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1.  Oral and vaginal epithelial cell anti-Candida activity is acid labile and does not require live epithelial cells 
Oral microbiology and immunology  2005;20(4):199-205.
Background: Candida albicans is the causative agent of oral and vaginal candidiasis. Innate host defenses against C. albicans are important against each infection. Among these are oral and vaginal epithelial cells that have anti-Candida activity. The mechanism of action includes a requirement for cell contact with no role for soluble factors, and a putative role for carbohydrates based on the sensitivity of the activity to periodic acid.
Methods: Periodic acid treatment of epithelial cells as well as the property of partial resistance of antifungal activity to fixation was used to further dissect the mechanism of action.
Results: The results herein effectively now challenge a role for carbohydrates alone. Firstly, the putative carbohydrate(s) released into supernatants of periodic acid-treated epithelial cells could not compete with fresh epithelial cells for activity, and equivalent abrogation of activity was observed by periodic acid-treated cells irrespective of the amount of carbohydrate released. Instead, the similar abrogation of activity following treatment with other acids or when cocultured under acidic conditions suggests that the activity is acid-labile. Finally, while activity requires intact epithelial cells, it does not require live cells; activity was minimally affected by fixing epithelial cells prior to coculture where the majority of cells remained impermeable to Trypan blue but were defined as non–viable by positive nuclear staining with propidium iodide.
Conclusion: These results suggest that antifungal activity is dependent on contact by intact, but not necessarily live, epithelial cells through an acid-labile mechanism.
doi:10.1111/j.1399-302X.2005.00212.x
PMCID: PMC1361270  PMID: 15943762
Candida albicans; epithelial cells; innate immunity; oral mucosa; vaginal mucosa
2.  Vaginal yeast colonisation, prevalence of vaginitis, and associated local immunity in adolescents 
Objectives: To evaluate point prevalence vaginal yeast colonisation and symptomatic vaginitis in middle adolescents and to identify relation of these yeast conditions with reproductive hormones, sexual activity, sexual behaviours, and associated local immunity.
Methods: Middle adolescent females (n = 153) were evaluated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), asymptomatic yeast colonisation, and symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) by standard criteria. Also evaluated were local parameters, including vaginal associated cytokines, chemokines, and antibodies, vaginal epithelial cell antifungal activity, and Candida specific peripheral blood lymphocyte responses. Correlations between yeast colonisation/vaginitis and local immunomodulators, reproductive hormones, douching, sexual activity, condom use, and STIs were identified.
Results: Rates of point prevalence asymptomatic yeast colonisation (22%) were similar to adults and similarly dominated by Candida albicans, but with uncharacteristically high vaginal yeast burden. In contrast with the high rate of STIs (18%), incidence of symptomatic VVC was low (<2%). Immunological properties included high rates of Candida specific systemic immune sensitisation, a Th2 type vaginal cytokine profile, total and Candida specific vaginal antibodies dominated by IgA, and moderate vaginal epithelial cell anti-Candida activity. Endogenous reproductive hormones were in low concentration. Sexual activity positively correlated with vaginal yeast colonisation, whereas vaginal cytokines (Th1, Th2, proinflammatory), chemokines, antibodies, contraception, douching, or condom use did not.
Conclusion: Asymptomatic vaginal yeast colonisation in adolescents is distinct in some ways with adults, and positively correlates with sexual activity, but not with local immunomodulators or sexual behaviours. Despite several factors predictive for VVC, symptomatic VVC was low compared to STIs.
doi:10.1136/sti.2002.003855
PMCID: PMC1758371  PMID: 14755036

Results 1-2 (2)