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1.  Elevated CSF N-acetylaspartylglutamate in patients with free sialic acid storage diseases 
Neurology  2010;74(4):302-305.
Objective:
To investigate body fluids of patients with undiagnosed leukodystrophies using in vitro 1H-NMR spectroscopy (H-NMRS).
Methods:
We conducted a cross-sectional study using high-resolution in vitro H-NMRS on CSF and urine samples.
Results:
We found a significant increase of free sialic acid in CSF or urine in 6 of 41 patients presenting with hypomyelination of unknown etiology. Molecular genetic testing revealed pathogenic mutations in the SLC17A5 gene in all 6 patients. H-NMRS revealed an increase of N-acetylaspartylglutamate in the CSF of all patients with SLC17A5 mutation (range 13–114 μmol/L, reference <12 μmol/L).
Conclusion:
In patients with undiagnosed leukodystrophies, increased free sialic acid in CSF or urine is a marker for free sialic acid storage disorder and facilitates the identification of the underlying genetic defect. Because increase of N-acetylaspartylglutamate in CSF has been observed in other hypomyelinating disorders, it can be viewed as a marker of a subgroup of hypomyelinating disorders.
GLOSSARY
= correlation spectroscopy;
= glutamate carboxypeptidase II;
= 1H-NMR spectroscopy;
= infantile free sialic acid storage disease;
= N-acetylaspartate;
= N-acetylaspartylglutamate;
= free sialic acid storage disease.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181cbcdc4
PMCID: PMC3122303  PMID: 20101035
3.  Use of cellular depletion analysis to examine circulation of immune effector function between the vagina and the periphery. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(9):3939-3943.
Results from an animal model of vaginal candidiasis suggest that Candida-specific cell-mediated immunity in the systemic circulation does not mediate protection against vaginitis. The present study used cellular depletion analysis to examine the circulation of immune effector function between the vagina and the periphery. Results showed that anti-Thy-1.2 antibodies given intravenously to mice depleted Thy-1+ T lymphocytes in the systemic compartment but not in the vaginal mucosa, while the same antibodies injected intravaginally significantly reduced Thy-1+ T cells in both the vaginal and systemic compartments. These results support a lack or low level of circulation of immune effector function from the periphery to the vaginal mucosa.
PMCID: PMC175562  PMID: 9284175
4.  T lymphocytes in the murine vaginal mucosa are phenotypically distinct from those in the periphery. 
Infection and Immunity  1996;64(9):3793-3799.
The results from both clinical studies of women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and a murine model of experimental vaginitis indicate that systemic cell-mediated immunity may not represent a dominant host defense mechanism against vaginal infections by Candida albicans. Recent experimental evidence indicates the presence of local vaginal immune reactivity against C. albicans. The present study was designed to examine T-lymphocyte subpopulations in the vaginal mucosae of naive CBA/J mice. Vaginal lymphocytes (VL) were isolated by collagenase digestion of whole vaginal tissues. Cell populations were identified by flow cytometry, and the results were compared with those for both lymph node cells (LNC) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The results of flow cytometry showed that 45% +/- 10% of lymphocytes in the vaginal mucosa are CD3+ compared with 75% +/- 5% in LNC and 50% +/- 5% in PBL. The majority (85%) of CD3+ VL are CD4+ and express the alpha/beta T-cell receptor (TCR), similar to the results for LNC and PBL. In contrast to LNC and PBL, VL contain a significantly higher percentage (15 to 20%) of gamma/delta TCR+ cells, 80% or more of which appear to express CD4. In addition, while CD4-CD8 cell ratios in LNC and PBL were 3:1 and 6:1, respectively, only 1% of VL expressed CD8, resulting in a CD4-CD8 cell ratio of > 100:1. Finally, while LNC and PBL recognized two epitope-distinct (GK 1.5 and 2B6) anti-CD4 antibodies, VL recognized only 2B6 anti-CD4 antibodies. Further analysis of VL showed that Thy-1 cells, but not CD4 cells, were reduced after intravaginal injection of complement-fixing anti-Thy-1.2 and GK 1.5 anti-CD4 antibodies, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that T lymphocytes in the vaginal mucosae of mice are phenotypically distinct from those in the periphery and that CD4+ VL have an uncharacteristic or atypical expression of the CD4 receptor.
PMCID: PMC174295  PMID: 8751931
5.  Reduced birthweight and length in the offspring of females exposed to PCDFs, PCP, and lindane. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  1995;103(12):1120-1125.
The objective of this study was to investigate a broad range of adverse health outcomes and their potential association to wood preservative used in daycare centers. This article focuses on reproductive effects. A sample of 221 exposed teachers was provided by the employer's liability insurers. A comparison group (n = 189) insured by the same two organizations was recruited from nonexposed daycare centers. In a face-to-face interview, job history and reproductive history of 398 female teachers were ascertained. Data on exposure were provided, including measurements on concentration of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and lindane in wood panels, and of PCP, lindane, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in indoor air. An exposure matrix based on individual job history, independent exposure information from each center, and reproductive history was set up with regard to the vulnerable time windows for each pregnancy. Using this approach, 49 exposed and 507 nonexposed pregnancies were identified, including 32 exposed and 386 nonexposed live births. For subgroup analyses the observations were restricted to independent pregnancies, excluding multiple and consecutive births. The data were analyzed with linear regression techniques, taking confounders into account. The crude median difference between exposed and nonexposed was 175 g in birthweight and 2 cm in length. Controlling for confounders, the results show a significantly reduced but weight (p = 0.04) and length (p = 0.02) in exposed pregnancies, even after restricting the data to independent pregnancies and pregnancies for which data could be validated from the mother's health cards. These differences were not explained by differences in gestational age indicating that a toxic effect, which could cause small-for date newborns, might have affected the fetus.
Images
PMCID: PMC1519262  PMID: 8747018
6.  HEMOPOIETIC COLONY STUDIES  
In heavily irradiated mice, bone marrow regeneration of either endogenous or exogenous origin was shown to occur in discrete foci comparable to the more intensively studied spleen colonies. The number of endogenous bone marrow colonies was inversely related to dose of whole body X-irradiation. Endogenous marrow colonies were found after higher doses of irradiation than were endogenous spleen colonies. Most of them were granulocytic in nature. Exogenous bone marrow colonies in lethally irradiated mice injected with bone marrow cells were proportional in number to the dose of cells injected, appeared at a time comparable to spleen colonies like which, at 7 or 8 days, they were of single differentiated cell line, either granuloid or erythroid or megakaryocytic, with a small percentage of "mixed" colonies. Whereas erythroid colonies outnumber granuloid colonies in spleen, either in situ or subcutaneously transplanted (E:G colony ratio of about 3.5), granuloid colonies outnumber erythroid in bone marrow (E:G colony ratio of about 0.7). The characteristic E:G colony ratios of spleen and marrow appear more likely to be the result of a hemopoietic organ stromal influence on pluripotent colony forming units (CFU's) than of selective lodgment of committed (unipotent) granuloid and erythroid CFU's in bone marrow and spleen, respectively, as indicated by the following. Bone marrow stem cells (CFU) which had reseeded the marrow cavity of irradiated primary recipients 18–24 hr earlier, were reharvested and retransplanted intravenously into irradiated secondary hosts. The E:G colony ratio of the colonies formed in the spleen of the secondary hosts was typical of primary spleen colonies (2.8), that of the colonies formed in the marrow cavity was typical of bone marrow colonies (0.6). Pieces of marrow stroma containing reseeded CPU's from the contralateral femur of these same primary recipients were implanted by trocar directly into the spleens of other irradiated secondary recipients. Those CPU's that developed in the intrasplenic-implanted marrow stroma yielded an. E:G colony ratio of 0.1. Those that migrated into the contiguous and remote portions of the spleen gave E:G colony ratios of 2.9 and 2.4, respectively. Irradiated marrow stroma and normal spleen CPU's (a 1 mm cube of spleen) were loaded into the same trocar and implanted directly into the spleens of irradiated mice. The spleen CFU's that migrated into the implanted marrow stroma yielded five granuloid and two mixed colonies. The larger number that developed in the host spleen yielded an E:G colony ratio of 2.9 or higher. Of those 19 mixed colonies that bridged the junction of spleen and implanted marrow stroma in each of the above two experiments, in every case, the erythroid portion of the colony was in the splenic stroma, the granuloid portion was in the marrow stroma.
PMCID: PMC2138430  PMID: 5635040
7.  HEMOPOIEITC SPLEEN COLONY STUDIES  
The polycythemic repression of erythropoiesis and the restoration of erythropoiesis by specific stimulation were studied in the spleen colony system in irradiated mice. 1. A 5 day period of erythropoietin stimulation (exogenous erythropoietin) or repression (polycythemia) of the bone marrow donor only, does not significantly alter the number or type of colonies formed by the transplanted marrow cells. 2. Erythropoietin stimulation did not alter the number or type of endogenous colonies formed in mice receiving 580 R. Erythropoietin repression (polycythemia) markedly reduced the growth but not the number of erythroid colonies, while not affecting the other types of colonies formed endogenously. 3. Erythropoietin stimulation of the irradiated recipient during colony growth did not alter the number or type of spleen colonies formed by transplanted marrow. Erythropoietin repression by polycythemia during colony growth completely suppressed the appearance of morphologically erythroid colonies without significantly altering the incidence of the other colony types. This effect of polycythemia was completely prevented by exogenous erythropoietin. Irradiated mice are therefore presumed to be secreting sufficient erythropoietin for maximal erythroid colony development. 4. The erythroid colonies suppressed by polycythemia were recognizable as microscopic foci of undifferentiated cells. Exposure of these foci to erythropoietin stimulation at different periods in their development was manifested by different degrees of growth and differentiation, from which it is apparent that erythropoietin stimulates not only morphological differentiation but also rapid mitosis. Retransplantation of either erythroid or of neutrophilic primary spleen colonies gave rise to both erythroid and neutrophilic secondary spleen colonies. The percentage of erythroid secondary colonies was slightly but significantly higher among the progeny of transplanted erythroid primary colonies than among the progeny of transplanted neutrophilic primary colonies. On the basis of these and other results, a working hypothesis is proposed for factors controlling the growth and differentiation of spleen colonies from transplanted bone marrow. It is postulated that most but perhaps not all spleen colony-forming units are pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells. It is further postulated that hemopoietic-inductive microenvironments (HIM) of different kinds exist in both the spleen and the bone marrow, and that these determine the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into each of the lines of hemopoietic differentiation. Erythropoietin therefore may "induce" erythroid differentiation of only those stem cells under the influence of an erythroid HIM. Alternatively erythropoietin may act only as a growth and function stimulant of those stem cells that have been "induced" by an erythroid HIM into a state of erythropoietin responsiveness. In the latter case morphological differentiation presumably results from the functional activity stimulated by ESF.
PMCID: PMC2138369  PMID: 5335677

Results 1-7 (7)