering properties associated with reduced hepatic lipidogenesis and chylomicron secretion in the JCR:LA-cp rat. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential additional hypolipidemic effects of purified forms of CLA and VA in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome (the JCR:LA-cp rat).
Twenty four obese JCR:LA-cp rats were randomized and assigned to one of three nutritionally adequate iso-caloric diets containing 1% w/w cholesterol and 15% w/w fat for 16 wk: 1) control diet (CD), 2) 1.0% w/w cis-9, trans-11 CLA (CLA), 3) 1.0% w/w VA and 1% w/w cis-9, trans-11 CLA (VA+CLA). Lean rats were fed the CD to represent normolipidemic conditions.
Fasting plasma triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were reduced in obese rats fed either the CLA diet or the VA+CLA diet as compared to the obese control group (p < 0.05, p < 0.001; p < 0.001, p < 0.01; p < 0.01, p < 0.001, respectively). The VA+CLA diet reduced plasma TG and LDL-cholesterol to the level of the normolipidemic lean rats and further decreased nonesterified fatty acids compared to the CLA diet alone. Interestingly, rats fed the VA+CLA diet had a higher food intake but lower body weight than the CLA fed group (P < 0.05). Liver weight and TG content were lower in rats fed either CLA (p < 0.05) or VA+CLA diets (p < 0.001) compared to obese control, consistent with a decreased relative protein abundance of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase in both treatment groups (P < 0.01). The activity of citrate synthase was increased in liver and adipose tissue of rats fed, CLA and VA+CLA diets (p < 0.001) compared to obese control, suggesting increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidative capacity.
We demonstrate that the hypolipidemic effects of chronic cis-9, trans-11 CLA supplementation on circulating dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis are enhanced by the addition of VA in the JCR:LA-cp rat.
AIM: To evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of liver resection for caudate lobe hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 114 consecutive patients with HCC, originating from the caudate lobe, who underwent resection between January 2001 and January 2007. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on several clinicopathologic variables to determine the factors affecting long-term outcome and intrahepatic recurrence.
RESULTS: Overall mortality and morbidity were 0% and 18%, respectively. After a median follow-up of 31 mo (interquartile range, 11-66 mo), tumor recurrence had occurred in 76 patients (66.7%). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 65.7%, 38.1%, and 18.4%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 76.1%, 54.7%, and 31.8%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that subsegmental location of the tumor (45.7% vs 16.2%, P = 0.01), liver cirrhosis (12.3% vs 47.9%, P = 0.03), surgical margin (18.5% vs 54.6%, P = 0.04), vascular invasion (37.9% vs 23.2%, P = 0.04) and extended caudate resection (42.1% vs 15.4%, P = 0.04) were related to poorer long-term survival. Multivariate analysis showed that only subsegmental location of the tumor, liver cirrhosis and surgical margin were significant independent prognostic factors.
CONCLUSION: Hepatectomy was an effective treatment for HCC in the caudate lobe. The subsegmental location of the tumor, liver cirrhosis and surgical margin affected long-term survival.
Hepatectomy; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Caudate lobe; Prognostic factors
This study assessed the long-term effects of dietary vaccenic acid (VA) and elaidic acid (EA) on plasma and splenocyte phospholipid (PL) composition and related changes in inflammation and splenocyte phenotypes and cytokine responses in obese/insulin resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. Relative to lean control (Ctl), obese Ctl rats had higher serum haptoglobin and impaired T-cell-stimulated cytokine responses. VA and EA diets improved T-cell-stimulated cytokine production; but, only VA normalized serum haptoglobin. However, EA- and VA-fed rats had enhanced LPS-stimulated cytokine responses. The changes elicited by VA were likely due changes in essential fatty acid composition in PL; whereas EA-induced changes may due to direct incorporation into membrane PL.
vaccenic acid; elaidic acid; phospholipid; obese; immune; inflammation; cytokines; trans fat
This article provides a novel method of constructing an optical fiber localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensor. A gold nanoparticle (NP) assembled film as the sensing layer was built on the polyelectrolyte (PE) multilayer modified sidewall of an unclad optical fiber. By using a trilayer PE structure, we obtained a monodisperse gold NP assembled film. The preparation procedure for this LSPR sensor is simple and time saving. The optical fiber LSPR sensor has higher sensitivity and outstanding reproducibility. The higher anti-interference ability for response to an antibody makes it a promising method in application as a portable immuno-sensor.
localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR); metal nanoparticle; optical fiber sensor; self-assembly; immuno detection